Praxis II 0086/0089

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Praxis II 0086/0089
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2012-07-19 01:56:46
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  1. Where is North America located?
    It is the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere & is joined to South America at the tip of Panama
  2. The North American continent is surrounded by what 3 oceans?
    1) Arctic 2) Atlantic 3) Pacific
  3. North America includes what 3 areas?
    1) Greenland 2) Most West Indies Islands 3) Central America
  4. Total square miles area of North America
    9,360,000 square miles
  5. What 2 continents are larger than North America   
        1) Asia 2) Africa
  6. Northeast US - the border runs... (3)
    1) along the Atlantic Ocean on the east; 2) the Ohio River, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario on the west; and 3) between Pennsylvania and Maryland on the south.
  7. Northeast US - the Appalachian Mountain range extends from...
    Georgia to Maine.
  8. Northeast US - 3 major waterways
    1) Delaware river2) Hudson river3) Connecticut river
  9. Northeast US - Vegetation is mainly (2)   
    1) mixed forests2) deciduous forests
  10. Southeast US - the Atlantic Coastal Plain widens...
    Southeast US - the Atlantic Coastal Plain widens...
  11. Southeast US - highest elevations (2)
    1) Appalachian Mountain range2) Blue Ridge Mountain range
  12. Southeast US - 7 major rivers
    1) Potomac2) James3) Ohio4) Mississippi5) Red6) Chatahoochee7) Roanoke
  13. Southeast US - Vegetation is mainly... (2)
    1) Mixed forests between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains; 2) Deciduous forests between the Appalachian Mountains and the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
  14. Midwest US - bordered by... (4)   
        1) 4 of the 5 Great Lakes on the North:  - Lake Huron;- Lake Michigan;- Lake Erie; & - Lake Superior;2) the Ohio River on the East;3) the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains on the West; and4) Kansas & Missouri on the South.
  15. Midwest US - Main physical characteristic - 2 types of plains:
    1) Interior plains2) Great plains
  16. Midwest US - 5 major rivers
    1) Ohio 2) Mississippi3) Platte4) Illinois5) Arkansas
  17. Midwest US - Main vegetation... (3)   
    1) Central Midwest - deciduous forests2) Extreme North Midwest - mixed forests & evergreen forests (Michigan, Wisconsin & Minnesota)3) Western Midwest - tall grass prairies, then shorter grass prairies closer to the Rocky Mountains
  18. Western US - includes geographical features (2):
    1) Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains to Pacific Ocean2) higher altitudes than the rest of the US
  19. Western US - Southwest: Deserts (3)
    1) Sonaran Desert (Arizona)2) Painted Desert (Arizona)3) Mojave Desert (California)
  20. Western US - located north of the deserts is the....
    Colorado Plateau
  21. Western US - The Colorado Plateau is surrounded by the....(2)
    1) Rocky Mountains &2) Great Basin which lies between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Mountain range
  22. Western US - the central valley of California extends ____ to ____ between the ___ and the ___.
    North to South between the Sierra Nevada Mountain range and the Coast range
  23. Western US - the Columbia Plateau is located....
        north of the Great Basin, between the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Mountains in Oregon and Washington
  24. Western US - 8 major rivers
    1) Pecos2) Rio Grande3) Colorado4) Gila5) Snake6) Columbia7) Sacramento8) San Joaquin
  25. Western US - Vegetation is mainly (3)
    1) mix of evergreen forests and shrubs in the mountain ranges;2) desert in most of Arizona and southeastern California, Nevada and Utah;3) mix of short grass, prairie and mixed forests in California, Oregon and Washington valleys
  26. Western US - Continental Divide runs:
    through the Rocky Mountains
  27. Western US - Rivers drain to the West into the ___ & to the East into the ____ and the ____
    1) (West into the) Pacific Ocean;2) (East into the) Atlantic Ocean (and the) Gulf of Mexico
  28. Northeast US - Climate - Winter:
    Averages about 15 degrees colder in Maine than Virginia; Cold and snow in northern part
  29. Northeast US - Climate - Summer:
    Averages about 10 degrees warmer in Virginia than in Maine; Humid in southern part with thunderstorms
  30. Southeast US - Climate - Winter:
    average high 47 degrees in the interior north part; average high 72 in Florida
  31. Southeast US - Climate - Summer:
        average high in low 90s; hot humid with plenty of rain in short intense downpours (rather than all day rain)
  32. Southern US - Climate - Summer:
    average high from low to high 90s; hot and humid
  33. Southern US - Climate - Winter:
    average high from 47 in Oklahoma to 62 in Louisiana; mild
  34. Midwest US - Climate - Winter:   
    Cold and dry; Much colder in Michigan and Wisconsin than in Kentucky and Missouri
  35. Midwest US - Climate - Summer:
    Warm and humid; Milder in Michigan and Wisconsin than in Kentucky and Missouri
  36. High Plains US - Climate - Winter:
    Coldest winters in the US; generally dry and cold
  37. High Plains US - Climate - Summer:
    Mildest summers in US; generally dry and mildly warm
  38. Northwest US - Climate - Winter:
    Noticeable difference between the coast and interior climates; 1) on the coast: cool and wet;2) in the interior: colder and dryer except for snow which can be very heavy at high elevations
  39. Northwest US - Climate - Summer:
     Noticeable difference between the coast and interior climates;1) on the coast: dry and mild;2) in the interior: warmer and dry
  40. Southwest US - Climate - Summer:
    Driest climate in the US, but California has more precipitation than the interior areas; Summers range from mild in San Fransisco (71 degrees) to hot in Phoenix (105 degrees)
  41. Southwest US - Climate - Winter
    Driest climate in the US, but California has more precipitation than the interior areas;Winter snows are very heavy in the mountains
  42. 5 Main Geographic Features of North American continent:
    1) rivers2) lakes3) mountain ranges4) plains5) deserts
  43. Continental US - # of rivers
    Over 800
  44. 32 largest US rivers based on 3 characteristics:
    1) total length from source to mouth;2) area of basin (or watershed) drained by the stream;3) average rate of flow or discharge at the mouth.
  45. 20 largest rivers discharge directly into (4 types of waterbodies):
    an ocean,a sea,a gulf, ora bay.
  46. How many of the 32 largest rivers are tributaries to other rivers?
    12
  47. What US river has the largest average discharge and the largest average drainage area?
    Mississippi River
  48. What US river is longest from the source to the mouth?
    Missouri River
  49. What is the 3rd largest US river?
    Yukon River in Alaska
  50. What is 4th largest US river?
    Rio Grande River in Colorado, New Mexico and Texas
  51. Name 6 major US lakes
    The "Great Salt Lake" (in Utah), and the 5 "Great Lakes":1) Lake Michigan2) Lake Erie3) Lake Huron4) Lake Superior5) Lake Ontario
  52. Which 7 states touch at least one of the 5 Great Lakes?
    1) Minnesota2) Wisconsin3) Illinois4) Michigan5) Ohio6) New York7) Pennsylvania
  53. What is the largest lake in the Western US (but is smaller than any of the Great Lakes), and where is it located?   
    Great Salt LakeLocated in Utah
  54. Name the 5 most prominent mountain ranges in North America:
    1) Appalachian Mountain Range2) Cascade Range3) Klamath Range4) Rocky Mountain Range5) Sierra Nevada Mountain Range
  55. The region of the US where the most mountain ranges are located is the _____ region
    Western
  56. How many mountain ranges are located in the Mid-Western region of the US?
    Zero
  57. What mountain range is located in the Eastern US region?
    The Appalachian Mountain range
  58. How many square miles do the Great Plains in North American cover, and where are they?
    A roughly triangular area of 1.4 million square miles, from Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, through Texas, into Mexico and Indiana.
  59. Describe rainfall in the US Great Plains, and how it affects the vegetation:
    Rainfall increases from West to East;Short grasses grow in the dryer Western area; the "Western Rangeland";Mixed grasses grow in the Central area; the "Wheat Belt";Tall grasses grow in the wetter East; the corn/soybean region
  60. Name 4 major deserts in North America
    1) Great Basin Desert2) Sonoran Desert3) Mojave Desert4) Chihuahuan Desert
  61. What borders the west, east, north and south of the Great Basin Desert?
    West: Sierra Nevada Mountain range East: Rocky Mountains North: Columbia Plateau South: Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert
  62. What is the largest desert in the US?
    The Great Basin Desert
  63. How many square miles does the Great Basin Desert cover?
    190,000 square miles
  64. What is the Great Basin region made up of?   
        A series of many basins, interrupted with mountain ranges produced by tilted and uplifted strata.
  65. What borders the Mojave Desert (2)?
    Arizona California
  66. What borders the Chihuahuan Desert (3)?
    Mexico New Mexico Texas
  67. What type of deserts are the Mojave Desert, the Chihuahuan Desert and the Great Basin Desert?   
    Un-drained basins.
  68. What US desert is the hottest?   
        The Sonoran Desert
  69. The Sonoran Desert usually has hydraulic systems forming streams draining into the ___ or the ____
    Gulf of California Pacific Ocean
  70. What are playas and what desert has them?
    Playas are flat areas of land where water evaporates quickly;the Sonoran Desert has them.
