Chapter 3 & 4

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Chapter 3 & 4
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2012-07-19 18:04:37
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Diagnostic Imaging Physics
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Diagnostic Imaging Physics
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  1. The periodic table presents the elements in the order of:

    A) Atomic charge
    B) Atomic number
    C) Number of isotopes
    D) Atomic mass
    B) Atomic number
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following physicists had a major part in describing the atom as we know it today?

    A) Becquerel
    B) Dalton
    C) Bohr
    D) Thomson
    C) Bohr
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Rutherford made what significant contribution to science?

    A) Periodic table of the elements
    B) Discovery of negatively charged electrons
    C) Description of the electron shells
    D) Description of the nuclear atom
    D) Description of the nuclear atom
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The binding energy of an electron to a nucleus:

    A) Increases with increasing distance from the nucleus
    B) Is higher for an L-shell electron than for an M-shell electron
    C) Is higher for an N-shell than for an M-shell
    D) Depends on the size of an electron
    B) Is higher for an L-shell electron than for an M-shell electron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. What is the maximum number of electrons permitted in the N-shell?

    A) 24
    B) 8
    C) 50
    D) 32
    E) 18
    D) 32
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Regarding atomic nomenclature:

    A) Atomic mass is the number of protons
    B) Atomic mass is the number of protons minus neutrons
    C) Atomic mass is the number of protons plus neutrons
    D) Atomic mass is the number of neutrons
    C) Atomic mass is the number of protons plus neutrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Isotopes are:

    A) Atoms that have the same atomic mass number but different atomic numbers
    B) Molecules that have the same number of atoms
    C) Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers
    D) Atoms that have identical atomic mass number and atomic number
    C) Atoms that have the same atomic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Isomers are atoms that have different:

    A) Numbers of protons
    B) Filled electron shells
    C) States of ionization
    D) Numbers of neutrons
    E) Energy states
    E) Energy states
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Radioactive half-life is the time:

    A) It takes for one atom to disintegrate
    B) It takes for half of the dose to be delivered
    C) It takes for half of the mass to disappear
    D) Required for radioactivity to reach one half of its original value
    D) Required for radioactivity to reach one half of its original value
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The difference between electrons and beta particles is:

    A) Beta particles are ionizing
    B) Beta particles have higher energy
    C) Electrons have higher velocity
    D) Electrons originate in shells; beta particles originate from nucleus
    E) Electrons have a higher mass
    D) Electrons originate in shells; beta particles originate from nucleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Of the following radiations, the MOST penetrating is:

    A) Beta
    B) Alpha
    C) X-ray and gamma
    C) X-ray and gamma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following types of radiation are emitted from outside of the nucleus?

    A) X-rays
    B) Gamma rays
    C) Beta particles
    D) Alpha particles
    A) X-rays
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. X-ray wavelength is:

    A) Directly proportional to frequency
    B) Inversely proportional to frequency
    C) Inversely proportional to velocity
    D) Directly proportional to velocity
    B) Inversely proportional to frequency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. A single unit of electromagnetic radiation is also called a/an:

    A) Proton
    B) Photon
    C) Ion
    D) Quark
    B) Photon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The frequency of electromagnetic radiation is:

    A) Directly proportional to wavelength
    B) Measured in disintegrations per second
    C) Measured in Hertz
    D) Measured in meters per second
    C) Measured in Hertz
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The frequency of a sine wave is:

    A) The distance from crest to valley
    B) The distance from crest to crest
    C) The number of crests that pass per second
    D) The number of seconds that pass per crest
    C) The number of crests that pass per second
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. According to latest research, the principal difference between x-rays and gamma rays is their:

    A) Energy
    B) Origin
    C) Frequency
    D) Velocity
    B) Origin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. When white light is refracted through a prism, the following colors are emitted. Which has the longest wavelength?

    A) Yellow
    B) Blue
    C) Green
    D) Orange
    E) Red
    E) Red
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. For any electromagnetic radiation:

    A) An increase in wavelength results in an increase in energy
    B) An increase in frequency results in an increase in energy
    C) An increase in wavelength results in higher frequency
    D) An increase in velocity results in an increase in energy
    B) An increase in frequency results in an increase in energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Electromagnetic radiation:

    A) Has mass that increases with increasing velocity
    B) Exists only if its velocity is 3 x 108 m/s
    C) Is usually shown as a square wave
    D) Exists at zero velocity
    B) Exists only if its velocity is 3 x 108 m/s
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following characteristics is the same for both ultraviolet radiation and microwaves:

    A) Amplitude
    B) Velocity
    C) Frequency
    D) Wavelength
    E) Energy
    B) Velocity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which of the following MOST closely represents the term ATTENUATION?

