Connective Tissue and Integumentary System

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geraldkristofferboy
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163014
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Connective Tissue and Integumentary System
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2012-07-18 18:51:59
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Anatomy 1st long
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Connective Tissue and Integumentary System
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  1.  forms a continuum with epithelial tissue, muscle, and nervous tissue
    connective tissue
  2. origin of connective tissue
    primitive/undifferentiated mesenchyme
  3. principal fiber producing cell; most common cell type in connective tissue
    fibroblast
  4. signet ring appearance; nuclei is compressed and displaced into once side; thin rim of cytoplasm
    adipocyte
  5. intrinsic defense cells(engulf bacteria); motile and phagocytic cells; cytoplasm has granules; deeply stained
    tissue macrophages
  6. bone marrow to connective tissue; small spherical nucleus; basophilic; presents in allergic reaction
    mast cells
  7. migrate from one part of the body; short lived
    wandering/transient cells
  8. anti-body producing cells; basophilic cytoplasm; spherical nucleus; has heterochromatin clumps(clock face appearance)
    plasma cells
  9. outward passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls
    diapedesis
  10. give examples of ground substance(amorphous)
    glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and multiadhesive glycoproteins(fibronectin/laminin)
  11. appears as pink wavy bundles in the microscope with fibroblasts
    collagen
  12. provide tensile strength to the connective tissue; most abundant protein in the body
    collagen
  13. disease characterized by hyperelastic skin, loose joints, and easily damaged blood vessels; collagen disruption is disrupted by genetic mutations
    ehlers danlos syndrome
  14. sponge-like appearance of network; collagen type III; threadlike; agyrophilic fibers
    reticular fibers
  15. appears wavy/refractile; (+) skin, lungs, and blood vessels; (+) stretching/recoil properties
    elastic fibers
  16. present in embryo/umbilical cord; small spindle shaped cell; has ground substance with no protein fibers
    mesenchyme connective tissue
  17. wharton's jelly; umbilical cord; composed mainly of ground substance and small amounts of collagen; few fibroblast
    mucous connective tissue
  18. mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue
    embryonal connective tissue
  19. loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue
    connective tissue proper
  20. thin sparse collagen, elatic and reticular fibers; flexible and well vascularized; found beneath the epithelia of the body where there is minimal stress or less friction
    loose connective tissue
  21. offer resistance and connection; contains mostly collagen with fibroblasts
    dense connective tissue
  22. seen in reticular layer of the skin; no definite direction of collagen fibers;
    dense irregular connective tissue
  23. closely packed collagen fibers; elongated fibroblasts; going in the direction of the collagen fiber; provide great resistance to traction; tendons, ligaments, and aponeurosis
    dense regular connective tissue
  24. storage of fat; cushion; thermal insulator
    adipose tissue
  25. type of adipose tissue mainly found in adult; one central lipid droplet
    white/unilocular
  26. found in newborsn; smaller size but with many lipid droplets; acts as insulator
    brown/multilocular
  27. found in lymphoid organs; has collagen type III; specialized fibroblasts
    reticular tissue
  28. layer of skin dervied from ectoderm
    epidermis
  29. layers of skin derived from mesoderm
    dermis and hypodermis
  30. composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; keratinocytes; direct contact with the environment
    epidermis
  31. finger-like projections anchors the epidermis to the dermis; prominent on areas of friction; responsible for appearance of finger prints
    rete ridges
  32. single layer of basophilic columnar or cuboidal keratinocytes on the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction; nound by hemidesmosomes
    stratum basale/germinativum/basal layer
  33. attacher keratinocyte to another keratinocyte
    desmosomes
  34. thickest epidermal layer; slightly flattened cells; central ovoid nucleus
    stratum spinosum/spiny layer
  35. stratum basale and stratum spinosum; has confined mitotic activity
    malphigian layer
  36. keratin fibrils which converge and terminate at the numerous desmosomes
    tonofibrils
  37. polyhedral > flattened; dense basophilic granules; (+) lamellar granules
    stratum granulosum/granular layer
  38. flat flakes and sheets of keratin; tough protective layer
