PCAT Gen Bio

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PCAT Gen Bio
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  1. ` The word eukaryotic refers to a cell that....
    has a well defined nucleus bound by a nuclear membrane, with a variety of organelles located outside the nuclear membrane.
  2. Animal cells, plant cells, and fungal cells are all __________ cells.
    eukaryotic
  3. Prokaryotic cells are cells that...
    lack well defined membrane-bound nuclei and a full complement or organelles
  4. The principal features of eukaryotic cells are...
    • A cell wall (not in animal cells)
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • nucelus
    • nuclear membrane
  5. Cell walls are found on...
    plant cells, yeast cells and bacteria
  6. The cell wall is composed of...
    carbohydrates
  7. All cells don't have a cell wall, but in terms of exterior surfaces, all cells have a ...
    cell membrane
  8. Cell membranes are composed primarily of...
    protein and phospholipids
  9. Peripheal proteins are...
    proteins that are embedded in one of the two surfaces of the membrane (half in, half out)
  10. Transmembrane proteins are...
    proteins that penetrate completely through the membrane
  11. membrane dynamics is termed ....
    the fluid mosaic model
  12. membrane dynamics is termed the fluid mosaic model because...
    the membrane is seen as a mosaic of lipids and proteins which are free to move back and forth fluidly
  13. according to the fluid mosaic model, lipids and proteins are free to...
    diffuse laterally in two dimension, but never flip flop.
  14. phosphlipid head groups and hydrophilic proteins are restricted from enetering...
    the hydrophobic membrane interior
  15. lipid bilayer membranes are said to have polarity because the inside face and the outside face of the membrane remain different
  16. The cell membrane is called semipermeable because..
    it is permeable to some substances and impermeable to others
  17. The cell membrane is said to be selectively permeable because...
    it is subject to modification and gets to decide what goes in it andleaves.
  18. What regulates the cell's internal environment?
    the cell membrane
  19. the cell membrane is said to regulate the cell's internal environment because.....
    the cell's permeability determines which substances enter and leave the cell.
  20. A difference in concentration is called a ...
    concentration gradient
  21. Moving "down" the concentration gradient means...
    moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  22. The phenomenon in which in a system of fluid, solute and solvent particles tend to disperse themselves so that solute concentration is uniform throughout the system is called...
    simple diffusion
  23. osmosis refers to..
    simple diffusion in which water, not the solute, moves across a membrane in an "effort" to equalze the concentration.
  24. When one portion of a solution has a higher concentration than another, the region of higher concentration is said to be...
    hypertonic
  25. When one portion of a solution has a lower concentration than another, the region of lower concentration is said to be...
    hypotonic
  26. a cell in hypotonic solution will...
    swell
  27. a cell in hypertonic solution will...
    shrivel
  28. a cell in isotonic solution will...
    remain the same at equilibrium
  29. The process of simple diffusion and osmosis is passive, meaning....
    they do not require the expenditure of energy
  30. The solute moves towards equilibrium in...
    diffusion
  31. the solvent moves towards equilibirum in....
    osmosis
  32. facilitated diffusion is...
    the movement of a sollute across a membrane, down a gradient, when the membrane itself is impermeable to that solute
  33. what allows materials to cross the plasma membrane down a gradient in faciliatated diffusion?
    specific intergral membrane proteins
  34. what are two kinds of proteins that aid in the trasnportation of molecules in facilitated diffusion?
    channel proteins and carrier proteins
  35. Channel proteins and carrier proteins give what special feature to the cell membrane?
    selective permeability
  36. channel proteins in the plasma membrane allows...
    material that cannot pass throught the membrane by simple diffusion to flow through the plasma membrane down a concentration gradient.
  37. how do channel proteins allow materials through the membrane?
    by forming a narrow openning in the membrane surrounded by the protein
  38. Channels are very selective becuase...
    they only let 1 type of ion to go through the channel
  39. Ion channels are said to "gated" if...
    the channel is open in response to specific environment stimuli
  40. a voltage gated ion channel is..
    a channel that opens in response to a change in the electric potential across the membrane
  41. a ligand-gated ion channel is..
    a channel that opens in response to a binding of a specific molecule
  42. carrier proteins in facilitated diffusion transport materials by....
    attaching to the molecule to be transported then undergoes a conformational change to move the molecule to the other side.
