Social Studies Flashcards - Part 2.txt

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Social Studies Flashcards - Part 2.txt
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  1. Elections and voting are the foundations of U.S. __________________.
    Democracy
  2. Political parties are not provided for in the U.S. Constitution, however, political differences, beginning early in our history, brought about the two-party system: the Democrats and the Republicans being the most recent. In spite of the strength of these two parties U.S. history is filled with third parties or _________________ parties.
    Independent 
  3. The most successful independent party candidate was _______________ (a president). His party was called the _________________ and won about 25% of the popular vote in the 1912 election.
    Theodore Roosevelt, Progressive or “Bull Moose” Party
  4. ______________ (current political party) usually favor a strong federal government involved in economic and social issues.
    Democrats
  5. _____________ (current political party) usually want less federal involvement in the lives of individuals and businesses and greater state responsibilities.
    Republicans
  6. In our election process each political party (in most states) holds ____________ elections to choose ____________ candidates.
    Primary, presidential
  7. In primary elections, voters from each major political party select _____________ who decide on the parties’ candidates for president, and generally pledge to vote for a particular candidate at the parties’ national conventions.
    Delegates
  8. Presidential elections are held every ___ years.
    4
  9. According to the Constitution, the president must be a ______________ of the U.S., be at least ___ years old, and have been a resident of the U.S for ____ years.
    Natural-born citizen, 35, 14
  10. T or F: Citizens directly elect the president and vice president.
    False
  11. Citizens elect the president and vice president by choosing electors to represent them in the ______________ _______________. This system was set up to avoid having the states with the most popular votes (as opposed to electoral votes) due to their_________________ always deciding the presidency.
    Electoral College, populations
  12. In the Electoral College each state has a number of electors equal to the total number of its ______________ and _________________, both population and equality count.
    Senators, representatives
  13. A candidate needs a ______________ of the electoral votes to win.
    Majority
  14. There have been very few instances where the person who won the popular vote did not win the presidency. In 1824, ____________________ received more popular votes and electoral votes than John Quincy Adams, however, he did not receive a majority. When this occurs, the election must be decided by the _______________________________, and the vice president is chosen by the ______________________.
    Andrew Jackson, House of Representatives, senate
  15. The House of Representatives has ____ members who serve __-year terms. The total is divided among the states according to __________.
    435, 2, population
  16. The _________________________________ is third in line to become President, should anything happen to both the president and vice president.
    Speaker of the House
  17. There are ________ (#) senators, ______ from each state. Senators are elected for ____ years, with a __________ (proportion) of the Senate being elected every 2 years.
    100, 2, 6, third
  18. T or F: Both senators and representatives are elected by direct popular vote.
    True
  19. Laws are made by the two legislative chambers of Congress and signed by the president in the following manner: State the 5-step process.
    • (1) an elected representative (from the House or the Senate) proposes a bill
    • (2) legislative committees review the bill
    • (3) both chambers vote on the bill
    • (4) if approved by both the House and the Senate, the bill goes to the executive branch (president or governor)
    • (5a) if the president (or governor) signs the bill, it becomes law
    • (5b) if the president (or governor) vetoes the bill, it is dropped. Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds vote to make it a law.
  20. After Texas became independent of Mexico, _________________ became the first elected president of the Republic of Texas.
    Sam Houston
  21. _____________________ was ad interim president during the Texas Revolution, when Texas was not yet its own country.
    David Burnett
  22. The second elected president of the Republic of Texas, ______________________ is called the “Father of Education in Texas.”
    Mirabeau B. Lamar
  23. ___________________________, a prominent politician in Mexico in the government of Santa Anna, immigrated to Texas when it became clear to him that Santa Anna was not going to abide by the Mexican Constitution of 1824. He signed the Texas Declaration of Independence and later was elected as a vice president of the Republic of Texas.
    Lorenzo de Zavala
  24. ______________________ was prominent in Mexican politics but supported Anglo colonization of Texas and the separation of Texas from Mexico. He was one of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence. He served in the Texas government as a strong voice for those of Hispanic descent in Texas who were being isolated after the Texas Revolution and as a voice for annexation for statehood.
    Jose Navarro
  25. The last president of the Republic of Texas was __________________ (1844-1846).
    Anson Jones
  26. When Texas became a state, ___ years after independence, the first governor of the state was _______________________ (1846-1847).
    10, James Pinckney Henderson
  27. In 1874, the election of _____________ began a Democratic Party dynasty in Texas that continued unbroken for more than 100 years. Many Southerners believed that the Republican party of Lincoln and Johnson had been harsh and punishing during the Reconstruction years following the Civil War.
