American Epidemic Final
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6 dimensions of wellness
5 Principles of fitness
- 1. Overload principle--greater than normal stress required
- 2. Progression--increase should be gradual. Slow 4-6 weeks. Steady and gradual 18-20+ weeks
- 3. Ten Percent Rule--stress should not be increased by more than 10% per week. Maintanence=no increase required.
- 4. Specificity--exercise should be specific to the desired muscle area.
- 5. Recuperation--rest is needed between exercise to allow muscles to recooperate.
- S specific
- M measurable
- A attainable
- R realistic
- T timely
- F frequency
- I intensity
- T time
- T type
Principle of reversability
endurance lost faster than muscles. 10% muscles, 30-40% endurance in 8 weeks.
aerobic vs. anaerobic
- aerobic = energy--with oxygen, KREBS cycle
- anaerobic = no energy--no oxygen, glycolysis
macro vs. micro nutrients CHECK
- macro--carbs, proteins, fats
- micro--vitamins and minerals
# calaries per pound
Reccommended weekly weight loss
Body dysmorphic disorder
leads to eating disorders CHECK
- Anorexia--not eating, body wasting, death
- Belemia--eating and purging, rapid weight loss, level out--look normal, teeth enamel problems from acid,
- Bing eating--ton of food, purging
Types of fat
- Essential fat--fat you need to survive
- Storage fat--kept in storage
- Visceral fat--around organs (worst kind)
- Subcontanious fat--below skin
3 states of matter
- solid--don't conform to container, fixed volume
- liquid--conform to container, fixed volume
- gas--conform to container, volume of container
2 types of energy
- Kinetic--in action
- Potential--ready for action
4 forms of energy
- Chemical--stored in chemical bonds
- Mechanical--physical movement
- Electrical--movement of charged particles
- Radiant--travels in waves
Oxydation and Reduction
LEO (losing electrons is oxydation) the lion goes GER (gaining electrons is reduction)
Types of bonds
- Ionic--give away electron
- Covalent--sharing electrons (polar--unequal sharing OR nonpolar--electrically balanced
- Hydrogen bonds--attraction
Protein chemical breakdown
Made of amino acids. Same except for R group.
saturated vs. unsaturated and trans fat
- Saturated--animal meat solid at room temperature
- Trans fat--modified bonds that make the
- LOOK UP
3 types of junctions
- desmozone--give and take
- gap junction--opening, like door between hotel rooms
Membrane transport simple vs. facilitated
- simple--molecules pass through
- facilitated--goes through protein chennel
going against a concentration gradient and requires energy
Cellular respiration, 3 steps happen where?
- KREBS cycle--mitocondrial matrix
- Electron Transport Chain--intermembrane space
Net gain of cellular respiration
- Overall is 32.
- 2 from Glycolysis, 2 from KREBS, 28 from oxydative phosphoralation
up regulation vs. down regulation
- up regulation--cells form more receptors for more hormones
- down regulation--cells desensitize because of too much hormone for too long.
3 types of hormonal stimuli
- Humoral--nutrients and ions release more hormones
- Hormonal--hormones trigger more hormones
- Neural--brain reacts an releases hormone
Negative Feedback System
When you have hormones that trigger action, the action triggers the stop of releasing that hormone.
Glucose up, pancreas secretes insulin, moves glucose to cells, blood levels of glucose equalize.
Glucose down, pancreas secretes glucagon, break up glycogen, sugar levels go up.
3 hormones that affect glucose (location)
- epinephrine--adrenal medula
- growth hormone--anterior petuitary
- insulin--islet cells, beta (alpha = glucagon)
Cushing's syndrom and Addison's syndrom
(Addison's is opposite) Excessive amounts of cortisol excreted (often caused by a tumor on the gland) resulting in a loss of muscle and bone protein.
- water and salt retention
- moon face
- fat distributed to nape of neck
- bruise easily
- poor wound healing
- buffalo hump
- stretch marks--they look pregnant
3 Functions of insulin CHECK
- 1. Move glucose into the muscle where it promotes glycolysis (break down of glucose that produces ATP and provides short burst of energy)
- 2. Move glucose into the liver where it can be converted into glycogen (stored until needed).
- 3. Take glucose out of the blood and move it into the fat.
Type 1 vs. Type 2
- Type 1 is NO INSULIN. genetic. Usually early onset and the result of an immune disease.
- Type 2 NUMB TO OR INSUFFICIENT INSULIN. based on lifestyle. usually older onset.
Type 1 insulin types
Type 2 treatment
<250--30 day trial... if still not better than oral meds
5 oral meds for type 2 diabetes LOOK UP
reproduction problems with diabetes
Dehydration synthesis and Hydrolysis
- Dehydration synthesis--binds, gives water
- Hydrolysis--breaks, absorbs water
- monosacaride--single sugar (glucose, fructose, galactose)
- disacharide--two linked (moltose, lactose,)
- polysacharide--multiple linked (fiber, celulose etc)
5 oral meds
- Sulfanylureas--more insulin, less resistance. A1c down, FBS down, insulin up-----weight gain and hypoglycemia
- Biguanides--more muscle uptake, less intestinal uptake. A1c down, FBS down, LDL and TRI down------diarrhea
- a-glucosiadase inhibitors--inhibit breakdown of carbs so less glucose. A1c down, FBS down------ab pain, gas, diarrhea.
- Thiazolidindiones--more insulin upake, less resistance. A1c down, FBS down,------weight gain, anemia, edema.
- Meglitinides--more insulin. A1c down, FBS down.-------hypoglycemia
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