  43. Uniports are carrier proteins that...
    can only carry one molecule across the membrane at a time
  44. symports are carrier proteins that...
    can carry two moleclues across the membrane at a time
  45. antiports are carrier proteins that..
    can carry two molecules across the membrane at a time in opposite directions.
  46. active transport is..
    the movement of molecule through the plasma membrane against a gradient.
  47. active transport is different from diffusion in a sense that...
    energy is expended in active transport, where as in diffusion it is not.
  48. active transport requires ....
    • energy input
    • a protein
  49. active transport requires energy because...
    it is working against a gradient
  50. the active transport process is coupled to a process that is...
    thermodynamically favorable (delta G < 0)
  51. In primary active transport, the transport of a molecule is...
    coupled to ATP hydrolysis
  52. In secondary active transport, the transport of a molecule is...
    not coupled to ATP hydrolysis
  53. How is ATP used in secondary active transport?
    It is first used to create a gradient, then the potential energy in the gradient is used to drive the transport of a molecule across the membrane.
  54. the ATP use in which kind of active transport is considered to be indirect?
    secondary active transport
  55. a common mechanism driving secondary active transport of many different molecules involves...
    coupling transport to the flow of sodium ions down a gradient
  56. The Na+/K+ ATPase is...
    a transmembrane protein in the plasma membrane of all cells in the body.
  57. the activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase includes
    pumping out 3 Na+ ions, pumping in 2 K+ ions and hydrolyzing one ATP to drive the pumping of the ions against their gradients
  58. sodium that is pumped out by Na+/K+ ATPase does not...
    come back in the cells
  59. potassium that is pumped out by Na+/K+ ATPase can come back into the cell because of
    potassium leak channels
  60. resting membrane potential in Na+/K+ ATPase is..
    an electric potential that is created across the plasma membrane when the movement of positive charge out of the cell leaves the interior with a net negative charge
  61. what is the driving force behind secondary active transport?
    the concentration gradient of high sodium outside of the cell established by the Na+/K+ ATPase.
  62. What are the three important functions of Na+/K+ ATPase?
    • to maintain osmotic balance
    • to establish the resting membrane potential
    • to provide the sodium concentration gradient for secondary active transport.
  63. active transport is a process by which substance cross the membrane aginst their gradients, meaning in terms of concentration they are going from ________ to _______.
    lower to higher
  64. Exocytosis is...
    a process to transport material outside of the cell in which a vesicle in the cytoplasm fuses with the plasma membrane and the contents of the vesicle are expelled into the exracellular space.
  65. Endocytosis is...
    a process to transport material inside of the cell in which a invagination of a piece of the cell membrane forms a vesicles that holds the extracellular materials for transport to the interior of the cell.
  66. The new vesicle that forms is endocytosis is called....
    an endosome
  67. what are the three types of endocytosis?
    • phagocytosis
    • pinocytosis
    • receptor-mediated endocytosis
  68. phagocytosis is..
    the nonspecific uptake of large particulate matter into a phagocytic cell
  69. what does the material in a phagocytic cell do latter after phagocytosis?
    merge with a lysosome to be broken down
  70. Pinocytosis is...
    the nonspecific uptake of small molecules and extracellular fluid via invagination.(drinking cell)
  71. invagination means...
    folding inward
  72. What is the site of endocytosis marked by?
    pits coated with the molecule clathrin and receptors that bind to a specific molecule
  73. atherosclerosis is...
    a buildup of plaque on the walls of the arteries
  74. What are the three types of cellular adhesion?
    • tight junctions
    • gap juctions
    • desomosomes
  75. how do tight junctions adhese cells?
    linking together portions of adjacent cell membrane to form a barrier
  76. there are no intercellular space at what kind of junction?
    tight junction
  77. how do gap junctions adhese cells?
    linking together the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
  78. small particles are able to flow through which junction freely?
    gap junction
  79. gap junction consists of which structual features?
    protein channels that form a bridge between two cells
  80. Desmosomes are composed of...
    plaquelike proteins embedded in the cell membrane to which the cytoskelton is attached.
  81. what is responsible for the structual integrity of most tissues in the body?
    desmosomes
  82. what are the three function of the nucleus?
    • contain and protect ane DNA
    • transcription
    • partial assembly of ribosomes
  83. how many membranes surround the nucleus?