  71. What and where is the Salton Sea?
    A playa that is located in the Sonoran Desert, filled by Colorado River flood waters in 1906 and remains full.
  72. Alluvial fans are found in what deserts (2)?
    Mojave Desert  Sonoran Desert (California portion)
  73. What are bajadas?
    Detritus skirts or pediments washed down during summer downpours, found in southwest deserts; the substrate is coarser, with larger rocks on the upper area and finer the lower elevation; may be cut through by deep arroyos (gullies cut by intermittent streams)
  74. What are alluvial fans?
    Desert areas formed through geologic time where an arroyo or wash drains a mountain, depositing the detritus in a semicircle at the canyon's mouth
  75. What is an arroyo?
    A deep gully cut by an intermittent stream; may cut through bajadas
  76. Desert plants that grow along arroyos, giving the appearance of dry creeks (2)
    Desert Ironwood   Canyon Bursage
  77. Where did the first American reach the Western Hemisphere?
    The Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska
  78. When did people begin migrating from Asia to North America across a land-bridge that formed as water receded?
    Between 15,000 and 30,000 years ago
  79. Who are the Inuit?
    They are the northernmost Native American culture that still survives today and came to North America in boats after the Ice Age; They are maritime hunters, mainly of seal and walrus and they live in the Arctic regions of North America
  80. Who were the Kwakiutl?
    They were Northwest Indians, primarily salmon fishers, who lived in villages from northern California to southern Alaska.
  81. Who were the Anasazi?
    They were cliff dwellers who settled east of the Grand Canyon in the Four Corners area where Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona meet. They dug apartments into mountain walls and built terraced fields irrigated by water collected on the mountains.
  82. What did the Anasazi eat (2)?
    Grew maize, mainly, and hunted animals.
  83. What were Pueblos?
    Spanish word, communities that built interconnected apartment-like structures; they were matrilineal with strict community codes of behavior; Pueblos are the oldest continuously occupied towns in the US.
  84. Who were the Plains Indians?   
    Nomadic hunters and gatherers who lived in small communities; hunted wooly mammoth, then later bison. Developed techniques for killing them with deadly spear points and stampeding hundreds over cliffs.
  85. Hammurabi's Code
    "An eye for and eye"
  86. Paleolithic Age
    Old Stone Age
  87. Hippocrates
    Contributed to new methods for treating diseases.
  88. Mao Zedong
    Communism
  89. Merchants
    This group in medieval Europe helped loosen fuedal ties
  90. Neolithic Period
    In the Middle East, the sedentary agriculture was based on barley, wheat, and pigs.
  91. Sedentary Agriculture
        Farming system in which the farmer remains settled in one place
  92. Shifting cultivation
    The most common form is slash-and-burn agriculture: land is cleared by burning, so that crops can be grown.
  93. Suez Crisis, 1956
    A military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel
  94. Yalta Conference
    Established new boundaries for Poland.
  95. Sun Yat-sen
    Led a movement to create a united, democratic China free from foreign control.
  96. The Silk Road
    Trade routes across the Asian. Spread Buddhism from India to China
  97. Animal husbandry
    Raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
  98. Mesolithic Period
        Middle part of the Stone Age
  99. The Neolithic Revolution
    Was the first agricultural revolution
  100. Acropolis
    The religious center of Athens in Ancient Greece
  101. Socrates
    Ancient Athenian philosopher
  102. Plato
    Wrote about the perfectly governed society.
  103. The Republic
    The supreme power lies in a body of citizens who are entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them
  104. Peloponnesian War
    A war fought between Athens and Sparta; won by Sparta because it was able to cut off Athens' grain supply.
  105. Alexander the Great
    King of Macedonia who throuch conquering lands spred Greek culture across three continents
  106. Thucydides
    Considered the greatest historian of antiquity
  107. Macedonia
    An an ancient kingdom ruled by Alexander the Great that conquered most of Greece and the Persian Empire in the 300s B.C
  108. Alexandria
    City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
  109. Minoan Age
    Bronze Age civilization, centring on the island of Crete. Built huge palaces, writing, artisans, traded w/Egypt, Phoenicia and Mesopotamia
  110. Sparta
    Was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence.
  111. Oligarchy
    A form of government in which power effectively rests with a small eliteMixed government    Also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy.
  112. Athenian democracy
    A type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy. It remains a unique and intriguing experiment in direct democracy where the people do not elect representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own right. Greek democracy created at Athens was a direct, not a representative democracy: any adult male citizen of age could take part, and it was a duty to do so
  113. Pericles
    Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
  114. The Golden Age
    Is the term used to denote the historical period in Classical Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars in 448 BCE to either the death of Pericles 429 BCE or the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
  115. Polis
    Greek word for city-state
  116. Roman Senate
    A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families.
  117. Pax Romana
        A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire
  118. Diocletian
    Roman emperor who separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and re-organized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire.
  119. Eastern Orthodox Church
    Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia.
  120. Constantine
    Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
  121. Julius Caesar
    Roman general who became the republic's dictator; created the basis for the calendar
  122. Augustus
    Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC. First Roman Emperor
  123. Caste System
    A set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society.
  124. Hinduism
    An eastern religion which followers strive to free their soul from reincarnation until the soul is finally freed. This religion is practiced primarily in India
  125. Buddhism
    The teaching that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth.
  126. Confucianism
    A philosophy that most emphasizes proper relationships as the basis for social and political order. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
  127. Praetorian Guard
    The elite bodyguard of a Roman Emperor
  128. Marcus Aurelius
    Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
  129. Byzantine Empire
    A continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395, rose out of the split of East and Western Roman Empire; lasted another 1000 years; kept Hellenism alive; fell in 1453 by the Ottomans
  130. Huns
    Nomadic people from Asia who attacked Europe in the 4th Century and then invaded the northwest part of India in the 5th Century.
  131. Mongols
        A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia.
  132. Byzantine culture
    Greco-Roman culture continued to flourish, language was Greek, Orthodox Christianity, Greek and Roman knowledge was perserved in libraries
  133. Islam
    The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
  134. Ottoman Empire
    Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
  135. Mayans
    A Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas
  136. Aztecs
    Settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
  137. Incas
    A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America, center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
  138. Magellan
    He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain., Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
  139. Vasco Da Gama
    Portuguese explorer, 1st to sail to India
  140. Christopher Columbus
    Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization.
  141. Copernicus
        Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center
  142. Galileo
    Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars;Newton    This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
  143. Locke
    Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
  144. Renaissance
    The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European historyIndustrial Revolution    The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
  145. Urbanization
        Movement of people from rural areas to cities.
  146. Marxism
    The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded
  147. Imperialism
    A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
  148. Lenin
    Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship.
  149. Stalin
    Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
  150. Mao Zedong
    Communist Party
  151. Mohandas Gandhi
    A philosopher from India, practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
  152. Kwame Nkrumah
    Founder of Ghana's independence movement and Ghana's first priesident
  153. Nelson Mandela
    11th President of South Africa. Spent 27 years in prison while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid.
  154. Facism
    A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition
  155. Communism
    A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
  156. League of Nations
    International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
  157. Chinese Revolution
    The struggle between Nationalists and Communists forces in China that began in the 1920's and ended in 1949 with a Communist victory
  158. The Four Noble Truths
    The core of the Buddhist teaching. There is suffering. There is a cause to suffering. There is an end to suffering. There is a path out of sufferingFuedalism    A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land.Social Darwinism    "survival of the fittest"
  159. Laissez-faire economics
    Means allowing industry to be free from state intervention, especially restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies.
  160. Pachacuti
    Ruler of Inca society
  161. Cortes
    Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
  162. North German Confederation
    Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, major step towards German unification.
  163. Shintoism
    Was 1st religion of Japan before the coming of Buddhism. It is the necessity of being loyal to one's ancestors.
  164. The Printing Press
    Was most responsible for the rapid spread of new ideas in Renaissance Europe.
  165. Franco-Prussian War
    The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia.
  166. Treaty of Versailles
    The treaty imposed on Germany after the end of World War I which demanded excessive reimbursements from the Germans.
  167. The Korean War
    In June 1950 the N. Korean army invaded S. Korea, quickly taking Seoul. The UN Security Counsil met in emergency session and declared the invasion an unwarranted aggression. After three years of fighting, the war ended in stalemate.
  168. The Vietnam War
        The Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States
  169. Empiricism
    Knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment.
  170. Scholasticism
    A medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
  171. Thematic Map
    A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area., shows climate, vegetation, natural resources, population density, economic activity, historical trends, movement, etc...
  172. Topographic Map
    Shows surface features of an area such as mountains, valleys, plains, and plateaus by using contour lines to show changes in elevation
  173. Choropleth Map
    A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent data as average values per unit area. Makes quantity distinctions between items through color. Example: Number of hospital beds per 1,000 people by county in a state.
  174. Dot Map
        Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population.
  175. Nile River
    The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea
  176. Yangtze River
    The longest river of Asia, River found in China; 3rd longest river in the world (3915 miles long)
  177. Mississippi River
        A major North American river and the chief river of the United States, longest river in the U.S.