    Richard Coke
  28. In 1888, the dedication of the present state _______________ in _________________, made of pink granite from the Hill Country of Texas and largely financed through the _________________, ended 7 years of planning and construction.
    Capitol, Austin, XIT Ranch
  29. Who took office as the first native-born governor of Texas in 1891?
    James Hogg
  30. ______________________, a Democrat, was elected in 1924 as the first woman elected governor in Texas and the second woman to serve as a governor in the United States. She served from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1933 to 1935.
    Miriam A. “Ma” Ferguson
  31. The second woman elected governor of Texas was _____________________, a Democrat, who was elected in 1990.
    Ann Richards
  32. The present Texas State Constitution was ratified on _______________________.
    February 15, 1876
  33. Currently, the Texas Legislature convenes in Austin for no more than a _____-day regular session every odd-numbered year (unless special sessions are called).
    140
  34. The governor of Texas is elected to a ___-year term in November of even-numbered, non-presidential-election years.
    4
  35. T or F: There is no limit on the number of terms a governor may serve.
    True
  36. The governor may call additional__-day special sessions in which the legislature may consider only the subjects submitted to them by the governor.
    30
  37. A statewide elected official, the ______________ ______________ is the presiding officer of the Texas senate and serves a 4-year term.
    Lieutenant governor
  38. T or F: In Texas, the governor and lieutenant governor run on a combined ticket as do those who seek the offices of president and vice president in the United States.
    False – It is fairly common for the governor and lieutenant governor to be from different political parties.
  39. The Texas Senate consists of ___ senators elected to __-year overlapping terms of office with no term limits. The lieutenant governor serves as president of the Texas Senate.
    31, 4
  40. The Texas House of Representatives consists of ___ representatives elected in even-numbered years to __-year terms of office with no term limits. At the beginning of each regular session, the House elects a speaker from its members to serve as the presiding officer.
    150, 2
  41. The _________________ ________________ ___________ (LBB) primarily develops recommendations for legislative appropriations and performance standards for all agencies of state government. The LBB also prepares fiscal notes and impact statements that provide the Legislature with information and analysis on bills being considered for enactment.
    Legislative Budget Board
  42. The __________ ____________ ___________ (SAO) functions as the independent auditor for Texas state government. The SAO reviews state agencies, universities, and programs for management and fiscal controls, effectiveness, efficiency, performance measures, and statutory compliance and compliance with administrative rules and regulations.
    State Auditor’s Office
  43. Among other Texas firsts, in 1972 __________ became the first African American woman from a southern state to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. She represented Houston’s 18th Congressional District. When she died in 1996, she was buried in the Texas State Cemetery, becoming the first African American woman to be interred there.
    Barbara Jordan
  44. In 1981, _________________ became the first person of Hispanic background to be elected mayor of a large U.S. city. At the time he was elected as mayor of San Antonio, it was the ninth largest city in the U.S.
    Henry Cisneros
  45. ______________________, a famous Texas politician, filibustered for more than 20 hours against segregation, then served as a U.S. Representative for more than 30 years from the San Antonio district.
    Henry B. Gonzalez
  46. _______________________, a Democrat, was elected to the House of Representatives, where he served for 48 years (and with 8 presidents), many of those as the Speaker of the House or as the Minority Leader under Republican control of the House.
    Sam Rayburn
  47. ______________ of Kingsville was the first Mexican American woman legislator to serve in the Texas House of Representatives.
    Irma Rangel
  48. ______________________, a Texan, has been a key leader in government under three presidents (Ford, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush), serving as campaign manager, chief of staff, Treasury Secretary and Secretary of State.
    James A Baker, III
  49. _______________________ is the first female senator from Texas and is currently the most senior Republican female senator.
    Kay Bailey Hutchison
  50. U.S. presidents born in Texas and considered Texans include whom?
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon Johnson, George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush
  51. State Capital: _____________, named after __________________, who gained land grants for the first group of American colonists in Texas (“The Old Three Hundred”)
    Austin, Stephen F. Austin
  52. Motto: _______________, coming from the original word for Texas, which is what the Caddo Nation called its tribes—friends.
    Friendship
  53. State song: ________________
    Texas, Our Texas
  54. State bird
    The mockingbird
  55. State flower
    Bluebonnet, the brilliant blue wildflower that covers a great part of the state in the spring, giving some fields almost the allusion of being a lake of blue
  56. Tomie dePaola wrote _________________________, a poignant tale of a young Comanche girl’s sacrifice for her tribe. DePaola also wrote Strega Nona.