    2
  84. What are the two function of the mitochondria?
    • produce ATP via the krebs cycle
    • oxidative phosphorylation
  85. how many membranes surround the mitochondira?
    2
  86. what are the functions of ribosomes?
    synthesize proteins
  87. what is the two functions of the Rough ER?
    • location of synthesis
    • modification of secretory, membrane-bound and organelle proteins?
  88. how many membranes surround the Rough ER?
    1
  89. What are the two function of the smooth ER?
    • detoxification and glycogen breakdown in liver
    • steroid sytnthesis in gonads
  90. how many membranes does the Smooth ER have?
    1
  91. what are the two functions of the golgi apparatus?
    • modification and sorting of protein
    • some synthesis
  92. how many membranes surround the golgi appartus?
    1
  93. what is the function of lysosomes?
    contain acid hydrolases which digest various substances
  94. how many membranes surround lysosomes?
    1
  95. what is the function of peroxisomes?
    metabolize lipids and toxins using H2O2
  96. how many membranes surround peroxisomes?
    1
  97. what are the components of the endomembrane system?
    endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membrane and the outer membrane
  98. the Rough ER constitutes a principal site of ....
    cellular protein synthesis
  99. The smooth ER does not have ....
    ribosomes
  100. What is a speicalized derivative of the endoplasmic reticulum?
    golgi apparatus
  101. the golgi appartus consists of...
    a series of flattened sacs
  102. golgi completes transportation by
    vesicles that pinch off from it and migrate to the cell surface then release by exocytosis
  103. peroxisomes contain the enzyme...
    catalase
  104. senescent organelles are...
    aged organelles
  105. in plant cells lysosome house...
    toxins
  106. vacuoles are..
    spaces and vacancies in the cytoplasm
  107. vacuoules are typically filled with
    fluid
  108. what are the function of vaculous in protozoans?
    expel wastes or excess fluid
  109. mitochondria are organelles that mediate...
    the synthesis of ATP
  110. what molecule is associated with energy storage?
    ATP
  111. the inner mitochondrial membrane is folded into...
    convolutions called cristae
  112. Cristae is..
    the convolutions of folded inner mitochondrial membrane
  113. the interior of the inner mitochondiral membrane is called...
    the matrix
  114. what two things occur inside the mitochondria?
    krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
  115. what processes produce the bulk of the ATP generated in aerobic organisms?
    krebsy cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
  116. Is all ATP produced inside the mitochondria?
    no, some are produced outside of it during glycosis.
  117. what is a precursor step to the kreb's cycle and oxidative phosphorylation?
    glycosis
  118. glycosis takes places outside the...
    mitochondria
  119. the energy producing process that anaerobic organism can preform is...
    glycosis
  120. anaerobic organisms cannot perform kreb's cycle or oxidative phosphorylation because..
    it lacks a mitochondria
  121. proccesses that depend on the mitochondira are considered to be...
    aerobic
  122. Plastids are found almost solely in...
    plants
  123. plastids contain...
    pigment
  124. the most abundant of plastids in plants are...
    chloroplasts
  125. cholorplasts contain the green pigment...
    chlorophyll
  126. choromosomes reside in...
    the nucleus
  127. chromosomes are composed of..
    DNA and proteins
  128. what bears the genetic material of a cell?
    choromsomes
  129. what is the nucleolus?
    a sub organelle located in the nucleus
  130. what is the nucleolus the site of?
    formation of ribosomal ribonucelic acid (rRNA)
  131. What does rRNA function in?
    the trnaslation of the genetic code
  132. cilia and flagella are associated with..
    cellular locomotion
  133. what is the function of cilia in the human airway?
    propel foreign particles toward the throat so things can be expelled or swallowed
  134. cilia and flagella are composed of a structured arrangement of....
    microtubules
  135. what is the main component of centrioles?
    microtubules
  136. what is the function of the centriole?
    assits in the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division
  137. what is the function of microtubules in the cytoplasm?
    quasiskeletal structure for the cell itself (cytokeleton)
  138. microtubles are formed of a protein called..
    tubulin
  139. aside from microtubules serving as a cytoskeleton what serves as a secon elemeny of the cytoskeleton?
    microfilaments
  140. microfilaments are composed of a protein called...
    actin
  141. microfilaments function as part of the cytoskeleton and..
    cellular movement.