  178. Amazon River
    Major river of South America; located primarily in Brazil, largest river in the world
  179. Gulf Stream
    A warm ocean current that flows from the Gulf of Mexico northward through the Atlantic Ocean
  180. Population Pyramid
    A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
  181. Latitude
        Distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees. Has the greatest influence on climate.
  182. Longitude
    Distance east or west on the earth's surface, measured in degrees from a certain meridian (line from the North to the South Pole).
  183. Tropic of Cancer
    a line of latitude about 23 degrees North of the equator
  184. Ring of Fire
    A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean.
  185. Monsoon
    Rainy season in southern Asia when the southwestern wind blows, bringing heavy rains. A season reversal of wind-direction that brings heavy rainfall to parts of Asia.
  186. Diffusion Theory
    The spread of ideas and technology through human contacts.
  187. Gentrification
    The restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people).
  188. Amazon Basin
    The home of the world's largest tropical rainforests, runs along the the largest river in the world on the continent of South America
  189. The Great Rift Valley
    the name of the giant depression in East Africa that runs from Jordan to Mozambique, Long, deep gash in the earth in eastern Africa where the first humans appeared
  190. Ozone depletion
    Thinning of Earth's atmosphere layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air.
  191. Global Warming
    An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
  192. Great Irish Famine
    The potatoe disease which caused 25 % of a population to leave their homeland, cause of Irish immigrants to the US
  193. The European Union
    Is an economic and political union between 27 member countries, located primarily in Europe. Committed to regional integration, it has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states, ensuring the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital. It maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development.
  194. Natural Resource
    Resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature
  195. Renewable Resource
    Any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time
  196. Non-Renewable Resource
    A resource that cannot be reused or replaced easily (ex. gems, iron, copper, fossil fuels)
  197. Suez Canal
    A ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
  198. Panama Canal
    Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000.
  199. Map Projection
    A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape.Prime Meridian    Meridian at zero degree longitude from which east and west are reckoned (usually the Greenwich longitude in England)
  200. International Date Line
    An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross this heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
  201. Tropic of Capricorn
    A line of latitude about 23 degrees South of the equator
  202. Mt. Kilimanjaro
    Located on great rift valley, africa's tallest mountain, 19,341 ft high
  203. Cascade Mountains
    A mountain range in the northwestern United States extending through Washington and Oregon and northern California.
  204. Rocky Mountains
    A major mountain system of the United states and Canada, extending 3,000 miles from Alaska south to New Mexico
  205. Andes Mountains
    The world's longest mountain chain, stretching along the west coast of South America.
  206. Himalayan Mountains
    Highest mountain range in the world, seperates India from China
  207. Ganges River
    A river of South Asia that flows southeast from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal., India's most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh, Hindus sacred river, they believe it is the "liquid form of God".
  208. Gobi Desert
    Located in north central China. 2nd largest desert in the world. extreme temperature. very dry and infertile. sand is called loess.
  209. Sahara Desert
    The world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa
  210. Kalahari Desert
    A desert in southwestern Africa - largely Botswana
  211. Arabian Desert
    A desert on the Arabian Peninsula in southwestern Asia
  212. Congo River
    A river in Central Africa that flows into the Atlantic Ocean
  213. Niger River
    A river flowing from western Africa into the Gulf of Guinea
  214. Lake Victoria
        The largest lake in Africa and the 2nd largest fresh water lake in the world
  215. Lake Superior
    The largest freshwater lake in the world, one of the great lakes hat is the border between US and Canada.
  216. 1947
    -Truman Doctrine supports the containment of Communism-US announces Marshall Plan aid program for Western Europe-Independence from Britain and Partition of India (Hindu)...Pakistan (Muslim)
  217. 1957
    Treaty of Rome creates EEC-Sputnik satellite launched - ignited Space Race amidst Arms race...major soviet breakthrough in nuclear delivery - Eisenhower & Khrushchev
  218. 3000-1500 B.C.E.
    World History period - Development of early city civilizations
  219. Mesopotamia
    Modern day Iraq, "Land Between the Rivers" - Tigris and Euphrates-Cities first appeared in Southern part, "Sumer", city-states-From villages to cities - why? Problems and how they solved them: 1. Food shortages in Northern Hills, 2. Uncontrolled water supply on plains, 3. Difficulties building/maintaining irrigation systems, 4. Attacks by neighbors-Ur, Lagash, Uruk
  220. 1700 B.C.E. - 500 C.E
    Ancient empires and civilizations
  221. Buddhism
    Origins: 563-483 B.C.E., India, "Awakened One," Before becoming Buddha was 29yrold prince Siddhartha Gautama, became ascetic, didn't work, "middle way" to balance pleasure and pain, meditate under Bodhi tree, became Buddha age 35, truths became The Four Noble Truths Beliefs: Embrace all regardless of caste, way of life based on simple teachings, how to reach enlightenment/nirvana based on deep truths - once reached, no longer reborn again and again. All things change. 4 Noble Truths, 8 Fold Pat
  222. Four Noble Truths
    - Buddhism    1. Suffering is present in all things, nothing lasts forever, 2. Suffering is caused by cravings/desires/wants, 3. End suffering by giving up all cravings, 4. Way to give up all cravings is to live life according to 8-fold path
  223. Eightfold Path
    - Buddhism    1. Right Understanding - of 4 Noble Truths2. Right Purpose - Life of selflessness, love, nonviol.3. Right Speech - Truthful, no lie or gossip4. Right action - Do not kill, steal, lie. Be honest5. Right way to earn living - Do not work at a job that causes harm to people or living creatures6. Right effort - promote good actions, prevent evil7. Right mindfulness - Be aware of but not attached to emotions, thoughts, and feelings8. Right concentration - focus mind - meditation
  224. Paleoanthropologists
        Studies human development and culture, specializing in early hominids
  225. Biped
    Two footed animal
  226. Australopithecus Afarensis
    (1 of 5 hominid groups). (Discovered by US Donald Johanson). Lucy-Southern ape, found in Afar triangle Africa. Earliest fossil 3-4 million years ago. Remains found in Ethiopia and Sth Tanzania. Different = 3ft tall, 1/3 human size brain, no tools or language. Similar = bipedal, hands, feet
  227. Homo Habilis
    (2 of 5 hominid groups). (Discovered by Louis and Mary Leakey. "Handy Man." 1.5-2 million years ago, only found in Africa. 4ft, biped, brain 2x size of Lucy's, ability to make/use simple tools (found with them)
  228. Homo Erectus
    (3 of 5 hominid groups). (Discovered by Dutch Eugene Dubois). "Upright Man." Found in Asia & Europe. 1.8 million to 200,000 B.C.E., 1st to migrate from Africa. Some modern human height, complex tools, ability to use fire, built oval huts
  229. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
    (4 of 5 hominid groups). "Wise Man." From 30,000 to 230,000 years ago, Africa, Near East, Europe Asia. Shorter and stockier than modern humans, but stronger, large brains, skilled tool makers. First to hunt in organized group - community, buried with flowers and tools, cared for injured and sick = caring. Existed side by side with early modern humans for approx. 10,000 yrs.
  230. Homo Sapiens Sapiens
    (5 of 5 hominid groups). "Doubly Wise Man." 35,000 to 12,000 B.C.E. Migrated from Africa to Europe, Asia, Australia, N S America across land bridges, spear thrower and bow and arrow. Imagine, dream, communicate, feelings
  231. Stone Age
    From 2 million years ago to 3000 B.C.E. Got its name from the tools people made of stone-Paleolithic Age - Old Stone Age - food by hunting wild animals and gathering nuts, berries, etc.
  232. Catal Hoyuk
    Neolithic culture between 7000 and 5000 BCE, its discovery pushed the date of earliest civilizations and earliest cities back some 4,000 years; it is thousands of years older than anything in Mesopotamia or Egypt. one of the first experiments in urban livingregular plan according to a predetermined schemeno streets
  233. New Stone Age
    Neolithic Age - by 8000-3000 B.C.E. some began raising animals and crops, SETTLED. New jobs and specialization, trade, grow population. One of most important advances people have ever made. Ended when people learned to make tools out of metal.
  234. Agriculture
    The growing of crops combined with the domestication of animals - the neolithic age began with the invention of agriculture. Stable food supply
  235. Standard of Ur
    Sumerian Culture artifact. ca 2600 BCE. Ur(Tell Muqayyar) , Iraq. rectangular box has sloping sides inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone. War side & peace side. Another example of historical narratives.
  236. Characteristics that make a Culture a Civilization, Sumer example
    1. Stable food supply - invented irrigation and plow2. Social structure - different social levels/jobs- upper lived in center, lower on edge of city3. Government system - create order - ruled by kings, taxes, and led army (First to have written enforced laws!)4. Religious system - beliefs and forms of worship - ziggurats5. Highly developed culture - arts painting, architecture, music, literature6. Technology advances - invented wheel approx 3500 BCE, the Arch of buildings7. Written language - highly developed - cuneiform
  237. Ziggurats
    ancient Mesopotamian temple towers, built by Sumerians of mud brick. Believed the gods lives in them.