    The Legend of the Bluebonnet
  57. State tree
    Pecan tree, which can grow in all counties in Texas and is native to 150 counties
  58. State pledge
    Honor the Texas flag; I pledge allegiance to thee, Texas, one state under God, one and indivisible
  59. Symbol of Texas freedom
    The Alamo
  60. __________________, philanthropist, was known as the “Savior of the Alamo” when she found that it was in ruins and parts were to be sold and converted into a hotel property.
    Clara Driscoll
  61. ___________________ helped to save the Alamo’s convent area, where much of the fighting occurred, even barricading herself into the barracks area to prevent destruction. She also organized the Texas Historical and Landmarks Association, which started with marking 38 historical sites in Texas, and is credited with saving the Spanish Governors’ Palace in San Antonio.
    Adina de Zavala
  62. State flag
    The Lone Star flag was adopted in 1839 as the flag of the Republic of Texas. Its colors are “Old Glory” red and blue and white, representing bravery, loyalty and purity.
  63. State nickname
    Lone Star State
  64. State mammals
    Longhorn (large), armadillo (small)
  65. Highest mountain
    Guadalupe Peak
  66. Largest ranch
    The King Ranch is the largest ranch in the world (825,000 acres) but is divided into four divisions and not a contiguous plot of land
  67. The largest ranch in Texas inside one fence
    Waggoner Ranch at 520,000 acres
  68. Borders
    New Mexico, Oklahoma (Red River), Arkansas, Louisiana (Sabine River), Mexico (Rio Grande River), Gulf of Mexico
  69. Longest River in Texas
    Rio Grande River
  70. _________________ know as Queen of the Missions, was founded during the mission period of Texas. It is located in San Antonio and was built so well that it was practically impregnable. Even today, one can view much of the practical, yet beautiful, work that went into its construction. All of the outer walls, dwellings, workshops, and mill are still intact (as well as the church, which is still in use).
    Mission San Jose
  71. __________________ the world’s tallest obelisk was built as a memorial column on the land where the Battle of San Jacinto (which brought Texas independence) was fought.
    San Jacinto Monument
  72. Texas local government: How many counties?
    254 counties
  73. In the 1880’s, everyone’s life changed with the invention of the _______________.
    Electric light bulb
  74. Gail Borden came to Texas in 1829 and is known as the father of _____________because he patented the process for condensing milk in a vacuum.
    Modern dairy industry
  75. Lousi Daguerre of France famous for inventing the ___________-process in the mid 1800s.
    Photographic
  76. The _____________ was invented in 1856 by Cyrus McCormick. It transformed the farm industry by allowing fewer people to produce more grain.
    Reaper
  77. An African American _________________was responsible for researching and promoting alternative crops such as peanuts and sweet potatoes to Southern cotton farmers.
    George Washington Carver
  78. ___________________came up with the germ theory and invented pasteurization to keep milk from souring as well as a rabies vaccine.
    Louis Pasteur
  79. ____________ was a wildlife artist who painted and cataloged the birds of North America.
    John James Audubon
  80. _______________was the first professor of astronomy at Vassar and was also the first woman to become a member of the American Academy of Arts and Science. She was also the second women to discover a comet.
    Maria Mitchell
  81. Early in the 19th century, the _____________changed people and society by giving people the freedom to move farther from their workplaces, which in turn, gave rise to the suburbs.
    Automobile
  82. Demand for cars was so great that ___________invented the assembly line to accommodate the demand.
    Henry Ford
  83. Joseph Glidden changed life in Texas in 1874 by inventing ______________. It brought an end to open range ranching and the days of the cattle drive.
    Barbed wire
  84. __________________first patented the telephone in 1876.
    Alexander Graham Bell
  85. In 1903, history was made at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, when _______________flew what is credited to be the first controlled airplane.
    Wilbur and Orville Wright
  86. Charles Lindberg was the first to fly_____________across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 opening the doors to the era of commercial aviation.
    Non stop
  87. The first air conditioner was invented in 1906 by ____________________.
    William Carrier
  88. A major home convenience ______________was popularized by Clarence Birdseye in the late 1920s.
    Frozen food
  89. In the 1950s, Jonas Salk, an American, invented a vaccine for the disease _____ that had left many people throughout the world with paralysis.
    polio
  90. Since World War II until the end of the 20th century, the two nations (U.S. & USSR), along with their allies, kept their wartime pledge to create an international organization. What was this organization called?
    United Nations
  91. The boundaries between communist-controlled countries and free nations became known as _________.
    Iron Curtain
  92. In many areas, fences and walls were built to keep people from escaping communism. The _______Wall, the most famous of these was torn down in 1989.
