Acids and Bases
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Arrhenius acids and bases
H+ ions produced by acids
OH- ions produced by bases
Cation trends for acidity
The smaller the cation, the less room to spread charge, the more concentrated the charge = stronger acid!
How does % dissociation relate to acidity?
Percent dissociation decreases with increasing acidity because strong acids completely dissociate so less of them required
Acidity increases with Oxidation number of the central atom
Because when H is lost, O better able to delocalize and spread charge to stabilize the conjugate base
Electron withdrawing groud increase oxidation number by pulling away electron density
Finding the pH of salts
Easy! Just examine the conjugate
For example Na+ is a conjugate of a strong base NaOH...so Na+ is not acidic at all
- Help to find the equivalence point
- The end point is the point at which the indicator changes color
- Changes color best when +- 1 pH point of its pKa value.
Equivalence point should be near pKa value of indicator
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