Synaptic Physiology

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Author:
geraldkristofferboy
ID:
162807
Filename:
Synaptic Physiology
Updated:
2012-07-17 06:39:52
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Physiology 1st long
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Description:
Physiology 1.5
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  1. functional unit of the nervous system
    neuron
  2. carry nerve impulses towards the cell body
    dendrites
  3. carry nerve impulses away from the cell body
    axon
  4. form in which the axon terminates; bulbous shape
    synaptic boutons
  5. network of synaptically interconnected neurons
    neural circuit
  6. when an AP reaches synaptic ending releasing a neurotransmitter
    synaptic transmission
  7. stacked RER and golgi apparatus
    nissl bodies
  8. receive information, generate annd integrate the local potential changes
    soma(cell body)
  9. belongs to the initiating neuron; contains neurotransmitters, mitochondria and other cell organelles
    presynaptic neuron
  10. receiving neuron; contains receptor sites for neuro transmitters
    post-synaptic membrane
  11. space between the pre-synaptic neuron and post-synaptic neuron
    synaptic cleft
  12. most pre-synaptic neurons terminate on dendritic spines of the post-synaptic neuron
    axodendritic synapse
  13. pre-synaptic neurons terminate on cell body
    axosomatic synapse
  14. forms between the axon of presynaptic neuron and axon of post synaptic neuron; regulates the amount of neurotransmitter that is released by another axon terminal
    axoaxonic synapse
  15. type of synapse that allows the action potential to cross from the membrane of one neuron to the next without the intervention of a neurotransmitter
    electrical synapse
  16. specialized intercellular tunnel that links together the membranes of the two communicating neurons where they come extremely close at the electrical synapses
    gap junction
  17. 6 subunits of connexins mades up
    connexon
  18. nerve impulses are carried by neurotransmitters
    chemical synapse
  19. chemical gated ion channels in the membrane of the cell that is receiving the nerve impulse
    neuroreceptors
  20. where terminal branches of motor axon lie
    synaptic trough
  21. transient depolarization due to increase in membrane's permeability to sodium and potassium
    end plate potential
  22. spontaneous release of 1 acetylcholine vesicle; 0.4 mV insufficient to trigger action potential unlike EPP
    miniature end plate potential
  23. depolarization of postsynaptic membrane
    excitatory postsynaptic potential
  24. hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane
    inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  25. 2 separate inputs that arrive simultaneously
    temporal summation
  26. rapid succession of actions potentials in 1 presynaptic cell
    spatial summation
  27. location of inhibitory synapses
    soma
  28. location of excitatory synapses
    dendrite
  29. permits fine control of firing pattern of spinal motor neuron
    integration
  30. increased postsynaptic response due to repeated presynaptic stimulation
    facilitation
  31. a train of strong stimulation will cause post tetanic potentiation increased or longer post synaptic response
    tetanic stimulation
  32. more efficient transmission at synapses that are repeatedly stimulated
    long term potentiation
  33. occurs when a synapse has decreasing response to each successive stimulation, due to prolonged repetitive stimulation
    synaptic fatigue
  34. both inhibitory and excitatory; attentiaon, learning, and memory
    acetylcholine
  35. excitatory chemical that induces physical and mental arousal and elevated mood
    norepinephrine
  36. originates in the substantia nigra; inhibitory transmitter
    dopamine
  37. inhibit pain pathways in the spinal cord
    serotonin
  38. major excitatory neurotransmitter, vital for forging the links between neurons that are basis of learning and long term memory
    glutamate

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