American Government/Political Science

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American Government/Political Science
2012-07-19 20:03:40
government political science

Government Flashcards
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  1. Federalism
    A system in which the power to govern is shared between national and state governments
  2. Dual / Layer Cake Federalism
    A system in which national and state governments are competitors with distinct powers. This system was prominent in the US from the during the 19th century until 1937.
  3. Cooperative / Marble Cake Federalism
    A system in which national and state government have shared or overlapping powers. FDR's New Deal legislation established this system in the US.
  4. Regulatory Federalism
    A system in which the national government sets requirements that are then implemented by state and local governments.
  5. Fiscal Federalism
    A system in which the national government provides grants-in-aid to states using conditions to elicit control.
  6. New Federalism
    Devolutionary system in which the national government returns tax dollars to the state and local governments primarily in the form of block grants.
  7. Federalism
    The negative aspects of this system include: conflicts between state and national government, economic and racial discrimination, uneven enforcement of law, and dominance of local governments by special interest groups
  8. Federalism
    The positive aspects of this system include: diversity/diffusion of power, more access points for political participation, fostering of experimentation and innovation, and allowing local governments to manage local problems effectively
  9. Federal
    This type of government suits a large country with a diverse population
  10. Enumerated Powers
    Powers specifically outlined in the Constitution as assigned to one branch of government.
  11. Article II
    This article of the Constitution establishes the Executive Branch.
  12. Categorical Grant
    Federal grants in which the recipient has little discretion over how the money is spent. The national government sets narrowly defined rules for use of funds and often requires the states or local governments to provide matching funds. These grants account for 90% of federal aid dollars. Examples include Head Start, Food Stamps, Medicaid, and the Interstate Highway System
  13. Block Grant
    Federal grants in which the recipient has a lot of discretion over how the money is spent. These grants are issued in support of general government functions such as education and law enforcement.
  14. Project Grant
    Federal categorical grants in which the granting agency has much discretion over how the recipient spends the money.
  15. Formula Grant
    Federal categorical grants in which the granting agency has less discretion over how the recipient spends the money.
  16. Commander in Chief
    The President's role in the armed forces which during the 20th century has allowed Presidents to circumvent Congress' refusal to declare war.
  17. State of the Union
    Constitutionally required address by the President typically given in a joint session of Congress.
  18. President
    Constitutionally empowered to appoint judges, ambassadors, and other high officials
  19. President
    Constitutionally empowered to make treaties with foreign countries.
  20. Senate
    President requires their approval to appoint judges, ambassadors and other high officials.
  21. Grant Clemency
    This customary power allows the President to grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses.
  22. 35
    Age requirement for President
  23. 14
    Number of years a President must reside in the US prior to taking office
  24. Pyramid Model
    Presidential management model in which the Chief of Staff plays a prominent role as the head of a military style chain of command. Used successfully by Reagan and Eisenhower.
  25. Hub and Spoke Model
    Presidential management model requiring the President to have strong leadership skills and a keen eye for detail. FDR and JFK were well known for this style of leadership.
  26. Ad Hoc Structure
    Presidential management model in which corporate CEO tactics are used employing committees, task forces, and special advisors. Successfully utilized by Clinton and G W Bush.
  27. Max Weber
    German sociologist theorized that the engine of government needs bureaucracies to provide expertise in a way that short-term elected or appointed official cannot.
  28. Bureaucracy
    The structure and set of regulations in place to control activity, usually in large organizations and government. it is represented by standardized procedure (rule-following) that dictates the execution of most or all processes within the body, formal division of powers, hierarchy, and relationships.
  29. National Security Council
    The executive office established in response to intelligence lapses during WWI. Oversees American foreign policy and includes the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense and is lead by the National Security Advisor.
  30. Council of Economic Advisors
    3 person executive panel responsible for helping the President develop an economic plan for the nation.
  31. Office of Management and Budget
    Executive office responsible for helping the President write the federal budget and monitoring federal spending.
  32. US Trade Representatives
    Executive office responsible for negotiating trade with foreign powers.
  33. 15
    Number of current cabinet positions under GW Bush.
  34. 3
    Number of original cabinet positions under George Washington.
  35. Labor
    Cabinet department responsible for collective bargaining and union activity. Established in 1913
  36. Housing and Urban Development
    Cabinet department responsible for insuring mortgages and providing housing subsidies. Established in 1965
  37. Agriculture
    Cabinet department responsible for managing school lunch programs and food safety. Established in 1862.