    Berlin
  93. What did the United States responded with when trying to block further Soviet expansion?
    Containment Doctrine
  94. The __________doctrine provided a military and economic aid to countries threatened by __________.
    Truman Doctrine, Communism
  95. In 1947, European nations were offered the ________plan to deliver assistance if they would work together to rebuild economics after World War II.
    Marshall Plan
  96. In 1949, the United States and its Western allies formed the ____________(NATO) to provide for military defense against the Soviet Union and its allies.
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  97. The________ Pact was what the Soviet Union created in response to creating its own alliances in 1955-with the communist governments in Eastern Europe.
    The Warsaw Pact
  98. The relationship between the two superpowers, particularly during the 1940s and the early 1950s, has been characterized as the ________War, a state of tension and hostility.
    Cold War
  99. The superpowers have also experienced periods of __________, or a relaxation of tensions.
    Detente
  100. During periods of detente, summit conferences, cultural exchanges, three agreements were designed to have taken place to bring down the level of fear of another world war. What are the three agreements? __________ (LNTBT), ___________ (HA), ___________ (SALT)
    Limited Nuclear Test Ban, Helsinki Accords, Strategic Arms Limitations Treaties
  101. The underdeveloped nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America were considered to be what type of World?
    Third World countries
  102. The United States undertook policies of military alliances and economic and technical aid for the containment in order to prevent _________ effect.
    Domino Effect
  103. When communist forces under the leadership of ______________ won the civil war in China in 1949, relations in Asia and the superpowers were severely strained.
    Mao Tse Tung
  104. The exiled Chinese government of ___________ moved its government to Taiwan. The United States recognized the Chinese government in Taiwan but refused to recognize the existence of the mainland (communist) Chinese government until 1979.
    Chiang Kai Shek
  105. This war ended with an agreement to divide Korea at the 38th parallel. In 1950, the United States fought the ________War to prevent the further expansion of communism.
    Korean War
  106. During the 1950s Cold War, many American feared communism in the United States. Senator Joseph McCarthy led the hunt for traitors or spies in the U.S. Some individuals were found guilty and some were not but many lost their jobs, and their reputations. What was this action called?
    McCarthyism
  107. During J. Edger Hoover’s time he asked for the __________ to step in and investigate many of the cases under investigation of traitors or spies in the U.S. (McCarthyism)
    FBI- Federal Bureau of Investigation
  108. _________ (Indochina) had been a French territory until World War II.
    Vietnam
  109. An international conference held at Geneva divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel. The French continued to rule the South and _________ gained control of North Vietnam.
    Ho Chi Minh
  110. An agreement was made to have an election every 2 years to decide unification, but that never happened. Instead the United States took over the French and installed a new leader in the south. Who was the new leader for South Vietnam?
    Ngo Dinh Diem
  111. North Vietnamese torpedo an American destroyer, the Maddox on August 2, 1964 in the Gulf of __________.
    Gulf of Tonkin
  112. On August 7, 1964, Congress passed H.J. RES 1145, which authorized which president to take “all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S. and to prevent any further aggression”?
    President Johnson
  113. The Gulf ________Resolution meant that the United States would become an active participant in the conflict. American combat forces in South Vietnam rose from 16,000 in 1963 to 500,000 in 1968.
    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  114. In 1968, North Vietnamese launched the ___________, a series of attacks beginning unexpectedly during major Vietnamese holiday (Tet-the Lunar New Year).
    Tet Offensive
  115. In 1968, ___________ won the election for president by running an antiwar platform.
    Richard Nixon
  116. In 1970, ________ordered the secrete bombing of parts of Cambodia, where many enemy forces were situated. Many Americans saw this as a widening of the war into Indochina.
    Richard Nixon
  117. On May 4, 1970, four students were shot and killed while nine others were injured at ________State in Ohio, for protesting the war in Vietnam.
    Kent State
  118. Growing antiwar sentiment caused congress to withdraw the __________Resolution in December 1970.
    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  119. In 1971, a top secret Defense Department study-the ________ Papers. Confirmed what the public had believed for a long time: the government had been dishonest, both reporting the military progress and its motives for American involvement in the war.
    The Pentagon Papers
  120. Which lieutenant was charged with the overseeing the massacre of more than 100 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in the village of My Lai?
    Lieutenant William Calley
  121. What does POW mean?
    Prisoners of War
  122. What does MIA mean?
    Missing in Action
  123. In January 1975, which president asked for an emergency aid for South Vietnam, but the request was denied?
    President Gerald Ford
  124. In Latin America, since 1959, the United States has been unable to oust the Communist regime of __________ in Cuba.
    Fidel Castro
  125. President Kennedy, after the disastrous _____________ invasion in Cuba, came very close to war with the Soviet Union when it was confirmed that the Soviets were furnishing Cuba with missiles as a staging area for them to reach the United States.
