AMS1

Card Set Information

Author:
alyn217
ID:
162850
Filename:
AMS1
Updated:
2012-07-17 13:15:44
Tags:
AMS1T1 Acid Base Balance
Folders:

Description:
Acid-Base Balance
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user alyn217 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. pH balance
    Normal range=7.35-7.43
  2. Regulators of acid/base
    • Buffers: act within seconds.
    • Respiratory system: regulates CO2 and O2. Acts within minutes-hours
    • Renal system: acts in hours to days.
  3. Respiratory Regulators of acid/base
    • System will respond within minutes to hours.
  4. Renal regulators of acid/base
    • Secretes hydrogen (H+) ions and reabsorbs bicarbonate (HCO3) ions
    • Reabsorption and secretion of electrolytes (e.g., Na, Cl)
    • Responds within hours to days
  5. ABG Normal Values
    • pH  7.35 - 7.45 overall state
    • PaCO2  35 - 45 mm Hg (respiratory component)
    • HCO3  22 - 26 mEq /L (metabolic component)
    • PaO2 80 - 100 mmHg partial pressureof oxygen in arterial blood
    • SaO2  96 - 100% arterial O2 saturation
  6. How to obtain arterial blood
    • Heparinized syringe to prevent clots
    • Blood from an artery
    • On ice to prevent changes in value due to temp. Can give you accurate results up to 10 minutes.
    • Need to deliver promptly to lab.
  7. Pathophys of Respiratory acidosis
    • ↑ carbonic acid/build up of CO2
    • Hypoventilation—MAIN CAUSE!
    • Carbonic acid stays in the blood instead of being blown off by lungs, dissociates to HCO3 + H+
    • Due to COPD/severe pneumonia, barbiturate OD
    • Results in ↓
    • pHCompensation – kidneys will conserve HCO3-and secrete H+ into urine
  8. Pathophys of alkalosis
    • Blows off CO2 (↓pCO2) which ↓ carbonic acid and ↑ pH
    • Hyperventilation—MAIN CAUSE!
    • Due to anxiety, CNS disorders, mechanical OVER-ventilation, sepsis
    • Compensation – none (uncommon)
  9. Metabolic acidosis
    • Accumulation of carbonic acid and loss of bicarb
    • Due to DKA, lactic acidosis, renal dis. (no reabsorption of bicarb  or secretion of H+ by the kidneys)
    • Compensation - ↑ CO2 blown off by the lungs (Kussmaul’s breathing); functioning kidneys will excrete acid
  10. Metabolic alkalosis
    • Loss of acid from vomiting, gastric suctioning
    • Gain of bicarb from ingesting baking soda
    • Compensation - ↓ respiratory rate (↑CO2) and renal excretion of bicarb
  11. SnSs of Respiratory acidosis
    • DEPRESSED ACTIVITY
    • LETHARGY       
    • CONFUSION       
    • STUPOR       
    • COMA       
    • RESTLESSNESS       
    • TACHYCARDIA       
    • HEADACHE

    • VS:
    • pH < 7.35
    • PaCO2 > 45 mm Hg
    • HCO3  Normal or >26 mEq /L If compensating
  12. SnSs of respiratory alkalosis
    • Rapid, deep respirations (Kussmals)
    • Parasthesias
    • Light-headedness
    • Twitching
    • Anxiety
    • Fear
    • Dysrhythmias
    • N/V

    • VS:
    • pH > 7.45
    • PaCO2 < 35 mm Hg
    • HCO3 < 22 mEq /L

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview