MA-70 Ch 9

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MA-70 Ch 9
2010-04-26 17:16:35
Endocrine System

Medical Terminology
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  1. acromegaly
    • disease characterized by enlarged features, especially of the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
  2. adenitis
    inflammation of lymph nodes or a gland
  3. adenoma
    a benign tumor made of epithelial cells, usually arranged like a gland
  4. adenopathy
    glandular disease
  5. adrenal
    pert. to the adrenal gland or its secretions; originally used to indicate nearness to the kidney
  6. adrenalectomy
    excision of the adrenal glands
  7. android
    resembling a male; manlike
  8. diabetes
    disease marked by excessive urination
  9. endocrine
    an internal secretion; pert. to a gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream
  10. exocrine
    external secretion of a gland, opposite of endocrine; glands whose secretion reaches and epithelial surface either directly or through a duct
  11. glandular
    pert. to or of the nature of a gland
  12. glycosuria
    glucose (sugar) in the urine (syn = glucosuria)
  13. goiter
    • enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
  14. hirsutism
    • shaggy; an excessive growth of hair, especially in unusual places
  15. hormone
    a substance originating in an organ, gland, or body part, conveyed through the blood to another body part, and chemically stimulating that part in increase or decrease functional activity or to increase or decrease secretion of another hormone
  16. hypercalcemia
    an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
  17. hyperglycemia
    high blood sugar
  18. hyperinsulinism
    condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
  19. hyperkalemia
    an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
  20. hyperparathyroidism
    hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
  21. hypersecretion
    abnormally increased secretion
  22. hyperthyroidism
    • a condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by nervousness, weight loss, rapid pulse, protrusion of the eyeball (exophthalmos), goiter, etc.
  23. hypocalcemina
    an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
  24. hypoglycemia
    low blood sugar
  25. hypoinsulinism
    type 1 diabetes mellitus; relative deficiency in insulin secretion or insulin dosing
  26. hypokalemia
    deficient level of potassium in the blood
  27. hypoparathyroidism
    hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands
  28. hypothyroidism
    a condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and, often, obesity
  29. ketoacidosis
    presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine indicating and abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as uncontrolled diabetes and starvation (syn = ketosis, diabetic ketoacidosis)
  30. lymphadenitis
    inflammation of the lymph nodes
  31. pancreas
    gland located behind the stomach; it secretes insulin and glucagon; regulates carbohydrate/sugar metabolism; also the pancreatic juices are enzymes that help digest food in the small intestine
  32. pancreatectomy
    excision of the pancreas
  33. pancreatic
    pet. to the pancreas
  34. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  35. pancreatotomy
    surgical incision into the pancreas
  36. parathyroid glands
    two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck; secrete parathyroid hormone; regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  37. parathyroidectomy
    excision of the parathyroid glands
  38. parathyroidotomy
    surgical incision into the parathyroid glands
  39. pituitary gland
    located at the base of the brain; considered the paster gland as it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands
  40. polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  41. polyphagia
    eating abnormally large amounts of food; gluttony
  42. polyuria
    excessive urination
  43. suprarenal
    located above the kidney
  44. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  45. thymotomy
    surgical incision into the thymus gland
  46. thyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland
  47. thyroidotomy
    incision of the thyroid gland