    Bay of Pigs
  126. Which president in 1987 faced off with Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev demanding that he “tear down that wall”?
    President Ronald Reagan
  127. The __________ separated the East and West Berlin.
    The Berlin Wall
  128. _________ still remains a power nation due to its nuclear arsenal and great oil reserves, and it often opposes the United States in international affairs.
    Russia
  129. Since World War II, the U.S. government has been confronted with a variety of problems and challenges. Slowly, the nation moved toward becoming an ________society.
    Integrated
  130. In 1945, the Supreme Court declared _________ (the tradition of separate but equal) unconstitutional.
    Segregation
  131. Segregation was ruled unconstitutional in the Supreme Courts case ____________ of Topeka, Kansas.
    Brown vs. the Board of Education
  132. In the case, Brown vs. Board of Education, the principle attorney was ___________. In 1967, President Johnson named this attorney as the first African American Supreme Court Justice.
    Thurgood Marshall
  133. Montgomery, Alabama in 1955, who was the seamstress that refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger?
    Rosa Parks
  134. The news of Rosa Parks arrest spread rapidly across the nation, and quickly the __________ organized a boycott of buses in Montgomery.
    NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  135. The NAACP asked what young pastor to lead the boycott?
    Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
  136. The Montgomery Bus Boycott proved that ordinary people could unite and organize a successful protest movement through_____________.
    Civil Disobedience
  137. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched __________, President Eisenhower played an active role in
    • establishing ____________ to train more scientists and engineers.
    • Sputnik, NASA- National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  138. In 1969, NASA’s __________ astronauts reached the moon. The first person to step on the moon was __________.
    Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong
  139. The __________Act was signed by President Johnson in 1964, sought to bring more equality to African Americans, especially in housing rights and schools.
    Civil Rights Act
  140. Who was the movement leader that believed African Americans should take complete control of their communities?
    Malcolm X
  141. Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965, as a racial tension increased in 1966 __________ was issued a call for Black Power.
    Stokely Carmicheal
  142. In 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded a political party known as ___________ to fight police brutality in predominantly African American neighborhoods.
    Black Panthers
  143. In 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King delivered his most famous oration in Washington, to help persuade Congress to pass the bill. What speech was given?
    “I Have a Dream”
  144. With more than 250,000 people, including 75,000 whites, ____________ was the largest demonstration ever held in the United States.
    March on Washington
  145. In 1963, what president was assassinated in Dallas Texas?
    Kennedy
  146. Who was the vice president during the assassination of Kennedy and then later became president?
    Lyndon Johnson
  147. Under President Johnson, Congress enacted the ____________ to provide job training and rebuild inner cities.
    War on Poverty
  148. Also during Johnson’s term he passed the Great Society legislation such as _________, which insures healthcare for the elderly.
    Medicare
  149. Congress passed ___________ of 1964, barring discrimination in housing and establishing the Equal Opportunity Commission.
    Civil Rights Act of 1964
  150. Texas Hispanics also fought for civil rights, __________ was the first Hispanic to be awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
    Hector P. Garcia
  151. President John F. Kennedy and his brother Robert Kennedy were concerned for the needs of the poor but important domestic poverty legislation was not passed unitl after President Johnson had been ____________.
    Assassinated
  152. Who was the first man to walk on the moon?
    Neil Armstrong
  153. ___________, did not walk on the moon but he did fly the moon twice and was the first to fly into space 4 times.
    James Lovell
  154. On January 28, 1986, what was the name of the space shuttle that exploded?
    Challenger
  155. In 2003, what was the name of the space shuttle that exploded?
    Columbia
  156. Who was the first woman in space?
    Sally Ride
  157. Who was the first Hispanic woman in space and now serves as Deputy Director of the Johnson Space Center?
    Ellen Ochoa
  158. Texas born Dr.___________ was a part of the first mission of biomedical studies on the Spacelab.
    Dr. Millie Hughes-Fulford
  159. Who was the Mexican descent raised in El Paso that also flew two missions as an astronaut to the International Space Station.
    John “Danny” Olivas
  160. Nixon and his advisors withheld and covered up information concerning a burglary at Democratic National Headquarters in the ________ building.
    Watergate
  161. Because of the efforts of _________ and others, America became aware of the need to clean up and preserve their environment.
    Rachel Carson
  162. During Nixon administration, Congress established the ___________ to provide clean air and water.
    EPA- Environmental Protection Agency
  163. Many presidents struggled to control the inflation. Under President Ronald Reagan inflation was finally halted but __________ became a major problem.