    stratum corneum/cornified layer
  39. only seen in thick skin; transluscent layer of extremely flattened eosinophilic cells; evitent desmosomes
    stratum lucidum
  40. type of epidermis with hair follicles, sweat glands and thin stratum spinosum, granulosum and corneum
    thin skin
  41. type of epidermis with no hair follicles, has numerous sweat glands and has thick stratum spinosum, granulosum, corneum, stratum lucidum
    thick skin
  42. disease characterized by thick red patches with thick white cells; abnormal proliferation of cells in malphigian layer; greater epidermal thickness; keratinization with a defective sign; split sign-pin point bleeding
    psoriasis vulgaris
  43. cells in the epidermis that make up most of the epidermis
    keratinocytes
  44. found among the cells in the basal layer and in the hair follicles; produces melanin(eumelanin)
    melanocytes
  45. acts as a depot containing melanin
    keratinocytes
  46. stimulates keratinocytes to secrete paracrine factors that stimulate melanocyte activity
    UV light exposure
  47. disease characterized by inability of melanocytes to secrete melanin; absence of tyrosinase activity; normal number of cells
    albinism
  48. disease characterized by degeneration and disappearance of entire melanocyte; autoimmune disease
    vitiligo
  49. a macrophage; intraepidermal; antigen recognition and processing cells; can be found in all layers; has cytoplasmic processes
    langerhan's cells
  50. tactile epithelial cells; intraepidermal touch receptors; rounded cells with pale staining nuclei located at basal layer; present in the thick skin of palms and soles; supplied by afferent nerve endings
    merkell's cells
  51. composed of collagen and elastic fibers; responsible for the tone and texture of the skin
    dermis
  52. layer of the dermis that contains loose connective tissue; has collagen elastic fivers and fibroblasts; where dermal pappilae interdigitate with epidermal pegs or ridges; more amorphous substance and fibroblast compared to reticular layer
    papillary layer of the dermis
  53. layer of the dermis with dense irregular connective tissue; thick collagen; has blood vessels, nerves and skin appendages
    reticular layer
  54. regular lines of tension in the skin formed by collagen and elastic fibers; lines of cleavage; used for surgical incisions
    langer's lines
  55. major storage of lipids and provides insulation; consists of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue
    hypodermis
  56. down growths of epidermis into dermis and hypodermis; i.e. hair follicle; hair; pilosebaceous unit
    skin appendages
  57. simple branch acini; holocrine; secretes sebum
    sebaceous gland
  58. simple coiled tubular; apocrine(large) and eccrine(small)
    sweat gland
  59. simple coiled tubular; found all over the skin except lips, glans penis, and nail bed; opens directly at skin surface
    eccrine sweat glands
  60. type of eccrine sweat gland that is composed of columnar cells with a central oval nuclei and pale cytoplasm(secretory gland); its secretory duct is composed of stratified cuboidal epithelium
    merocrine
  61. produces odorless secretion; viscid milky secretion; found in axilla, areola, anal regions
    apocrine sweat glands
  62. modified apocrine sweat glands that develop under hormonal influence; branched tubular glands; cuboidal myoepithelial
    mammary gland
  63. skin overlying the nail root
    nail fold
  64. cuticle; situated between the skin of the finger and the nail plate
    eponychium
  65. dense keratinized plate resting on nail bed
    nail plate
  66. crescent-shaped part of nail root
    lunula
  67. skin beneath free edge of the nail
    hyponychium
  68. extends from lunula to hyponychium
    nail bed
  69. proximal end of the nail extending deep into the dermis; produces nail and nail bed
    nail root
  70. underlying epithelium which undergoes proliferation and differentiation giving rise to the nail plate
    nail matrix
  71. fungal infection of the nail plate
    onychomycosis
  72. characterized by spoon nails
    iron deficiency anemia
  73. characterized by clubbing of nails
    heart/pulmonary disease
  74. shunt blood away from skin surface when exposed to cold temperature
    glomus bodies
  75. detection for mechanical stimuli; transmit touch, pain, itch
    free nerve ending
  76. sensory nerve fibers innervating the base of the hair follicle
    root hair plexuses
  77. located in deep dermis; sensory receptor for deep pressuer; lamellated
    pacinian corpuscles
  78. found in dermal papillae under the epidermis; sensory receptor for light touch
    meissner's corpuscles
  79. found in connective tissue of organs located deep in the body where they are sensitiyve to movements of internal organs
    ruffini's corpuscles

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