Acids and Bases

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  1. Arrhenius acids and bases 
    H+ ions produced by acids 

    OH- ions produced by bases  
  2. Cation trends for acidity 
    The smaller the cation, the less room to spread charge, the more concentrated the charge = stronger acid!
  3. How does % dissociation relate to acidity?
    Percent dissociation decreases with increasing acidity because strong acids completely dissociate so less of them required 
  4. Acidity increases with Oxidation number of the central atom
    Because when H is lost, O better able to delocalize and spread charge to stabilize the conjugate base 

    Electron withdrawing groud increase oxidation number by pulling away electron density 
  5. Finding the pH of salts
    Easy! Just examine the conjugate

    For example Na+ is a conjugate of a strong base Na+ is not acidic at all
  6. Indicators 
    • Help to find the equivalence point 
    • The end point is the point at which the indicator changes color
    • Changes color best when +- 1 pH point of its pKa value.

    Equivalence point should be near pKa value of indicator 
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Acids and Bases
2012-07-17 17:09:57

MCAT General Chemistry
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