    Budget Deficit
  164. President __________ had solidly contributed to the end of the Cold War.
    Reagan
  165. Which President acted to stop the aggression of Iraq when it invaded Kuwait?
    President George H. W. Bush
  166. During this president’s first term in office, he was involved in a number of controversies, ranging from wrongdoings in Arkansas land deal known as Whitewater to charges of sexual misconduct.
    Bill Clinton
  167. A third political party had not been successful since Roosevelt’s time, but in 1992, __________ ran as a third political party against H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton.
    Ross Perot
  168. One of the closest presidential elections in history was in 2000. Who was the president that almost lost his presidential race because the media incorrectly proclaimed that the Vice Al Gore had won?
    George W. Bush
  169. In 1993, a terrorist bomb exploded in the parking garage of the __________, killing 6 and injuring more than 1,000 people in New York City.
    World Trade Center
  170. In 1995, 168 people were killed and 500 people injured when the __________Federal Building was bombed.
    Oklahoma City Federal Building
  171. On September 11, 2001, what were the two buildings that were attacked by hijackers who flew commercial airplanes into the buildings?
    World Trade Center, Pentagon
  172. Many ________ who came to help those in the buildings also lost their lives and are honored as heroes.
    First Responders
  173. Passengers on the plane caused it to crash rather than have it hit another target in Washington D.C. ___________, traveling on Flight 93, planned to overthrow the hijackers.
    Todd Beamer
  174. __________was named as the primary mastermind of the attacks on September 11, 2001.
    Osama Bin Laden
  175. Who was elected as the 44th president of the United States in 2008?
    Barack Obama
  176. __________ was the former First Lady and senator of New York and she also became the Secretary of State.
    Hillary Clinton
  177. __________are representations of people, values, goals, or history intended to unite the people of a nation.
    National Symbols
  178. What is the national bird of the United States that was designated in 1782?
    Bald Eagle
  179. The Bald Eagle represents strength, courage, and freedom. What is another symbol of freedom that stands in the harbor of New York City?
    Statue of Liberty
  180. Who is one of the most popular personifications of the United States, old man with white hair and a goatee dressed in red, white, and blue?
    Uncle Sam
  181. What is the national flower of the United States that became 1986?
    Rose
  182. What is the national anthem of the United States?
    “The Star-Spangled Banner”
  183. The national _______ is a symbol of our country.
    Flag
  184. The flag, established after the Declaration of Independence, includes ___ white stars on a blue background and ___ red and white stripes that represents the original colonies.
    13, 13
  185. The original motto of the United States was “E pluribus Unum” but the currently the motto is what?
    In God We Trust
  186. There are a number of notable U.S. _________ (places that are identified where famous events took place or that symbolize something special).
    Landmark
  187. __________ is known as the Shrine of Democracy (representing the founding, expansion, preservation, and unification of the United States).
    Mount Rushmore
  188. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the song “_________,” which told an insulting story about an American Yankee “fool”, was popular among the British troops.
    “Yankee Doodle”
  189. In 1906, George M. Cohan’s musical, “George Washington, Jr.,” premiered in front of a sold-out audience. A featured song from the play, “_____________,” became the first song from the musical to sell more than 1 million copies of sheet music.
    “You’re a Grand Ol’Flag”
  190. Visual art and poetry are two forms of cultural expression. The Poet________ Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress serves as the nation’s official poet.
    Laureate
  191. Who is honored as having created the genre of African American literature and as being the first African American to publish a book?
    Phillis Wheatly
  192. The _____________ was created in 1937 for the people of the United States.
    National Gallery of Art
  193. The ____________ system, overseen by the National Archives and Records Administration, is composed of thirteen Presidential Libraries beginning with the 31st president of the United States Herbert Hoover.
    Presidential Library
  194. What service oversees 391 sites throughout United States? This service was first established in 1916 with Yellowstone becoming the first U.S. National Park.
    • National Park Service
    • What holiday is celebrated the third Monday in January, it honors the man who worked tirelessly for equal status for people of color, particularly African Americans?
    • Martin Luther King Day
  195. The entire month of February is ______________ recognizing many other African Americans who have continued to make contributions in many areas.
    Black History Month
  196. _____________, observed by Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans, and other Asians always occurs on the first on the first day of the First Moon of the lunar calendar (usually between the end of January and the Middle of February).
    Lunar New Year
  197. ______is the most popular Vietnamese holiday. It is generally celebrated on the same day as the Lunar New Year.