  142. receptors are integral membrane proteins that...
    transmit signals from the extracellular space into the cytoplasm
  143. the molecule that corresponds to the specific receptor is called a(n)...
    ligand
  144. a ligand is generally...
    a hormone or a neuotransmitter
  145. Singal transduction is ...
    when a ligand binds to its receptor on the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane and triggers a response within the cell
  146. what are the three main types of of signal-transducting cell surface receptors ?
    ligand-gated ion channels, catalytic receptors, G-protein-linked receptors
  147. ligand gated ion channels are located...
    in the plasma membrane
  148. ligand ion channels do what upon binding a particular transmitter?
    open an ion channel
  149. example of ligand ion channel process?
    muscle contraction
  150. catalytic receptors are located where?
    cytoplasmic side of the membrane
  151. catalytic receptors' enzyme activity is initiated by...
    ligand binding at the extracellular surfaces
  152. the catalytic role of catalytic receptors is that of a protein called..
    kinase
  153. kinase is..
    an enzyme that covalently attaches phosphate groups to proteins
  154. an example of tyrosine kinase is..
    insulin
  155. what regulates the activity of proteins?
    modification with phosphates
  156. How does a G-protein-linked receptor transduce its signal to the cell?
    with the aid of a second messenger.
  157. The second messenger is...
    a chemical signal that relays instruction from the cell's surface to enzymes in the cytoplasm.
  158. The most important second messenger is...
    cyclic AMP (cAMP)
  159. why is cAMP known as the universal hinger signal?
    it is the second messenger of the hormones epinephrine and glucagon which cause energy mobilization
  160. secon messengers allow a greater ______ than receptors produce alone.
    signal
  161. some enzymes are inactivated by..
    phosphorylation
  162. epinephrine activates..
    one G-protein-linked receptor
  163. one G-protein-linked receptor activates...
    many G-proteins
  164. Each G-protein activates..
    many adenylyl cyclase enzymes
  165. each adenylyl cyclase enzymes makes...
    lots of cAMP from ATP
  166. each cAMP activates...
    many cAMP-dPK
  167. each cAMP-dpk phosphorylates..
    many enzymes...activating some and inactivationg some.
  168. the G-protein-linked receptors that have nothing to do with cAMP activate an enzyme called...
    phospholipase C.
  169. enzymes are ________.
    Catalysts
  170. Activation energy is the energy at the ....
    outset
  171. a (an) _______ reduces a reaction's activation energy
    Catalyst's (enzyme's)
  172. Decreasing the activation energy ________ the reaction rate.
    increases
  173. A ________ is unaltered in quantity and condition in a reaction.
    catalyst
  174. Enzymes do not affect the _________ of reactants and products
    equilibrium constant
  175. The "lock and Key" theory correlates to...
    enzyme specificity
  176. most enzymes function at a pH between...
    6.5-8.0
  177. gastric enzymes function at a pH between....
    1.5-2.5
  178. most enzymes work best at the physiological temperature of...
    37C
  179. Denaturation occurs when a protein comes in contact with ________ temps.
    excessive
  180. denaturated proteins put back into stable conditions will usually....
    renature
  181. rate of a catalyzed reaction depends on the concentration of ______ and _______.
    substrate and enzymes
  182. each enzyme associates with its substrate at an....
    active site
  183. Substrate A + Substrate B + Enzyme ---> _______________ ---> Enzyme + Products
    Enzyme-Substrate Complex
  184. Cofactors are..
    inorganic substances (Fe2 or Cu2 ions)
  185. Coenzymes are...
    Organic substances (vitamins)
  186. enzymes are controlled by a process called...
    feedback inhibiton
  187. Feedback inhibition is when an enzyme's activity may be inhibited by...
    accumulation of product
  188. feedback inhibition prevents the cell from producing...
    an excessive quantity of product
  189. competitive inhibition occurs when two molecules (the inhibitor and the substrate) compete for...
    an enzyme's active site
  190. ____ is the form in which most cells store their energy
    ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
  191. The molecular makeup of ATP includes the three components...
    Adenine, Ribose and 3 phosphate groups
  192. In ATP, the bonds that link the two phosphate group farthest from the adenosine moiety are...
    high-energy bonds
  193. No bond releases ______ when broken
    energy
  194. The energy from bond disruption actually comes from...
    the subsequent formation of bonds that are more stable.