  238. Sledges   
    flat-bottomed carts, used before the wheel was invented
  239. Cuneiform
    Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets, invented approx 2400 BCE. Based on earlier form - pictographs
  240. 4 Mesopotamian Empires between 2300 and 539 BCE
    1. Akkadian Empire2. Babylonian Empire3. Assyrian Empire4. Neo-Babylonian Empire
  241. 1989   
    Tiananmen square/fall of Berlin Wall
  242. 1939-1945
    The years of World War II, which began with the German invasion of Poland and ended with the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  243. 1914-1918
    WWI - US entered in 1917 Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated and ended with the 11 November 1918 Armistice and the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations established from this war
  244. 1870's
    The scramble for Africa begins, colonization
  245. 1789
    The year the French Revolution began with a peasant revolt that sought to limit the powers of the Catholic church and weaken the power of the nobility and monarch. Storming of BastilleWashington became 1st US president
  246. 1750-1780
    Height of the Atlantic slave trade
  247. 1492
    The year the Italian navigator, Christopher Columbus, who sailed with the support of the Spanish crown, arrived in the Americas.
  248. 1453
    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' WarByzantine Empire fell to Ottoman Turks
  249. 1200-1300
    Mongol domination in Asia
  250. 1096-1099
    First Crusade (Christians conquer Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch & Tripoli)
  251. 622
        Flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina (considered the beginning of Islam)
  252. 220-476
    Fall of the Han dynasty and fall of the western Roman Empire
  253. Confucianism
    -Lead by Example, One of three main philosophies that emerged at the end of the Zhou dynasty (1045-256 b.c.e) to explain how to have peace and order in society.-Teachings of Kongfuzi (lived 551-479 b.c.e)-Goal = just and peaceful society, society worked well when the five basic relationships are respected-Collection of sayings = The Analects. Used during Han Dynasty, major influence on Chinese culture, civil servant jobs came to be based on ability
  254. Daoism
    Rule as little as possible, Lao-tzu/Laozi book of Dao De JingReturn to simple and natural living-Yin (shaded) and Yang (sunlit) - happiness and peace by living in harmony with the way of nature - balancing-Accept what comes, don't search for fame power knowledge-Too many laws got in the way of living naturally-Influenced leaders to be less harsh, but ultimate influence on writing, though, art - eventually a popular religion
  255. Han Dynasty
    (206 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles - created bureaucracy; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity, increased trade and military achievements, expanded empire-Majority of Chinese today are considered Han people
  256. Peloponnesian Wars
    Lasted 27 years (431 b.c.e. to 404 b.c.e.), Sparta won-Sparta was most powerful city for a time, then defeated later by Thebes-Years of fighting weakened Greece as Macedonia and Philip II grew stronger, allowed opening for advancement of Macedonians and eventually the fall of the Greek Empire (was mostly conquered by Phillip II by 338 b.c.e)-Machiavelli, Thucydides
  257. Causes of WWII
    1. Treaty of Versailles - Germany not happy with War guilt cause 2. axis powers: Germany, Italy, Japan. Hitler creates treaty with Stalin(non-aggression pact) 1931-japan invades Manturia 1933-Hitler comes to power1939-Hitler invades Poland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, (this causes Britain and France to declare war on Germany) December 7, 1941- Pearl Harbor, US pulled into the war when the Japanese bomb the naval fleet-Germany declares war on US because they are allies with Japan-Pearl Harbor - we had stopped selling oil/metal to Japan, we declared war on them, Germany declared on us
  258. Consequences of WWII
    Millions killed, US became world power, USSR now distrusted because of imperialist behavior, US helps reshape Japan, went from Isolationist to international, US established, Israel, decolonization and independence for many colonized countries
  259. Holocaust
    the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
  260. Early civilizations settlement patterns
    -tended to settle where irrigation would be unnecessary or easily accomplished
  261. Spread of Islam to Asia
    -The Strait of Malacca-done through the trade; Muslim merchants/ sailors introduced local peoples to the ideas and rituals of the new faith and impressed them on how much of the known world had already been converted
  262. Tang Dynasty
    Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia-618-907, capital = Chang'an. Confucian ruler.-Maintained empire through a system of roads with horses, human runners, inns, postal stations, and stables. -Equitable distribution of agricultural land kept land out of the hands of wealthy elite. -Government jobs in extensive bureaucracy were merit based, determined through a series of civil service examination. Military conquests included Manchuria, Tibet, Korea and the northern part of Vietnam
  263. Copernicus
    Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)-heliocentric universe-contributed to the Scientific Revolution
  264. Aristotle   
    Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
  265. Hippocrates
        "Founder of Medicine" During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath was made that is still used today.
  266. Voltaire
    -Enlightenment-Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought.
  267. The Wealth of Nations
    written by Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics-criticized mercantilism and promoted market with "invisible hand"
  268. Second Treatise of Government
    Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.-blueprint principle for the Declaration of Independence
  269. Democracy in America
    classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses such as the tyranny of the majority It explained why republicanism succeeded in the U.S. and failed elsewhere.
  270. The Communist Manifesto
    written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations
  271. The Reformation
    -beginning in 1517, when Martin Luther challenged some of the basic practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, gave the English people religious motives for colonization in the Americas.
  272. Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses
    These questions posted on the door of a Church, helped to promote religious reforms within the Roman Catholic Church.-written in 1517, primary catalyst for Protestant Reformation-protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences-Posted on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg Germany
  273. The sale of indulgences
    A practice that began during the Crusades that allowed someone to pay the church in order to have their time in Purgatory reduced. It was the most attacked clerical financial abuse
  274. Council of Trent
    a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers- between December 13, 1545, and December 4, 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods-By specifying Catholic doctrine on salvation, the sacraments, and the Biblical canon, the Council was answering Protestant disputes.
  275. The Enlightenment 1700's
    The center was in France-A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
  276. The Dark Ages
    time period after the Fall of Rome when Western Europe was continually invaded, trade slowed, and classical learning ceased.-After fall of Roman Empire, approximately yrs. 500-1000c.e
  277. The Scientific Revolution 1500-1700 c.e.  
     began during the Renaissance; provided the model of a rational world, 1550-1700
  278. The Renaissance 1300-1500's c.e.
    Italy, the great rebirth of art, literature, and learning in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries which marked the transition from the medieval to modern periods of European history., A new way of thinking. Which lead to future reforms for the catholic church and ultimately different religons-expansion of trade, contact of culture somewhat contributed to the crusades, rulers began to tax people-artists - da Vinci, Michelangelo,
  279. Newton
    English mathematician and physicist, remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727)-the apple-contributed to the Scientific Revolution
  280. Galileo
    Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars-demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)-Scientific Revolution
  281. Voltaire- Enlightenment
    -freedom of thought and expression-1694-1778; Incarcerated in the Bastille; exile in England; response to absolutism, irrational religion (as he saw it), superstition, oppression, and unfair judicial system. Remember, the French Revolution is not far away.-religious tolerance, fought for civil rights—the right to a fair trial and freedom of religion
  282. Rousseau - Enlightenment
    -1712-1788, liberalism influence, Rousseau holds that "uncorrupted morals" prevail in the "state of nature", morality was innate, not a societal construct and criticized Hobbes-The Social Contract - most important work
  283. Japan vs. Europe Feudalism
    -Japan - 12-15th century-Europe - 8-15th century-Similar - King/Shogun, Samurai/English Knight, Lords/Daimyos, code of honor-Differences - religion/Christianity/Zen Buddhism, japanese had no true pyramid
  284. American Revolution   
    -1775-1783-This political revolution, with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
  285. French Revolution
    the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.-beheading of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette-French sought to limit the powers of the Catholic church, to weaken the power of the nobility and the monarch and strengthen the political voice of the common
  286. The Meiji Restoration in Japan
    approx 1868Causes: The US wanted Japan to open trade, so they decided to rapidly modernize and industrialize to catch up with the rest of the world. -The outdated Samurai's weak response to demands to open Japan to foreign trade. -Effects: Modernization and industrialization of Japan, shift from Samurai government to modern government.-goal was to combine "western advances" with the traditional, "eastern" values
  287. Vietnam War
    Occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia from 1959 to April 30, 1975. -Fought between communist North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other member nations of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). -US entered the war to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. Military advisors arrived beginning in 1950. -U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s and combat units were deployed beginning in 1965.-Involvement peaked in 1968 at the time of the Tet Offensive. Despite a peace treaty signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued. In April 1975, North Vietnam captured Saigon. North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year
  288. Tet Offensive
    a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
  289. Vietnam War Protests   
    -1967 hippie movement, public draft card burnings, star trek, 159 race riots (Newark, NJ & Detroit, killing 40)-H RAPP Brown and Stokely Carmichael started the riots
  290. Major Vietnam War Events
    Mai Lai village massacre by US troops-1969-Operation Breakfast: Nixon authorises the covert bombing of Cambodia in an attempt to destroy supply routes-1970-Tragedy at Ohio: National Guardsmen open fire on protesting students at Kent State University-Nixon extends war to Cambodia -1973-end of draft-Henry Kissinger
  291. Martin Luther King Jr. assassination
    The murder that took place on April 4, 1968, by James Earl Ray
  292. Peace Movement (Social Reform Movement)
    -in the 1960s in the United States succeeded in ending U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.unite groups opposed to U.S. anti-communism, imperialism and colonialism , "doves"-late 1960s in the U.S. became a time of youth rebellion, mass gatherings and riots, many of which began in response to the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but which ignited in an atmosphere of open opposition to a wartime government.