    Tet
  198. What is this event that is also another popular Vietnamese holiday celebrated in the eighth lunar moon?
    Moon Festival
  199. We celebrate this holiday on the third Monday in February, it honors in particular two of the most famous American presidents. What is this holiday?
    President’s Day
  200. Who was the commander in the Revolutionary War, hero, and first president?
    George Washington
  201. Who preserved the Union of all of the states after the Civil War and who abolished slavery?
    Abraham Lincoln
  202. What is the holiday celebrated on March 17, and is the anniversary of the death of the Irish patron saint credited to the conversion of many Irish to Christianity?
    St. Patrick’s Day
  203. What is celebrated as a Jewish holiday commemorating the Exodus of the Jewish people from slavery from Egypt?
    Passover
  204. What commemorates the day that Christians believe Jesus Christ arose from the dead (the Resurrection) after being crucified and buried?
    Easter
  205. What is the holiday celebrated on March 2, 1836, when this state declared its independence from Mexico?
    Texas Independence Day
  206. _________ is a holiday celebrated in many parts of India, but especially for the Sikhs in the north of the country. The harvest is celebrated with much exuberance, feasting, colorful new clothes, and dances.
    Vaisakhi
  207. April 21, 1836 commemorates the final Texas victory over Mexico under Santa Anna, which led Texas to becoming independent.
    San Jacinto Day
  208. What holiday is celebrated on May 5, 1862, the day Mexico won a victory over French troops in the Battle of Puebla?
    Cinco de Mayo
  209. What is the day we celebrate in May that honors men and women who gave their lives in the service to our country?
    Memorial Day
  210. ___________, on June 19, also called Freedom Day or Emancipation Day and marks the day in 1865 when African Americans in Texas finally heard that they had been freed from slavery, or emancipated.
    Juneteenth
  211. What is this day that commemorates the date on which the Declaration of Independence from Britain was signed during the Revolutionary War in 1776?
    Fourth of July
  212. What is the day that celebrates on the first Monday in September, honors America’s work force/
    Labor Day
  213. ___________is the week in which September 17 (U.S. Constitution Day) occurs to educate students on the sacrifice made by the founders of this country and those who sought to preserve its values.
    Celebrate Freedom Week
  214. __________ is celebrated by Muslims throughout the world during the ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
    Ramadan
  215. A 10-day celebration marks the Jewish New Year as a time to examine the past year and make new resolutions. __________ usually occurs between Labor Day and Discovery Day, begins the Jewish High Holy Days.
    • Rosh Hashana
    • ___________, the most important of Jewish holidays and a day of atonement and fasting, when one is to right the wrongs that one may have committed during the past year.
    • Yum Kippur
  216. What is the federal holiday celebrated on the second Monday in October marking the special day in 1492?
    Columbus Day
  217. What is this holiday when many Americans dress up in costumes, and children receive candy when they go out or attend parties?
    Halloween
  218. ___________,(Day of the Dead) is a Mexican festival on November 1(All Saints Day) in which it is believed that those who have died reunite with their families.
    Dia de los Muertos
  219. What is the day set aside on November 11 to honor all those who have served in the United States in the armed forces?
    Veterans’ Day
  220. The origin of the word_________ comes from Deepavali, meaning “garland of light.” Many Indian Hindus and Sikhs see it as the beginning of a new year or a celebration of good over evil.
    Diwali
  221. What is the day in which commemorates the feast of the Pilgrims after a very hard first year in America?
    Thanksgiving
  222. ___________ is a minor holiday for Jewish people. On each of 8 nights, a candle is added to the __________ (a special candelabra) to add to the evenings’ remembrance of the events.
    Hanukkah, Menorah
  223. What is the most widely celebrated Christian holiday? This day is designated as the anniversary of the Nativity.
    Christmas
  224. ____________ is celebrated from the day after Christmas to New Year’s Day. This holiday introduces and reinforces seven basic values of African culture that contribute to building and reinforcing the family, the community, and culture among African American people.
    Kwanzaa
  225. ___________ in the Western world occurs every December 31. On January 1, __________ is celebrated with food and family.
    New Year’s Eve, New Year’s Day
  226. In response to unrest ______________________the president of Mexico, reinforced Mexican troops in Texas.
    Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
  227. As a result of Mexican troops sweeping through Texas, the commander of the Texan army_________________ordered William B. Travis to the Alamo.
    General Sam Houston
  228. __________________made a stand at the Alamo with 189 other men, hoping to give other Texans a chance to organize more men for a stronger defense against Mexico.