  195. the energy required to synthesize ATP is derived from...
    glucose molecules stored in the cell
  196. ATP is produced anaerobically via process of....
    glycolysis
  197. Glycolysis might be followed by two steps called...
    • fermentation (continues glycolysis)
    • Aerobic processes (Produces add'tl ATP)
  198. Glycolysis breaks down a glucose molecule to yield...
    two moleclues of pyruvate
  199. glycolysis has a net gain of ___ ATP
    2
  200. ___ ATPs are required for glycolysis
    2
  201. glycolysis produces __ ATPs
    4
  202. glycoylsis produces __ NADHs
    2
  203. NADH stores energy that will ultimately generate additional ATP if _____ is present
    oxygen
  204. The Net chemical formula for glycolysis
    1 Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ ---> 2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H2O + 2H+
  205. Glycolysis occurs in...
    the cell's cytoplasm
  206. glycolysis is a(n) _________ process that occurs in aerobic and anaerobic cells
    anaerobic
  207. if there is no oxygen or aerobic processes available the pyruvate produced through glycolysis undergoes .....
    fermentation
  208. Fermentation is...
    An anaerobic process in which some organic molecule accepts (is reduced by) the hydrogen atoms produced during glycolysis.
  209. In fermentation, pyruvate is converted to...
    lactate
  210. For each of the two pyruvate molecules produced via glycolysis one yields a molecule of ________ and the other regenerates one molecule of _______ from _______
    • lactate
    • NAD+ from NADH
  211. fermentation produces ____ net ATP
    0
  212. __________ is produced when pyruvate loses a terminal CO2 group
    acetaldehyde
  213. Glucose is converted to pyruvic acid by way of...
    glycolysis
  214. Pyruvic acid is converted to lactate in animal cells by way of...
    fermentation
  215. pyruvic acid is converted to ethanol and CO2 in yeast by way of...
    fermentation
  216. the more mitochondira a cells has, the more _____ it can produce
    ATP
  217. Crossing over and recombination should not occur within....
    mtDNA
  218. if DNA comes from a single source, _______ can not occur
    recombination
  219. During conjugation, the genes transferred are typically located on...
    plasmids
  220. stabilizing selections leads to most of the population having a....
    intermediate phenotype
  221. Disruptive selection leads to the development of...
    two extreme phenotypes in the population
  222. Directional selection leads to ...
    a selective pressure which forces the population to drive towards a single phenotype
  223. the only enzyme responsible for DNA replication is...
    DNA Polymerase
  224. Helicase is an enzyme that...
    unwinds the DNA double helix
  225. Ligase is an enzyme that...
    seals DNA fragment
  226. RNA polymerase is responsible for...
    transcription (conversion of DNA to RNA)
  227. The organelles that normally contain digestive enzymes are...
    lysosomes
  228. The ER is involved with _____ synthesis
    lipid
  229. The golgi complex function is to...
    sort and route the contents of the ER
  230. Mitochondria are involed with aerobic cellular respiration and the production of.....
    ATP
  231. what are the four phases of mitosis?
    prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
  232. what happens in prophase? (6 things)
    • chromosomes become distinct
    • nucleolus (nuceoli) disappear.
    • Centiroles appear
    • asters appear
    • spindle appear.
    • Nucelear membrane disappears.
  233. what happens in metaphase?
    Chromosomes move to the equator of the cell and duplicate
  234. what happens in anaphase? (2 things)
    • the two chromatids split apart and start migration toward the pole os the spindle
    • the spindle loses its defintion
  235. What happens in telophase? (2 things)
    • Chromosomes lengthen and become less distinct
    • Nucleoli reappear
    • Next is interphase.
  236. what is interphase?
    • cell growth
    • protein synthesis
    • DNA Synthesis
    • Chromosome Duplication
  237. what happens between mitosis and the G1 phase?
    cytokinesis
  238. what happens in the G1 phase?
    cell metabolism
  239. G1 phase is also called ..
    the gap phase
  240. what happens in the S phase?
    replication of the genome
  241. what is another name for the s phase?
    synthesis phase
  242. what is another name for the G2 phase?
    growth phase
  243. what happens in the G2 phase?
    cell metabolism
  244. what phases make up interphase?
