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exam5
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2010-04-26 18:31:31
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  1. what are the 2 divishions of the autonomic nervous system(ANS)?
    what are they both in action?
    • para-sympathetic divishion
    • sympathetic division
    • (both antagonistic in action)
  2. most viscera are innervated by which division(s) of the autonomic nervous system and what is it reffered to as?
    • both divisions
    • refeffred to as "dual innervation"
  3. are all the neurons of the ANS motor neurons or sensory neurons?
    why?
    • motor neurons
    • because sensory info is provided by somatic nervous system
  4. motor pathway from CNS to the effector includes how many neurons and how many ganglions?
    it includes 2 neurons and 1 ganglion
  5. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    where are all the parasmpathetic neurons contained?
    with in crainial nerves or sacral spinal nerves
  6. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what cranial nerves have parasympathetic functions?
    • III Oculomotor
    • VII Facial
    • IX Glossopharyngeal
    • X Vagus
  7. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what are the parasympathetic functions of the cranial nerves?
    • oculomotor-> sphincter of iris and ciliary muscle of eye
    • facial-> lacrimal glands and salvary glands
    • glossopharyngeal->parotid salivary gland
    • Vagus-> innervates most viscera
  8. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    80% of all parasympathetic neurons are in which crainial nerve?
    the vagus
  9. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what are the sacral spinal nerves of the parasympathetic division?
    and what are they?
    s2-s4-> innervate large intestine, urinary bladder and genitalia
  10. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what does he mean by the parasympathetic effect is "localized" or specific?
    • it alters the activity of one stucture at a time
    • one pre-ganglionic neuron synopses with only one post ganglionic neuron
  11. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what is para-sympathetic responsible for?
    "rest & repose response"
  12. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what is "rest and repost response"?
    it minimizes energy expediture and maximizes maintenance activities
  13. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    neurotransmitters are used by:
    • pre-ganglionic neurons use:acetylcholine
    • post-ganglionic neurons use: acetylcholine
  14. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    (post-ganglionic neurons) what is parasympathetic divishion reffered to as and why?
    • "cholinergic system"
    • because the terminal transmitter substance is acetylcholine
  15. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what are receptors present on?
    • post-ganglionic neurons have: "nicotinic cholinergic receptors"
    • effectors have: "muscarinic cholinersic receptors"
  16. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    why do post-ganglionic neurons have "nicotinic cholinergic receptors"
    it indicates that the receptor responds to acetylcholine and nicotine
  17. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    why do effectors have "muscarinic cholinersic receptors"?
    because it indicates that the receptor responds to acetylcholinine and muscarine
  18. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    what is the one type of ganglion in parasympathetic?
    terminal ganglion
  19. (parasympathetic divishion or craniosacral division)
    where is the terminal ganglion located?
    • in or on organ innervated
    • pre-ganglionic neurons are always long in para-sympathetic
    • post-ganglionic neurons are always short in para-sympathetic
  20. stimulation by the para-sympathetic division has what kind of effect what give some examples
    • localized effect:
    • decreased heart rate
    • decrease blood pressure through vasodilation
    • increase smooth muscle contraction in digestive tract
    • increase secretion of digestive juices
    • etc.
  21. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    all sympathetic neurons are contained where?
    • in 12 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves (T1-T12)
    • and 1st 2 pairs of lumbar spinal nerves(L1 & L2)
  22. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    sympathetic effect is general where? & how?
    • on the entire body at one time
    • one pre-ganglionic neuron synapses with many (20+) post-ganglionic neurons
  23. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    sympathetic divishion is responsible for what? & why?
    • "fight or flight response"
    • it maximizes energy expenditure and minimizes maintenance activities
  24. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    neurotransmitters are used by:
    • pre-ganglionic neurons use: acetylcholine
    • post-ganglionic neurons: most use norepinephrine and some use epinephrine ( part of adrenalin family of molecues)
  25. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    ( post-ganglionic neurons) what is sympathetic division refererd to as and why?
    • "adrenergic system"
    • because the terminal transmitter substance is norepinephrine
  26. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    receptors are present on:
    • post-ganglionic neurons have "nicotinic cholinergic receptors"
    • effectors have some form of "adrenergic receptors"
  27. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    what are the 2 basic forms of adrenergic receptors?
    • adrenergic (alpha)
    • adienergic (beta)
  28. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    what are the 2 types of ganglia in sympathetic division?