    A) Complete absorption of x-rays by bone
    B) Light reflected from a mirror
    C) Light transmitted through frosted glass
    D) Light absorbed in black glass
    C) Light transmitted through frosted glass
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The energy of an x-ray photon is directly proportional to its:

    A) Mass
    B) Wavelength
    C) Frequency
    D) Velocity
    C) Frequency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The equivalence of mass and energy is described by:

    A) the Bohr constant
    B) Einstein’s theory
    C) Newton’s laws
    D) Planck’s theory
    B) Einstein’s theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. In the equation E = hf, the h:

    A) Stands for Planck’s constant
    B) Relates photon energy to frequency
    C) Stands for Einstein’s constant
    D) Stands for Bohr’s constant
    A) Stands for Planck’s constant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What are the four types of atoms?
    • Greek
    • Dalton
    • Thompsson
    • Bohr
  27. What are the characteristics of a Greek atom?
    Scientist thought all matter was composed of four substances:

    • Earth
    • Water
    • Air
    • Fire

    Atom means indivisible

    Could organize these substances by varying essences (wet,dry, hot, cold)
  28. Describe John Dalton's work
  29. -Elements classified by atomic mass
    • -Hook and eye atom
    • -Elements composed of identical atoms react in the same way, look alike, and constructed alike
    • -Hook and eye  theory
  30. Who is Dmitri Mendeleev?
    • -Arranged atoms in order of increasing mass
    • -Designed the first periodic table
    • -Modern periodic table today arranges elements that react the same chemically
  31. Describe Thompson's work
    • -Plum pudding theory
    • -Electrons are negative (plums)
    • -Pudding is positive  
  32. Who is Earnest Rutherford?
    • -Disproved plumb pudding
    • -Nuclear theory
    • -Placed the nucleus in the center
    • -Nucleus had a positive charge
  33. Who is Niels Bohr?
    • -Atom is a mini solar system
    • -Bohr – credit for what atom looks like, + charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons in orbits
    • -Normal or neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons.
  34. What is a necleon?
    protons and neutrons
  35. Electrons have a mass of ____________
    9.1 x 10-31 kg
  36. Electron binding energies (Eb)  or energy levels are represented by ________
    shells
  37. The ________ the shell of electrons is to the nucleus, the stronger the Eb
    closer
  38. # protons = # of ________ (in orbits) SO
    electrons
  39. # ________ determines chemical behavior
    protons
  40. # protons determines ___________ __________
    chemical element
  41. n# of shells = _________
    period
  42. n# of e- in outermost shell =________
    group
  43. NO outer shell can contain more than eight e- because there are _________ groups
    8
  44. The number of ______ in the outermost shell of an atom is equal to its _______
    electrons, group
  45. Shells are identified by letters of the alphabet, the innermost being the (__) shell.
    K
  46. The maximum number of electrons that can exist in an electron shell is calculated with the formula ________
    2n2
  47. ____________ force keeps electron from
     flying away “center-seeking”
    centripetal
  48. Velocity of e is ____________ force “flying out from the center”
    centrifugal
  49. Atomic number is the number of _______
    protons
  50. Atomic Mass is the total number of ______ and _________
    protons, neutrons
  51. Isotopes are atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers. So isotopes have the same number of _________ different number of neutrons
    protons
  52. Isobars are atomic nuclei that have the same atomic mass number but different atomic numbers
    -Different # of ____________
    -Different # of ____________
    -Same # of __________
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • nucleons
  53. _______ are atoms that have the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons
    -Different atomic numbers
    -Different mass numbers
    -Constant A-Z (neutrons)
    isotones
  54. Isomers have the same atomic number and the same mass number
    -Identical atoms but exist in different _________ __________ because of differences in nucleon arrangement
    energy states
  55. Some atoms have an abnormally excited stated caused by an unstable ________. In order to become stable, the atom emits particles and energy in attempt to transform itself into another atom, called _________. This process is called radioactive decay or disintegration.The atom is call a ________ because it is undergoing this disintegration
    nucleus, radioactivity, radionuclide
  56. Radioisotopes decay to stability by two methods. One is through _______ emission and the other is through _________ emission.   
    alpha, beta
  57. _______ emission – happens more often then alpha emission
    -Electron particle is ejected from atom
    -Increases the atomic number by 1
    -Neutron converts to a proton
    beta