  293. Transatlantic slave trade
    -Height 18th century - 1700's-Forced migration, enriched culture of Americas-Golden Triangle - South/West Africa, Americas, Europe-History, skin color had nothing to do with slave trade, but once came to Americas, way to identify them-1808 importation of slaves banned in US, still traded within US until Emancipation Proclamation in effect in 1863-The brutal system of trading African Slaves from Africa to the Americas. It changed the economy, politics, and environment. It affected Africa, Europe, and America. It implies that slaves were used for cash crops and created a whole new economy.
  294. Emancipation Proclamation
    On September 22, 1862 encouraged by the Union victory at Antietam, Lincoln publicly announced that he would issue the Emancipation Proclamation- a decree freeing all enslaved persons in the states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863. Since the Proclamation freed enslaved African Americans only in states at war with the Union it did not address slavery in the border states. The proclamation transformed the conflict over preserving the Union into a war of liberation.
  295. Mongol Empire
    1206-1368, rivals of Tatars, success due to horsemanship, endurance, ferocity in battle, military tactics, male dominated, -Genghis Khan, real name Temujin, revenge fathers death-overran Asia, Afghanistan, Persia, parts of Russia-died in 1227, Four Khanates - China, central Asia, Persia, Russia, grandson became "Great Khan", Kublai Khan, ended the Song Dynasty and established the Yuan Dynasty During time of Marco Polos travels
  296. Kingdom of Ghana
    First of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (8-11th century). Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali, it acted as intermediary between Arab and Berber salt traders to the north and gold and ivory producers to the south.-gold was principal commodity and source of power
  297. Song Dynasty
    -960-1279, after Tang Dynasty, Confucius Civil Service Exam, ended by Mongols, Kublai Khan the "Great Khan" who established the Yuan Dynasty
  298. Ming Dynasty
    1368-1644, used weakness of Mongols and the plague to take over, hated rich, good but harsh rule Zhu Yuanzhang, again civil service exam used, slavery abolished, estates redistributed to peasants, equitable taxes, agriculture economic system unlike Song that relied on trading population doubled-great wall restored, built Beijing, the Forbidden City, isolationism, sea power
  299. John Locke's influence on Enlightenment philosophers
    1690, wrote that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property and they have a contract with gvt. to help them achieve this, if it fails them, people have a right to break contract w/govt., they admired his writings
  300. Hobbes influence on Enlightenment
    He poses stark alternatives: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and political issue). Otherwise what awaits us is a "state of nature" that closely resembles civil war -strong central govt. needed to avoid war, conflict
  301. Opium Wars
    England's successful efforts to force China to allow the sale of opium in China, beginning in 1839 with Qing Dynasty. China's imperial government opposed the sale, but England's forces were too strong. England's colony, India, was a major source of opium and needed markets for the supply it produced.
  302. Boxer Rebellion
    1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
  303. Kingdom of Mali
    a huge territorial empire that flourished in west Africa during the 13th and 14th centuries (after Kingdom of Ghana) Its capital was Timbuktu, which became a center of Islamic learning (see Islam). The empire controlled trade routes that stretched from the edge of the Sahara in the north to forests in the south and that carried gold and other luxuries
  304. Kingdom of Songhai   
    The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire was a pre-colonial African state centered in eastern Mali. From the early 15th to the late 16th Century, Songhai was one of the largest African empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a small Songhai state had existed since the 9th Century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present-day Niger and Burkina Faso.-after the Kingdoms of Ghana and Mali
  305. Origins of Christianity
    Jerusalem around 1st century AD; from Judaism-Jesus was the Son of God and rose from the dead-Emperors tried to stop the spread through violent persecutions b/c saw as threat to Roman empire,-312 CE emperor Constantine had a dream about Jesus the night before battle, saw a cross, said he would conquer, and he did, therefore he favored Christian God over others from then on-offered people a sense of hope, better life after death, faced death bravely
  306. Rise of Centralized States
    Feudalism ruled, monarchs began to wage wars and create a unified nation (Henry VII England Tudor Dynasty), Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain, Ivan the Terrible in Russia-late 1400's-1500's-1648 Peace of Westphalia cements the legal status of the nation-state as sovereign (end of 30 Years War between protestant and catholics).-Enlightenment and nationalism-Napoleon in Franc
  307. Unification of Germany and Italy
    Germany-Bismarck allied with Italy-Garibaldi in 1882 and Austria Hungary which was the Triple alliance until the war started-both had recently become unified nation states
  308. Industrialization and Population
    - altered medicine and living standards, resulting in the population explosion that would commence at that point and steamroll into the 20thand 21st centuries. In only 100 years after the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the world population would grow 100 percent to two billion people in 1927, 7 billion today 2011-grows in industrializing, seems to be losing ground in developed Europe
  309. Europe Map after WWI
    Austria Hungary broken into several nations - Czech, Yugo, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, small part of Germany lost-France regained Alsace and Lorraine,
  310. Treaty of Versailles
    Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.-applied national self-determination to some areas of Eastern EU, but not EU colonies
  311. Interactions between China and GB in 1800's
    China used military means to resist the importation of opium, China agreed to grant "treaty ports" to GB, GB joined with other Western powers to crush the Boxer Rebellion-GB imported large quantities of tea and other products from China, but China imported little from them...GB's solution was export opium from colonized India to China, but they resisted
  312. Perestroika and Glasnot   
    Perestroika - restructuring of the economyGlasnot - openness to allow criticism-These are policies Mikhail Gorbachev tried to implement in a failed attempt to reform the Soviet in late 1980's
  313. Solidarity Movement
    a Polish trade union that was the first non - communist trade union in any country in the Warsaw Pact. The union used peaceful civil resistance for workers rights and social change against the oppressive communist government. Due to the social movement, partially free elections in Poland took place in 1989 and after the fall of the Soviet Union, the union's leadership took power in Poland. This movement was one of the first movements in a Soviet satellite nation to challenge the communist government.
  314. Warsaw Pact
    treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania-allegiance against NATO
  315. Bay of Pigs Invasion
    in 1961, an attempt by Cuban exiles in southern Cuba to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro; the effort was funded by the U.S. and was famously disastrous, CIA directed-before the cuban missile crisis
  316. Berlin Blockade
    April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under France, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
  317. Parliamentary Systems
    There is typically more party discipline than in a presidential system, the executive is the head of government but not the head of state, the executive is also a member of the legislature-prime ministers are subject to votes of confidence and can control the timing of elections
  318. Presidential Systems of Government
    The executive serves a fixed term in office
  319. Security Council
    Five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.-can authorize use of UN peacekeeping troops-only permanent members have veto power-other 10 members serve on a rotating basis
  320. Green Revolution
        the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity-dramatic increase in crop production in China, India, South America resulting from the development of new strains of grain and better land management strategies
  321. Inuit
    a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Denmark, Russia and the United States. the term Eskimo is commonly used.
  322. Inuit
     traditionally been hunters and fishers; have been referred to as nomadic; used dog sleds
  323. Hopi
     lived in the Southwest; lived in pueblos; Kachina dolls
  324. Northeast Native Americans
    - Iroquois, Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, Cayuga, Onandaga
  325. Iroquois
     lived in houses called long houses; meal was usually deer or bear meat; Corn, squash, and beans: the three sisters,
  326. Northwest Native Americans
    Haida, Chinook, Klikitat, Kwakiutl, Nootka,Tlingit, and Tsimshian,
  327. Northwest Native Americans
    was based on accumulating wealth, hunters and gathers, had a organized society, lived in well-made wooden houses, had canoes, made totem poles: a story about the family, believed that their ancestors were the animal people
  328. Plains Indians
    nomadic, Sioux, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Comanche,Crow, Mandan, Omaha, and the Osage, Buffalo important, lived in tepees
  329. Mound Builders
     a general term referring to prehistoric inhabitants of North America who constructed various styles of earthen mounds for burial, residential and ceremonial purposes
  330. Mound Builders
    dating from roughly 3000 BCE to the 16th century CE, and living in regions of the Great Lakes, the Ohio River valley, and the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries
  331. Mound Builders
     built burial and ceremonial structures were typically flat-topped pyramids or platform mounds, flat-topped or rounded cones, elongated ridges, and sometimes a variety of other forms
  332. Iroquois
    also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse",[1] are an indigenous people of North America. In the 16th century or earlier,
  333. Southeast Native Americans
    - Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole; the tribes lived in round homes much like wigwams
  334. Cherokee
    a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States
  335. Protectionist argument for Tariffs, quotas, and restrictive immigration policies
    1. Save jobs (decrease quantity, increase market price/cost)2. Prevent dependency on foreign nations3. Policies should be comparable to other nations - "bargaining chip
  336. Scarcity & Opportunity Cost (& Choice)
     Only a limited amount of resources available to produce the unlimited amount of goods and services we desire...must make a choice. Opportunity Cost - The opportunity cost of doing one thing is the value of what else you could be doing.