    G, G2 and S
  245. list the phases starting with prophase to g2 phase in order...
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
    • cytokinesis
    • g1 phase
    • s phase
    • g2 phase
  246. what happens in meiosis 1 interphase?
    cell performs all its normal functions. Before mitosis begins, DNA doubles.
  247. What happens in meiosis 1 prophase?
    • DNA contracts
    • nucleus wall disappears
    • homologous chomosomes pair and swap DNA
  248. What happens in meiosis 1 metaphase?
    Spindle is visible and helps homologous chromosomes sit next to each other
  249. what happens in meiosis 1 anaphase?
    homologous chromosomes get pulled to opposite poles
  250. what happens in meiosis 1 telophase?
    • the two nuclei reform around the DNA.
    • The cells divide (cytokinesis)
  251. What happens in meiosis 2 prophase?
    spindle forms
  252. what happens in meiosis 2 metaphase?
    Spindle is visible and helps chromosomes line up on equator
  253. What happens in meiosis 2 anaphase?
    Chromatids get pulled to opposite poles
  254. What happens in meiosis 2 telophase?
    • the two nuclei reform around the DNA.
    • The cells divide (cytokinesis)
  255. Reduction divsion is...
    the generation of haploid daughter cells by a diploid parent cell
  256. gametogenisis is...
    a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes
  257. star shaped fibers are called...
    aster fibers
  258. each member of the pair of chromosomes is called...
    sister chromatid
  259. each chromatid is called...
    a daughter chromosome
  260. binding in the first meiotic division takes places at ...
    chiasma = synaptonemal membrane
  261. Crossing over is a from of genetic _________ that is specific to meiosis
    recombination
  262. tetrads from....
    syapsis
  263. mitosis generates two _______ daughters
    diploid
  264. meosis generates four _____ daughters
    haploid
  265. spermatogonia
    is an intermediary male gametogonium (a kind of germ cell) in the production of spermatozoa.
  266. each primary spermatocyte produces ....
    four haploid spermatids
  267. a diploid oogonium begins meiosis to produce a ....
    primary oocyte
  268. the larger daughter cell in oogenesis is called...
    the secondary oocyte
  269. the smaller daughter cell in oogenesis is called...
    polar body
  270. A gene is...
    a sequence of DNA on a chromosome, which code for a gene product.
  271. The three gene products are...
    • rRNA
    • tRNA
    • polypeptide
  272. rRNA is made via..
    transcription
  273. tRNA is made via..
    transcription
  274. Polypeptide is made via....
    transcription and translation
  275. Genes are composed of ______________ and can code for one of three final gene products.
    DNA on chromosomes
  276. Genes are composed of DNA on chromosomes and can code for ....
    one of three final gene products.
  277. The proteins formed via transcription and translation are encoded by...
    DNA on the chromosomes
  278. An organisim's genetic traits are traceable, largely due to...
    proteins formed by its cells via transcription and translation
  279. An organisim's genetic traits are traceable, largely due to proteins formed by its cells via...
    transcription and translation
  280. the law of independent assortment (second law) states that
    separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring.
  281. the law of segregation (first law) states that..
    every individual possesses a pair of alleles (assuming diploidy) for any particular trait and that each parent passes a randomly selected copy (allele) of only one of these to its offspring
  282. offspring takes ___ allele(s) from the mother and ____ allele(s) from the father
    • one
    • one
  283. AA x aa gentoypic ratio of offspring?
    100% Aa
  284. AA x Aa gentoypic ratio of offspring?
    • 50% AA
    • 50% Aa
  285. Aa x aa gentoypic ratio of offspring?
    • 50% Aa
    • 50% aa
  286. Aa x Aa gentoypic ratio of offspring?
    • 25% AA
    • 50% Aa
    • 25% aa
    • *Called 1:2:1 Ratio*
  287. AA x aa phentoypic ratio of offspring?
    100% dominant A phenotype
  288. AA x Aa phentoypic ratio of offspring?
    100% dominant A phenotype
  289. Aa x aa phentoypic ratio of offspring?
    • 50% dominant A phenotype
    • 50% recessive a phenotype
  290. Aa x Aa phentoypic ratio of offspring?
    • 75% dominant A phenotype
    • 25% recessive a phenotype
  291. AaBb x aabb genotypic ratio of offspring
    • 25% AaBb
    • 25% Aabb
    • 25% aaBb
    • 25% aabb
  292. AaBb x aabb phenotypic ratio of offspring
    • 25% A and B phenotypes
    • 25% A and b phenotypes
    • 25% a and B phenotypes
    • 25% a and b phenotypes
  293. the failure of genes to display independent assortment is called...