  58. _______ emission - more violent -has 2 protons & 2 neutrons bound together
    -Loses 2 units of positive charge
    -Loses 4 units of mass
    alpha
  59. _______ rays are given off during alpha and beta emission
    gamma
  60. The _______ (T½) of a radioisotope is the amount of time required for the quantity of radioactivity to be reduced to half of its original value.
    half-life
  61. Formula for Half Life
    • y = 100(½)x
    • •x represents the interval between half lives
    • •y = the current amount
  62. What are the types of Ionizing Radiation
    • -Particulate Radiation
    • -Electromagnetic Radiation
  63. The only difference between x-rays and gamma rays is their _________.
    origin
  64. X-rays are produced outside the nucleus in the ________ ______
    electron shell
  65. Gamma rays are emitted from the _______ of a radioisotope – associated with beta and alpha emission
    nucleus
  66. ___________ ____________ is a form of energy that is reflected or emitted from objects in the form of electrical and magnetic waves that can travel through space
    electromagnetic energy
  67. Properties of photons
    • -frequency
    • -wavelength
    • -velocity
    • -amplitude
  68. Greeks called an atom of light a ___________
    photon
  69. Small bundle of energy,_____________, traveling through space at the speed of light
    quantum
  70. ______ _________ ________ showed that light has electric and magnetic properties, hence electromagnetic radiation
    James Clerk Maxwell
  71. Electric field governs __________________
    electrostatic charge
  72. Magnetic field governs ___________________
    magnetic poles
  73. Photons travel in a ________  ________
    sine wave
  74. Sine waves are variations of __________ over time
    amplitude
  75. ______________ is one half the range from crest to valley over which the sine wave varies
    amplitude
  76. _______ is the number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation
    Frequency
  77. What is measured in hertz (Hz)1 Hz = 1 cycle/second?
    frequency
  78. ___________ (λ) is the distance from one crest to another, from one valley to another, or from any point on the sine wave to the next corresponding point
    wavelength
  79. At a given velocity (c) wavelength and frequency are _________ proportional
    inversely
  80. What is the formula for velocity?
    • velocity = Frequency x wavelength
    • v = fλ
  81. ___________________ consists of photons with wavelengths longer than those of visible light but shorter than those of microwaves
    infared light
  82. _________________ is located between visible light and ionizing radiation
    ultraviolet light
  83. VERY long wavelength and low energy is _____________ radiation
    radio
  84. Visible light act more like  a ____________
    wave
  85. X-ray photons act more like a _______________
    particle
  86. What is absorption?
    - transfer of energy from an electromagnetic field to matter
  87. What is attenuation?
    -  the reduction in intensity resulting from scattering and absorption
  88. ______________ allows light to be transmitted almost unaltered (glass)
    transparent
  89. Light transmitted but scattered and reduced in intensity through a material called ___________________
    tanslucent
  90. Glass painted black is _______________ and no light can pass through, any incident light is absorbed
    opaque
  91. Structures that absorb x-rays are described as __________, such as bone. 
    radiopaque
  92. Structures that attenuate x-rays are called ___________, such as soft-tissue.
    radiolucent
  93. Radiation intensity is _______ related to the square of the distance from the source
    inversely
  94. What is the inverse square law?
  95. •If you ½ distance, you quadruple exposure
    • •If you double your distance, you ¼ exposure
    • •If you 1/3 your distance, your exposure will increase by 9 times
    • •If you triple your distance, you get 1/9 exposure
  96. What's the formula to the inverse square law?
    • I      D22
    •       =   
    • I      D12
  97. Who is Max Planck?
  98. •Max Planck (German physicist)
    • •Nobel Price in 1918
    • •Mathematical and physical theories helped our understanding of electromagnetic radiation into a uniform model
    • •Planck’s quantum theory
    • –Exist at speed of light or they don’t exist
  99. What is Planck’s quantum theory?
  100. –Exist at speed of light or not at all
    • –Photon energy is directly proportional to photon frequency
    • –This constant proportionality is Planck’s constant
    •     h = 4.15 x 10-15 eV       OR
    •     h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
  101. What is Planck's quantum equation?
    E = hf


    • E = energy, h = Planck’s constant,
    • f = frequency
  102. Law of Conservation of matter
    Matter can be neither created nor destroyed
  103. Law of Conservation of energy
    Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
  104. What is the formula for Einstein's relativity?
    E = mc2


    • E = energy in joules
    • m = mass in kilogramsc = speed of light

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