  337. GNP
    Gross National Product (ownership) - Total dollar value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year + income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad) - minus income of non-residents located in that country.
  338. GDP -
    Gross Domestic Product (location) - GDP (Y) is a sum of Consumption (C), Investment (I), Government Spending (G) and Net Exports (X - M).Y = C + I + G + (X − M)Problems: Informal economy, income distribution, standard of living
  339. Inflation
     Inflation is an increase in the price of a basket of goods and services that is representative of the economy as a whole
  340. Fiscal vs. Monetary Policy
    Fiscal: gov't decisions about taxation and spending Monetary: decisions about printing/circulating money and interest rates, used to control inflationThe 2 main tools available for a gov't to manage an economy and to interfere with domestic economy Ex: EU, the member states have individual fiscal policies but many of them have a common monetary policy because they share the Euro currency.
  341. Functions of the Federal Reserve System
    maintain value of the national currency/stability- regulate banks- manages the amount of money in the economy- acts as the government's bank-interest rates, inflation, lender-of-last resort-monetary policy influences these things
  342. Laws of Supply & Demand
    As supply increases, prices go down; as supply decreases, prices go up. As demand increases, prices go up; as demand decreases, prices go down
  343. Market price of a good is determined.
    By the interaction of supply and demand. Set by producers/distributers. Market price eventually is the equilibrium price
  344. Markets adjust to changes in demand/suppy.
    - By raising/lowering prices.Change production or allow market to shrink with decreasing demand.
  345. When prices are above market equilibrium.
     - surplus/excess supply.Too much in stock, will put on sale, market forces have pulled price down to equilibrium
  346. When prices are below market equilibrium.
    - excess demand/shortages.Not enough in stock, will raise prices, upward pressure on the market to find the equilibrium point
  347. Gains from trade
    Specialization, economies of scale - price reductions, increased product variety, self selection with most efficient firms staying in business
  348. Government Regulation of Industry controversy
    - Republican view - suppresses industry, job creation, increases pricesDemocratic view - increases consumer protection, businesses will not do the right thing unless regulated
  349. Environment vs. Economic growth
     Protecting enviroment - increasing risk for future generations, depleting unrenewable resources, creating more problems than gains - China, taking away livelihoods and putting money into hands of few elites, threatens biodiversity - Green RevolutionEconomic growth - environmentally friendly production/policies are expensive, increase costs, worry about millions of people now rather than the future, stifles growth in developing countries "you did it we should be able to do it too" or developed countries with regulations can't compete w/companies in underdeveloped regions, Green Revolution can help feed worlds 7 billion
  350. Impact of imbalance in Balance of Trade...
    - After 1970, trade deficitAgainst = unfair trade policies, cause unemployment and slower economic growth, support import restrictions, linked to growth in income inequality-mercantilism belief is that never buy more than sell to others-Buffet - The U.S trade deficit is a bigger threat to the domestic economy than either the federal budget deficit or consumer debt and could lead to political turmoil... Right now, the rest of the world owns $3 trillion more of us than we own of them.
  351. Impact of National deficit/debt
    -problems: higher taxes, weaker dollar, fewer social services
  352. GDP -
    measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991 NOUNEX. the total market values of goods and services by produced by workers and capital within the United States borders during a given period (usually 1 year)
  353. Price Index -
     an index that traces the relative changes in the price of an individual good (or a market basket of goods) over time-used as a measure of inflation/deflation, can be used to set interest rates, measuring GDP, etc
  354. Causes of Recessions/Booms -
    overextension of credit, slowing demand, decline of consumer confidence, high interest rates-irrational exuberance, confidence, credit, demand, etc.
  355. The fundamental economic problem
    -scarcity and the unlimited nature of human wants
  356. Price Floor
    A legally determined minimum price above the equilibrium price.-therefore, price is above equilibrium, good for sellers, but creates a surplus
  357. Monopoly -
    A market structure where a single seller producing a product for which there are no close substitutes-only one seller!
  358. monopolistic competition
    a market structure in which many companies sell products that are similar but not identical
  359. unemployment rate
    the portion of people in the labor force who are not working-those employed and seeking employment are considered in the labor force-unemployed consist of those laid off, those entering labor force for first time, and those returning after additional training/education
  360. Fiscal policy
     The federal government efforts to keep the economy stable by increasing or decreasing taxes or government spending-can be expansionary or contractionary-expansionary - reducing taxes to increase aggregate demand, encourages economic expansion by injecting more spending directly or indirectly by increasing disposable income-contractionary - raise taxes to finance deficits, reduce spending to reduce inflation
  361. fractional reserve banking system
    a banking system in which bank reserves are less than deposits so that the reserve-deposit ratio is less than 100 percent-allows banks to create money and expand the money supply
  362. Dictatorship
     Leader has unrestrained authority in using the powers and resources of the state, is not bound by fixed legal or constitutional rules and governance doesn't answer to the general population or their elected representatives. It's a government that doesn't allow a nation to determine its own political direction by popular election. Ex: Kim Jong Il
  363. Plessy v. Ferguson
     (1896) Court ruled segregation wasn't discriminatory (didn't violate civil rights under 14th Amndmnt), -Plessy was 1/8 black, facilities equal access, not quality, Plessy boarded white train. Significant because it established that racial segregation was protected under the law ("Separate but Equal")-Reversed in 1954 by the case of Brown vs. the Board of Education
  364. Judicial activism v. Judicial restraint
    Judicial Activism - An interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (Supreme Court has authority to make laws) - judges might impose personal preferences on decisionsJudicial restraint -Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say (Court's authority extends only to resolving disputes)
  365. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    1954: overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson, declared seperate schools for blacks and rights unconstitutional.-Thurgood Marshall, black lawyer, won case-Linda Brown had to walk 21 blocks to get to a blacks only school, when she lived only 7 blocks away from a whites school.
  366. Roe v. Wade
     -Roe (Norma McCorvey, TX, right to choose), Wade (Right to life) Jan. 22, 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the constitutional right to privacy extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion.-Obliged all 50 states to legalize abortion (but not in every case, terms, etc.)
  367. Miranda v. Arizona
    1966 under Cheif Justice Earl Warren, 5 to 4 that the police had to follow certain procedures to ensure the protection of a criminal suspect's Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination.-Cannot use statements made without these rights being read
  368. Marbury v. Madison
    1802 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall first asserted right of Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the US Constitution. Established Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
  369. Government is needed because..
    - Maintains order, conflict resolution, collective decision making, protect citizens, create and maintain standards, property rights and civil liberties, etc.
  370. Republican core ideas
    Each person responsible for own place in society, limiting government intervention, power kept close to people, free enterprise, less taxes, anti-abortion and gay marriage, strong national defense, strong immmigration
  371. Democrat core ideas
     equality and lowering income gap, social services, regulation on businesses, soft power, pro choice, fair taxes, working class, separation of church and state
  372. Federal Court Hierarchy
     top-supreme courtmiddle-u.s. court of appeals(13ofthem)lower-u.s.district courts/trial court level
  373. Atlantic Ocean
    Name of ocean to the right of North America
  374. Pacific Ocean
     Name of ocean to the left of North America
  375. Colorado River
    Beginning in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado, it moves southwest, ending in the Gulf of California. It's (1,450 miles) (2,333 km) in length and over the centuries formed numerous canyons along its winding path. The most famous of these is the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona.
  376. Mississippi River
    - It is the major river of North America and the United States at (2,339 miles) (3,765 km) in length. It flows from northwestern Minnesota south to the Gulf of Mexico, just below the city of New Orleans.
  377. Missouri River
    It begins in southern Montana in the Rocky Mountains, first flowing north then generally southeast across the heart of the United States, ending at the Mississippi River, It is the longest river in the United States (2,500 miles) (4,023 km).
  378. Columbia River -
    This wide, fast-flowing river begins in the Canadian Rockies of southeast British Columbia, Canada, flowing south through the State of Washington, then forming the natural border between Washington and Oregon. It ends in the Pacific Ocean and is (1,152 miles) (1,857 km) in length
  379. Rio Grande River
    It is one of the longest rivers in North America at (1,885 miles) (3,034 km). It begins in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado, then flows south through New Mexico. It forms the natural border between Texas and the country of Mexico as it flows southeast to the Gulf of Mexico.
