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maintains homeostasis by regulating the volume, pressure, and consumption of the blood and urine
a large organ that functions mainly in the production of plasma proteins, the excretion of bile, the storage of energy reserves, the detoxification of poisons, and the interconversion of nutrients.
the organ responsible forthe final digestion and absorption of nutrients
helps absorb water, forms feces, and plays a role in defecation.
secretes digestive enzymes, bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid in chyme, and the hormones that regulate blood sugar.
stores, modifies, and then concentrates bile. Bile is released form the gallbladder into the small intestine.
major function is protection. (physical barrier that shields the contents of the body form invasion by foreign bacteria and other harmful particles)
where the exchange of materials between the blood and the tissues occurs.
transports blood away from the heart toward the cells.
transports blood towards the heart.
receives sensory input and integrates, stores, and retrieves information.
filters lymph. (contain macrophages and lymphocytes, cells that play an essential role in the body's defense system)
provides for conscious, voluntary control over contraction. It attaches to bones and forms the muscles of the body.
maintains a stable environment within the body by influencing blood pressure, heart rate, digestive activity, breathing rate, and many other vital processes.
a. Transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and heat
b. Transports immune cells and antibodies
c. Transports hormones
d. Regulates pH
e. heart, capillary, artery, vein
a. Returns tissue fluids to bloodstream
b. Protects against infection and disease
c. lymph nodes
a. Regulates and integrates body functions via hormones
b. hypothalamus, pancreas
a. Regulates and integrates body functions via neurons
a. Attachment for muscles
b. Protects organs
c. Stores calcium and phosphorous
d. Produces blood cells
e. bones, joints
a. Protects underlying tissues
b. Provides skin sensation
c. Helps regulate body temperature
d. Synthesizes vitamin D
a. Produces and secretes hormones
b. Produces and releases egg and sperm cells
c. Houses embryo/ fetus (females only)
d. penis, vagina etc
a. Maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous waste
b. Kidney (waste is filtered), gall bladder (where the urine collects), ureters (how the urine leaves the kidney), and urethra (exits the body via)
a. Physical and chemical breakdown of food
b. Absorbs, processes, stores food
c. small intestine, large intestine
a. Exchanges respiratory gases with the environment
Molecule <Organelle<Cell<Tissue<Organ<Organ System<Organism
a. The ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite changes in the surroundings
b. It is not a static state but a dynamic one
- c. Receptor detects change in the internal or external environment and sends the information to the control
d. Control center determines the level or range that is normal for the factor in question and selects an appropriate response
e. Effector carries out the selected response
Chapter 10 Liver
when the digestive system absorbs excess sugar in the form of glucose, the liver takes some of the energy and converts it to glycogen. It can convert the glycogen back to glucose.
Chapter 10 Pancreas
releases insulin, which lowers the blood glucose levels. If it's too low it will release glycogen to increase the glucose level
Chapter 10 Insulin
stimulates the uptake of glucose by body cells. Works with glucagon
Chapter 10 Glucagon
stimulates the breakdown of glycogen and the release of glucose, increasing blood levels
Chapter 10 Glucose
the most common energy source
Chapter 50 Passive Transportation
- transport of molecules against a concentration gradient (from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration)
- with the aid of proteins in the cell membrane and energy from ATP.
Chapter 50 Active Transportation
diffusion across a plasma membrane in which the cell expends no energy.
Chapter 50 Diffusion
the spontaneous movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Chapter 50 Osmosis
water moves from areas of high-water/low-solute concentration to areas of low-water/high-solute concentration