    • vertebral ganglia or sympathetic chain ganglia or sympathetic trunk ganglia
    • prevertebral ganglia or collateral ganglia
  29. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    where is the vertebral ganglia or sympathetic chain ganglia or sympathetic trunk ganglia?
    lie lateral to the vertebral column on either side
  30. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    where is the pervertebral ganglia or collateral ganglia?
    lie anterior to the vertebral column
  31. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    are all pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons short or long?
    short
  32. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    are all post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons short or long?
    long
  33. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    (sympatthetic motor pathway)
    sympathetic motor pathway results in general effect on what?
    the entire body
  34. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    (sympatthetic motor pathway)
    cell body of all sympathetic pre-ganlionic neurons are located where?
    in the lateral gray horn
  35. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    (sympatthetic motor pathway)
    axons exist where?
    in the spinal cord in the ventral root to the spinal nerve and then passes through the white ramus communicans to the sympathetic chain ganglion
  36. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    (sympatthetic motor pathway)
    what are the three options once the pre-ganglionic axon enters the sympathetic chain?
    • pre-ganglionic neuron synapses with a post ganglionic neuron at the level it enters the sympathetic chain
    • pre-ganglionic neuron travels up or down the sympathetic chain to a different level and then synapses with post-ganglionic neuron
    • pre-ganglionic neuron passes through the sympathetic chain without synapsing and goes to pre-vertebral ganglia and synapses with post ganglionic neuron
  37. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    (sympatthetic motor pathway)
    what are the events in order of the sympathetic motor pathway?
    • 1. cell body of all sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons are located in the lateral gray horn
    • 2. axon exits the spinal cord in the ventral root to the spinal nerve and then passes through the white ramus communicans to the sympathetic chain ganglion
    • 3. once the pre-ganglionic axon enters the sympathetic chain it chooses one of 3 options
    • 4. then it chooses one of 2 options for post-ganglionic neuron
  38. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    (sympatthetic motor pathway)
    what do post-ganglionic neurons that have cell bodies in sympathetic chain do?
    the axon goes through gray ramus communicans to the spinal nerve and then to effector
  39. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    (sympatthetic motor pathway)
    what do post-ganglionic neurons that have cell bodies in pre-vertebral ganglia do?
    axon goes directly to effector.
  40. (sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division)
    what is the stimulation by sympathetic division-> general effect on the entire body:
    give examples
    • increase heart rate
    • increase breathing
    • decrease smooth muscle contraction in digestive tract
    • decrease digestive juice secretion
    • dilates blood vessels to the heart and skeletal muscle and constricts blood vessels to digestive tract -> due to difference in alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
  41. (major control centers of the ANS)
    what part of the brain that controls and integrates the ANS
    hypothalamus
  42. (major control centers of the ANS)
    other autonomic centers are found in:
    what do they provide and when
    • thalamus->autonomic centers provide sensory info
    • cerebral cortex-> involved primarily during strong emotional stress
  43. (General Senses and Special senses)
    what are the 4 requirements for experiencing a sensation?
    • stimulus
    • receptor
    • nerve transmission pathway
    • translation center
  44. (General Senses and Special senses)
    what is a nerve transmission pathway?
    neurons that transmit a nerve impulse
  45. (General Senses and Special senses)
    what is a translation center?
    brain structure that interprets the nerve impulse into a sensation
  46. (General Senses and Special senses)
    define what a receptor is
    • a receptor is an intermediary between a stimulus and a sensory neuron
    • receptor is a transducer-> converts stimulus energy to nerve impulse energy
    • special physiological devices that allow afferent neurons to be excited by stimuli that are too weak if appied directly to the neuron(amplifier)
  47. (General Senses and Special senses)
    what are the 4 basic types of receptors?
    • mechanoreceptors
    • chemoreceptors
    • photoreceptors
    • thermoreceptors
  48. (General Senses and Special senses)
    (4 basic types of receptors)
    what stimulus does a mechanoreceptors respond to and what is it responsible for?
    • they respond to mechanical displacement(physical movement)
    • responsible for touch,pressure, hearing, and equilibrium
  49. (General Senses and Special senses)
    (4 basic types of receptors)
    what stimulus does a chemoreceptors respond to and what is it responsible for?
    • respond to chemical molecule
    • responsible for smell and taste
  50. (General Senses and Special senses)
    (4 basic types of receptors)
    what stimulus does a photoreceptors respond to and what is it responsible for?
    • respond to light
    • responsible for vision
  51. (General Senses and Special senses)
    (4 basic types of receptors)
    what stimulus does a thermoreceptors respond to and what is it responsible for?
    • respond to relative changes in temp
    • monitor blood for internal temp and skin for external temp

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