  380. Yukon River
    It begins in the southwestern edge of the Yukon Territory of Canada, and then flows northwest across the border into Alaska. This massive river continues southwest across central Alaska, ending at the Bering Sea
  381. Mackenzie River
     - It is a major river in North America; and when condsidering its tributaries and streams
  382. Euphrates River
     One of two rivers that Mesopotamia developed around
  383. Volga River
     Longest River in Europe
  384. Rocky Mountains
    a major mountain range in western North America - from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States. range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado
  385. Continental Divide
     is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans
  386. Appalachain Mountains
    are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. mostly located in the United States but extends into southeastern Canada. Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, and North Carolina, as well as sometimes extending as far south as northern Georgia and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, and as far west as southern Ohio
  387. Panama Canal
    77 km (48 mi) ship canal that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. United States made a second attempt to open it successfully in 1914
  388. Great Lakes
    a collection of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada - United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by surface.
  389. San Andreas Fault
     a continental transform fault that runs a length of roughly 1,300 kilometers (810 mi) through California in the United States, and through Baja California in Mexico
  390. trade Winds blow from the northeast
    winds north of the equator
  391. trade winds blow from the southeast
     south of the equator,
  392. Westerlies
    blow from the southwest on the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere
  393. Tropical climate
     known for their high tempertatures year round and for their large amount of year round rain.
  394. Dry Climate
     characterized by little rain and a huge daily temperature range
  395. Deciduous Forest
    - This climate is in the polar front zone - the battleground of polar and tropical air masses. Seansonal changes between summer and winter are very large. Daily temperatures also change often. Abundant precipitation falls throughout the year. It is increased in the summer season by invading tropical air masses. Cold winters are caused by polar and artic masses moving south. Global Position: eastern parts of the United States and southern Canada, northern China; Korea; Japan; central and eastern Europe
  396. Grasslands
    These dry claimtes are limited to the interiors of North America and Eurasia. A small amount of rain falls during this season. GLobal Position: western North America (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, Great Plains); Eurasian interior
  397. Chapparal Biome
     This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate. Extremely dry summers are caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may last for up to five months.Plants have adapted to the extreme difference in rainfall and temperature between winter and summer seasonsGlobal Position: central and southern California; coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean Sea; coastal Western Australia and South Australia; Chilean coast; Cape Town region of South Africa
  398. Steppe
    Characterized by grasslands, this is a semiarid climate. It can be found between the desert climate. This dry climate exists in the interior regions of the North American and Eurasian continents. Moist ocean air masses are blocked by mountain ranges to the west and south. These mountain ranges also trap polar air in winter, making winters very cold. Summers are warm to hot. Global Range: Western North America (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, Great Plains); Eurasian interior, from steppes of eastern Europe to the Gobi Desert and North China
  399. Desert
    Winds are light, which allows for the evaporation of moisture in the intense heat. They generally flow downward so the area is seldom penetrated by air masses that produce rain. This makes for a very dry heat. Global Range: southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Argentina; north Africa; south Africa; central part of Australia
  400. Savanna
    A seasonal change occurs between wet tropical air masses and dry tropical air masses. As a result, there is a very wet season and a very dry season. Trade winds dominate during the dry season. It gets a little cooler during this dry season but will become very hot just before the wet season. Global Range: India, Indochina, West Africa, southern Africa, South America and the north coast of Australia
  401. Rainforest -
    High surface heat and humidity cause cumulus clouds to form early in the afternoons almost every day
  402. The climate on eastern sides of continents are influenced by maritime tropical air masses
    These air masses flow out from the moist western sides of oceanic high-pressure cells, and bring lots of summer rainfall. The summers are warm and very humid. It also rains a lot in the winterGlobal Position: Amazon Basin; Congo Basin of equatorial Africa; East Indies, from Sumatra to New Guinea
  403. Tundra -
     climate is found along arctic coastal areas. Polar and arctic air masses. The winter season is long and severe. A short, mild season exists, but not a true summer season. Moderating ocean winds keep the temperatures from being as severe as interior regions.Global Position: arctic zone of North America; Hudson Bay region; Greenland coast; northern Siberia bordering the Arctic Ocean
  404. Laurentian Upland
     Natural Resources Canada, is part of the plateau and dissected southern rim othe Canadian Shield in the province of Québec. is primarily made up of ancient Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rock
  405. Atlantic Plain
    This major division consists of the Continental Shelf and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. It is the flattest of the U.S. physiographic divisions and stretches over 2,200 miles (3,500 km) in length from Cape Cod to the Mexican border and southward another 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to the Yucatán Peninsula. The "rocks" consist for the most part of layers of sand and clay which are not yet hardened into sandstone and shale. The surface is generally flat
  406. Interior Plains
     is a vast physiographic region that spreads across the Laurentian craton of North America. Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks now form the bas
  407. Interior Highlands
    - is a mountainous region spanning eastern Oklahoma, western and northern Arkansas, southern Missouri, and the extreme southeast corner of Kansas. combined mountainous region of the Ozarks and Ouachita Mountains, which form a distinct physiographic division.[1] It is the only major highland region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains in the United States
  408. Intermontane plateaus
    - just to the west of the southern Rocky Mountains, is characterized for the most part by large-textured forms. These have developed on a great thickness of nearly horizontal Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary formations, and by a dry climate
  409. Pacific Mountain System
     are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the West Coast of North America from Alaska south to Northern and Central Mexico. from the record-setting tidewater glaciers in the ranges of Alaska, to the rugged Central and Southern California ranges in the chaparral and woodlands ecoregion with Oak Woodland, Chaparral shrub forest or Coastal sage scrub-covering them
  410. continents
     is one of several large landmasses on Earth. North America, South America, Africa, Antartica, Europe, Asia, Australia
  411. Isthmus
     is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas usually with waterforms on either side.
  412. Canals
     are often built on isthmuses where they may be particularly advantageous to create a shortcut for marine transportation
  413. .Peninsula
    is a piece of land that is surrounded by water but connected to mainland via an isthmus
  414. 4 types of Peninsulas
     Iberian, Scandinavian, Italian, and Balkan
  415. Plains
     is land with relatively low relief, that is flat or gently rolling. Prairies and steppes are types of ....occur as lowlands and at the bottoms of valleys but also on plateaus at high elevations.
  416. Steppe
     in physical geography refers to a biome region characterised by grassland plain without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
  417. Waterway -
    is any navigable body of water. These include rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, and canals
  418. Criteria of Waterways
    - must be deep enough to allow the draft depth of the vessels using it; must be wide enough to allow passage for the beam width of the vessels using it; must be free of barriers to navigation such as waterfalls and rapids, or have a way around them; The current must be mild enough to allow vessels to make headway
  419. Canal -
     waterways that are constructed to provide a new path of travel for vessels
  420. Ocean
     is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. 71% of the Earth's surface.
  421. Pacific Ocean
     separates Asia and Australia from the Americas
  422. Atlantic Ocean
     separates the Americas from Eurasia and Africa
  423. Indian Ocean
     washes upon southern Asia and separates Africa and Australia
  424. Southern Ocean
     has no landmass separating it from other oceans, which encircles Antarctica and covers much of the Antarctic
  425. Artic Ocean -
     sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic, which covers much of the Arctic and washes upon northern North America and Eurasia
  426. Sea
     generally refers to a large body of salt water; also used sometimes to describe a large saline lake that lacks a natural outlet
  427. Bays
     is an area of water mostly surrounded or otherwise demarcated by land; generally have calmer waters than the surrounding sea, due to the surrounding land blocking some waves and often reducing winds. It can also be an inlet in a lake or pond
  428. Estuary
     is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea; form a transition zone between river environments and ocean environments and are subject to both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water; and riverine influences, such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The inflow of both seawater and freshwater provide high levels of nutrients in both the water column and sediment. are amongst the most heavily populated areas throughout the world
  429. Types of Estuaries
     drowned river valleys, lagoon type, bar built, fjord type, tectonically produced
  430. Strait
     is a narrow, navigable channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses
  431. Bering Strait
    between Alaska and Siberia, which connects the Pacific and Arctic Oceans
  432. Relative Location
     the regional position or situation of a place in relation to the position of other places
  433. Absolute Location
     Exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates
  434. Purpose of Latitude and Longitude
     Used to measure absolute location, distance and direction on a globe. Measured in degrees and minutes
  435. Physical Characteristics of Place
    - Includes land and water forms, plant and animal life, soil conditions, and climateEx: Philly = mild climate, fertile soil., river that leads into Delaware Bay
  436. Human/Cultural Characteristics of Place
    - People, their ideas, languages and religions, etc.
  437. Human-Environment Interactions
     How people affect their environment and how the environment affects people. ex- construction.Cutting trees, hunting, damming rivers, etc.
  438. 5 Themes of Geography
    - Location,Place,Region,Movement,Human-Enviromental Interaction
  439. Movement (Geography)
    The movement of people, the import and export of goods, and mass communication. Also can be the movement of ideas and knowledge.
  440. McCulloch vs. Maryland
     1819, The state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the Bank of the United States, claiming that the Bank was unconstitutional. Maryland courts upheld right to tax, bank appealed to US Supreme Court. Using implied powers, Chief Justice Marshall countered that the Bank was constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the Bank.Set forth principle of supremacy of national government over the states, and national government has certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers (Today, seen in clear air policies, food regulations, etc).