    William B. Travis
  229. The Texas Declaration of Independence was literally written overnight on _______________.
    March 2, 1836
  230. One of the principal authors of the Texas Declaration of Independence was _________.
    George Childress
  231. The only native Texan to sign the declaration was ___________.
    Francisco Ruiz
  232. The Battle of the __________lasted 13 days ending on March 6th 1836 with the deaths of all its defenders (numbering about 189)
    Alamo
  233. Among those who fought bravely and were killed in the Battle of the Alamo were David Crockett, Jim Bowie, and _________, who was the commander of the Alamo.
    William B. Travis
  234. Delegates to the Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos had named_________as the interim president until an election could be held.
    David Burnett
  235. When the first election was held,_____________was elected the first president of the republic of Texas.
    Sam Houston
  236. A massive evacuation by Texans fearful of the Mexican army was called the _________.
    Runaway Scrape
  237. The Battle of _____________was fought on April 21, 1836, just south of the present day city of Houston.
    San Jacinto
  238. During the Battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna’s entire force of 1600 men were killed or captured by General __________ army of 800 Texans and only 9 Texans died.
    Sam Houston
  239. The Battle of __________ resulted in Texas’ independence from Mexico on April 21, 1836.
    San Jacinto
  240. ______________is credited with the battle cry,” Remember the Alamo.”
    Sidney Sherman
  241. Texas was now it’s own independent country (The Republic of Texas)and would fly it’s own “Lone Star______for the next 10 years before becoming part of the United States.
    Flag
  242. In 1839, The Texas Congress first met in the new town of _______, the frontier site selected for the capital of the Republic of Texas.
    Austin
  243. In 1845, President__________followed through on a campaign promise to annex Texas and signed legislation making Texas a state.
    James Polk
  244. Texas was admitted as the ________state of the United States on December 29, 1845.
    28th
  245. Sam Houston was ____________of the State of Texas from 1859 to 1861.
    Govenor
  246. The ________________war in 1846 ignited as a result of continued disputes over claims to Texas boundaries and continued border incursions.
    Mexican-American
  247. Sixteen years after becoming a state, Texas seceded from the Union in 1861, following a vote by the Secession Convention to become part of the ______.
    Confederacy
  248. The last land engagement of the Civil War was the Battle of _____________in far south Texas in 1865.
    Palmito Ranch
  249. In 1866, the abundance of longhorn cattle in south Texas and the return of Confederate soldiers to a poor _____________economy marked the beginning of the era of Texas trail drives to northern markets.
    Reconstruction
  250. The U.S. Congress readmitted Texas into the __________in 1870.
    Union
  251. Altogether, six flags have flown over Texas:___________,_________,____________,______,__________and____________.
    Spanish, French, Mexican, Texan, Confederate, United States.
  252. Geography studies both our_______and the people who live on it.
    Planet
  253. There are two main branches of geography________geography and ______geography.
    Physical and cultural
  254. Physical geography focuses on the _________and its physical environment.
    Earth
  255. Cultural geography studies how __________live and change in relation to the physical environment.
    Human groups
  256. Migration is another important concept because it refers to the movement of groups of people out of __________or into________________different regions.
    Emigration, immirgration
  257. Physical geography also involves describing position through_________which are the precise points on a map or grid and ____________which is the ability to express location in relation to other sites.
    Absolute and relative locations
  258. The parallels or horizontal lines of the Earth’s grid are called________
    Latitude
  259. The __________is a parallel line that cuts right through the center of the Earth horizontally and has a location of zero degrees.
    Equator
  260. _____________is the measure of vertical lines of the Earth’s grid that stretch long ways from the North Pole to the South Pole.
    Longitude
  261. Name the 7 continents or large land areas.
    North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and Europe.
  262. Name the four oceans.
    Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic
  263. Name the 4 hemispheres the Earth is divided into
    Northern, Southern, Easter and Western
  264. A gulf or _______is also part of an ocean, but is surrounded on three sides by land.
    Bay
  265. The greatest river in South America is the ____________
    Amazon
  266. The greatest mountain system in the world the______________, forms a barrier between the Plateau of Tibet to the north and the plains of the Indian subcontinent to the south.
    Himalayas
  267. Relief maps have_________features to show elevation.
    Raised
  268. Topographic maps show detailed elevations but are___________.
    Flat
  269. Physical maps are flat but use __________and other details to show landform features.
    Colors
  270. ________maps show location. Examples are atlases, road maps.
    Reference
  271. ___________maps show various other themes such as population, vegetation, language spoken.
    Thematic
  272. ____________maps show boundaries of nations and states with their capital cities.
    Political
  273. A ___________is an area of silt formed where a river meets the sea.
    Delta
  274. The _______________islands, our 50th state, are the tips of high ocean volcanoes.
    Hawaiian

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