    linkage
  294. In humans, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the plasma regulates breathing rate by...
    its effect on the medulla
  295. Most autotrophs store energy in the form of..
    starches
  296. In humans, what do bile salts play an important role in enhancing the intestinal absorption of?
    fatty acids
  297. The nucleic acid responsible for transmitting genetic information from the DNA molecule in the nucleus to the cytoplasm is...
    Messenger RNA
  298. Which of the following changes in the body is NOT caused by stimulation of the human sympathetic nervous system?

    A. Increased sweating.
    B. Increased heart rate.
    C. Constriction of pupils.
    D. Increased blood pressure.
    Constriction of pupils
  299. Chromatin is composed of DNA and protein and is found primarily......
    in the nucleus.
  300. What is the cell division during which the chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid known as?
    meiosis
  301. Sodium ions are "pumped" from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration in the nerve cells of humans. This process is an example of..
    active transport
  302. The rate of lymph flow is ________than that of the circulation
    slower
  303. What is the major process by which the kidney removes waste products from the blood called?
    Glomerular filtration
  304. Which human organ has the primary function of removing waste products from the blood?
    kidneys
  305. In humans, the fusion of the nuclei of two functional gametes results in the formation of a..
    zygote
  306. A monoploid cell is
    a cell with half the normal number of chromosomes, these are gametes
  307. Homeostasis in living things is regulated by the action of what systems?
    nervous and endocrine.
  308. Most end-products of complete chemical digestion are described as..
    small, soluble organic molecules
  309. Which organ of the human body is first affected by a rapid decrease of glucose concentration in the blood?
    brain
  310. Glycogen is...
    the storage form of glucose in the different cells of the body.
  311. Which plasma protein is most abundant in plasma?
    albumin
  312. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are primarily transported through the blood bound to...
    hemoglobin
  313. In the oxidation of glucose to water and carbon dioxide, enzymes are needed to catalyze the release of...
    energy by hydrogen removal
  314. A trace element necessary for normal health of the human body is..
    copper
  315. A trace element is...
    a dietary mineral that is needed in very minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism
  316. sperm cells of an animal that are produced from primary sex cells contain the ______ of chromosomes
    monoploid number
  317. what electrolyte is most abundant inside the cell?
    potassium
  318. what electrolyte is most abundant outside the cell?
    sodium
  319. In humans, what is the ratio of the number of gametes produced from one male primary sex cell to the number of gametes produced from one female primary sex cell?
    4:1
  320. _____viable sperm cells are produced from one primary sex cell.
    four
  321. ____ viable egg cell is produced from one primary sex cell
    one
  322. what substance is actively reabsorbed by the kidney tubules?
    glucose
  323. Urea and creatinine normally pass through the kidney in the.....
    glomerular filtrate
  324. The number of autosomes and type of sex chromosome normally present in a human egg cell is:
    22 + X
  325. What is the descending portion of an action potential after the initial spike potential in a cell is cause by?
    Potassium efflux out of the cell.
  326. respiration is the process of...
    obtaining energy stored within food
  327. Transport involves getting.....
    materials to and from cells or organisms and moving them within the cell or organism.
  328. Many unicellular organisms reproduce by the process of...
    fission
  329. Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction whereby a cell...
    replicates its DNA and splits its DNA and cytoplasm equally
  330. Regeneration is a type of asexual reproduction that is performed by...
    simple multicellular animals
  331. Ovulation is...
    the release of an egg to be used in sexual reproduction.
  332. nondisjunction is when...
    the chromosomes split unequally in sexual reproduction..
  333. phenylketonuria is the disorder of..
    amino acid metabolism
  334. galactosemia is a disorder of....
    carbohydrate metabolism
  335. Tay-Sachs is a disorder of...
    lipis metabolism
  336. pernicious anemia occurs because of...
    vitamin B12 deficiency

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