  441. Types of Natural Boundaries
     oceans, mountains, rivers, lakes, frontiers (vast unsettled/underpopulated areas), swamplands, dense forests, deserts, etc.
  442. Types of Artificial Boundaries
    fence, wall, laws, ownership documents
  443. Consequences of overpopulation
     Lack of fresh clean water (+97% of water is salt water), Threatens natural resources, deforestation, desertification, air pollution and global warming, waste management, containment of disease outbreaks, food supply, healthcare, politically - instability
  444. Cultural Geography
    The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space. Describes/Analyzes the ways language, religion, economy, government and other cultural phenomena vary or remain constant, from one place to another and on explaining how humans function spatially
  445. Cultural factors used to organize world
    Single factors such as language, religion, etc. Or an overall combination of architecture, dress, cultural landscape, Hofstede's dimensions of culture (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation).
  446. Weather vs. Climate
    Weather is the condition of the atmoshpere at a particular location and time-Climate is the term for weather conditions at a particular location over a long period of time
  447. Steppe
     Treeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. Good for breeding horses: essential to Mongol military.A large area of flat unforested grassland in southeastern Europe or Siberia
  448. Plateau
    - a large mostly flat area that rises above the surrounding land
  449. Continent
     Any of the world's main continuous expanses of land (Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America).
  450. Isthmuses
    a relatively narrow strip of land (with water on both sides) connecting two larger land areas (Example: Isthmus of Panama)
  451. Peninsula
     Body of land jutting into a lake or ocean, surrounded on three sides by water. (Example: Florida).
  452. Plains -
    An extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.
  453. Ocean
    a large body of water constituting a principal part of the hydrosphere, primarily salt water
  454. Seas
    - Large bodies of salt water; smaller than oceans, usually connected to Oceans. Ex: Red Sea/aka Gulf of Arabia enters into Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea
  455. Bays
    Chesapeake BayHudson BaySan Francisco Bay, an indentation of a shoreline larger than a cove but smaller than a gulf, bordered by land on three sides
  456. Estuaries
     The lower end of a river, where it meets ocean. Saltwater and freshwater mix here. Estuaries are known to be very productive.
  457. Straits
    A narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water
  458. Canal -
    A constructed channel filled with water used for navigation, irrigation, or drainageMan-made
  459. Rivers
     A large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another stream.
  460. Natural Resources
    Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain. Are not made by humans. Can be renewable/nonrenewable.-Importance = many economic activities dependent on natural resources, human survival needs oxygen (trees), water, sunlight/atmosphere, etc. Compromising nonrenewables is compromising future.
  461. Townshend Acts
    After Stamp Act was repealed, still wanted money from colonists to pay British colonial officials. 1767, established taxes on goods imported from Britain (tea, paper, glass, paint). Protested via nonimportation agreements saw to by Sons of Liberty, Daughters of Liberty pledged against drinking tea and British cloth
  462. Piedmont Region -
     Plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains
  463. functional region
     area organized around a node or focal point-core area with surrounding territory that acts as a dynamic organizational unit and as an integrated whole-example - the NY metropolitan statistical area MSA
  464. Desertification
     the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert- is usually caused by climate change or by destructive use of the land; "the dust storms in Korea are the result of rapid desertification in China"-causes include droughts, clearing of original vegetation for cultivation, increased salinization of the soil, heavy rains on exposed soil-strip cropping and no till farming does NOT contribute to desertification - these are used to maintain soil productivity
  465. Wind
     results from a difference in air pressure in adjacent zones, pressure-gradient forces
  466. Wet equatorial climate
     found in low latitudes
  467. Population growth in developing countries caused by..
     young age profile-developed nations have an older age profile, low birth rate, more people receiving pensions but fewer workers - social security crisis
  468. Andean West Region
     Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru, physical geography is dominated by the Andes low GDP, large Armenian populations
  469. King George III
    - -King of England during the American Rev. War-Ruled 1760-1820 - Won 7 Year War, plan to establish British control of the former French fur trade in the west (W of colonies to Miss. River) by excluding settlement there by the Americans (reversed 1740's policy of promoting Am. settlement there), tax Americans to finance a British army which was charged with keeping Americans out of the west and paying for war
  470. Proclamation of 1763
    Proclamation of 1763 - -Proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of Appalachian Mountains, and required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.-Part of Treaty of Paris that ended war-Result of Pontiac's Rebellion to reduce friction between Native American and settlers, protect fur trade, and keep western land speculation under the control of the crown
  471. 1756-1763 - The Seven Years War
    - French and Indian War (N.A. portion) -War between British and French over North America
  472. Stamp Act
    March 22, 1765 - British legislation, Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures, which required all legal or official documents used in the colonies (wills, deeds, newspapers) must be written on stamped British paper. Caused riots, most of the the paper was burned by angry mobs. B/c of opposition & decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766, but simultaneously issued Declaratory Act to secure dependency
  473. 1607
    Jamestown, the first permanent English colony on North America, is founded
  474. 1776 -
    On July 4 of this year, fifty-six representatives from the thirteen colonies unanimously approved the Declaration of Independence
  475. 1803
    Louisiana Purchase; Marbury Vs. Madison
  476. 1861-1865 -
     The American Civil War was fought during these years. It began with the firing on Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House almost four years later.
  477. 1914-1918
    The years of World War I which were triggered by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and ended with the Treaty of Versailles. US entered in 1917
  478. 1929
    Great Depression begins, stock market crash
  479. 1941-1945
    WWII
  480. Tropical Climate in US
    South Florida and Hawaii. Hot humid weather year round.
  481. Mediterranean Climate in US
    California. Mild wet winters and dry hot summers. Can grow crops year round.
  482. Marine Climate in US
     Pacific NW. Southern Alaska to Northern California. Coastal mountains. Moist and rainy climate.
  483. Highland Climate in US
    Cascades, Sierra Nevada, Rocky Mountains. Cool temps year round, snow remains (East of Marine climate on map)
  484. Steppe Climate in US
     East of the Rockies, dry grasslands. Bushes and short grasses w/little rainfall, extremes, blizzards and high temps.
  485. Desert Climate in US
    SE of Sierra Nevada in SW US, little rain, farmers use irrigation
  486. Tundra and Subarctic Climate in US
     Alaska. Cold. Tundra = rolling plain w/o trees. Lower layers of tundra are permafrost.
  487. Clara Barton
     Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field, Union Nurse.
  488. Harriet Beecher Stowe
     Abolitionist, Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery. Enraged Southerners against North
  489. Harriet Tubman
     American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
  490. Jefferson Davis
    an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865. Richmond, VA was the capital of of the Confederacy
  491. Ulysses S. Grant
     an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). Union general in the American Civil War. Accepted Robert E Lee's surrender April 9, 1865. Easily won 1868 election against Horatio Seymour, Radical Reconstruction Republican
  492. Eli Whitney
    1793, invented the cotton gin - separated the cotton from the seed. High British and N US demand during industrial revolution. Improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.1798 invented machine for making guns, interchangable parts, division of labor, mass production - spurred industrial revolution
  493. Cyrus McCormick
    Virginian, 1831 inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America, increased production.
  494. Robert Fulton -
    1807, built first steamboat called "Clermont" - based on ideas of John Fitch. Replaced sails, sped up water travel.Became a viable means of transporting goods.Linked western waterways with Southern/Eastern Coast and helped unite the nation.
  495. Manifest Destiny
    Coined in the 1840s by the Jacksonian Democrats, was the belief that the United States was "destined" to spread from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Used to promote the annexation of most of the Western United States (Oregon Territory, Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cessation). Always regarded as a general notion rather than a specific policy.
  496. WWII - Postwar period -
     1939-1963
  497. Baby Boom
    Postwar Period - A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
  498. The Sonoran Desert
     SE of Mojave Desert, straddles US Mexico border, covers large parts of AZ, Baja, CA. Subregions include Colorado and Yuma Desert
  499. The Great Basin Desert
    Only cold desert in the country, most precipitation is snow. Covers 3/4 of Nevada, W&S Utah
  500. The Mojave Desert
    The hottest desert in the US, SE California, S Nevada, SW Utah. Las Vegas is in this desert and also Death Valley
  501. Chihuahan Desert
    SE most, and largest desert in US, Most in Chihuahua MX, but reach up into western Arizona, southern New Mexico, and Texas. Called rain shadow desert b/c Sierra Madre blocks moisture
  502. Desert
     Area that receives less than 10 inches of rain per year
  503. Mississippi River
     Largest river SYSTEM in the U.S., from Minnesota in the North, to the Gulf of Mexico/LA in the South
  504. Missouri River
    the longest river in the United States, arises in Montana and flows southeastward to become a tributary of the Mississippi at Saint Louis
  505. Rio Grande
     a North American river, boundary between the United States and Mexico; flows into Gulf of Mexico, 4th longest river in US
  506. Yukon River
     It begins in the southwestern edge of the Yukon Territory of Canada, and then flows northwest across the border into Alaska. This massive river continues southwest across central Alaska, ending at the Bering Sea
  507. St Lawrence River
    Runs east from Lake Ontario into the Altlantic Ocean
  508. Arkansas River

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