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General info on lung cancer
- 1st of cancer-related deaths in U.S.A. (28%)
- Leading cause of death for women
- Biggest risk factor=smoking.
Common etiologies of lung cancer
- Cigarette smoking (80-90% of lung ca)
- Pipe & cigar smoking
- Other inhaled carcinogens
- Air pollution
pathophys of lung cancer
- Most commonly bronchogenic
- Slow growing – (8-10 years to reach 1 cm). by time it shows you're already screwed. Probably.
- Inflammatory changes
- --Hypersecretion of mucus
- --Desquamation of cells
- --Basal cell hyperplasia
More pathophys of lung cancer
- Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) – 80%
- Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) – 20%
- Metastasis is via direct extension, circulation, & lymph system
- Mets frequently to liver, brain, bones, scalene lymph nodes, adrenal glands
Early SnSs of lung cancer
- Silent, asymptomatic, depends on location and type of ca.
- Fever, chills
- Cough – persistent & w/blood tinged sputum
- Chest pain
Late SnSs of lung cancer
- Anorexia, N/V-->Weight loss
- Hoarseness, Dysphagia
- Palpable nodes
- Pericardial effusion
- Tamponade (pressure on heart due to fluid build up between pericardium and myocardium). Mostly likely terminal at this point.
Diagnostic tests associated with lung cancer
- Sputum Cytology
Staging of Lung Cancer
- TNM staging for NSCL
- CSCLC – TNM not done because of aggressive nature, considered systemic & mets assumed.
- Stages are considered limited or extensive
- No current recommendations. Most likely terminal, so treatment is largly palliative.
Collaborative care for pt w/lung cancer
Nuring Intervension for pt w/lung cancer
- Assessment – reassessment
- Pt understanding/education
- Goals-realistic? palliative? acceptance?
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