  38. Commerce
    Cabinet department responsible for regulating and promoting trade and maintaining the census Established in 1913..
  39. Energy
    Cabinet department oversees nuclear reactors.Established in 1973 in response to the Energy Crisis.
  40. Homeland Security
    Cabinet department that includes the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, FEMA, Transportation Security Administration, INS and the Secret Service. Established in 2001 in response to 9/11.
  41. Interior
    Cabinet department responsible for the management of public lands, wildlife, natural resources, and Native American affairs. Established in 1849
  42. Transportation
    Cabinet department that includes the FAA and the National Hwy Traffic Safety Administration. Established in 1966.
  43. Governmental Corporations
    Corporations formed by the government to act as a business to produce a product or service. Often monopolies with varying degrees of independence.
  44. Regulatory Agencies
    Independent agencies governed by an appointed and confirmed commission. Examples include the Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and the Securities and Exchange Commission.
  45. Legislative
    Government branch established in Article I of the Constitution.
  46. Bicameral
    Legislative branch incorporating two houses.
  47. Senate
    Legislative house responsible for impeachment trials.
  48. 2
    Number of Senators elected at large per state,
  49. 17th
    Amendment that delegated the election of Senators to popular vote.
  50. Senate
    Legislative house whose membership was intended to represent the state.
  51. Filibuster
    Form of obstruction in the Senate where an attempt is made to infinitely extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay the progress or completely prevent a vote on the proposal taking place.
  52. Vice President
    Presides over the Senate without voting privileges except in the case of a tie.
  53. President Pro Tempore
    Presides over the Senate in the absence of the Vice President. Position awarded to the longest serving Senator from the majority party. 3rd in line of succession for the Presidency.
  54. Conference Committee
    A joint committee of Congress established to help negotiate discrepancies and gain consensus between legislation passed in each house before sending the bill to the President.
  55. House of Representatives
    Legislative house whose members were intended to represent the people.
  56. 435
    Total number of Representatives apportioned to the states based on population and reapportioned with the census every 10 years
  57. Speaker of the House
    Leader of the House of Representatives, elected by the majority party. 2nd in line of succession for the Presidency.
  58. Select Committee
    Committees appointed for investigative or crisis situations.
  59. Joint Committee
    Committees that pull members from both the house and the senate who meet to discuss major policy issues such as economy and taxation.
  60. Standing Committees
    The most important committees, always assembled and delegated with the responsibility of handling all bills under their concern. Includes the Ways and Means, Appropriations, Budget, Rules and Agriculture Committees.
  61. Rules Committee
    This powerful House committee is in charge of determining under what rule other bills will come to the floor.
  62. Ways and Mean Committee
    This House committee is responsible for all taxes, tariffs, and other revenue raising measures in addition to social security, child support, Medicare, foster care, and unemployment.
  63. Whips
    Assistants to the Majority and Minority Leaders of both the House and Senate.
  64. Article III
    Constitutional Article that establishes the Judicial Branch.
  65. 9
    Number of justices of the Supreme Court.
  66. Chief Justice
    Head of the Supreme Court.
  67. Impeachment
    Method by which federal court judges may lose their position.
  68. Presidential Veto
    Executive Check on the Legislative Branch.
  69. Judicial Review
    Judicial Check on Legislative Branch. Not specifically outlined in the Constitution, but established in the case of Marbury v. Madison through the application of the Supremacy Clause in Article VI.
  70. Freedom of Information Act
    1966 Act allowing citizens to inspect all government records with the exception of classified military or intelligence documents, trade secrets or private personnel files.
  71. Administrative Procedure Act
    1946 Act requiring bureaucratic agencies to appeal to the affected parties before adopting new policies. Legislative check on Bureaucracy.
  72. Privacy Act
    1974 Act mandating that all government files about private citizens be kept confidential.
  73. Open Meeting Law
    1976 Law requiring all governmental agency meetings to be open to the public unless classified information will be discussed.
  74. Legislative
    This branch of government checks Bureaucracy through its control over the creation and elimination of agencies as well as its control over budget appropriations.
  75. House of Representatives
    Tax legislation must originate in this house.
  76. Resolutions
    Legislative opinions on a matter that do not require Presidential signature.
  77. Executive
    This branch of government checks Bureaucracy through its control over budget and appointments of leadership.
  78. Judicial
    This branch of government checks Bureaucracy through its control over lawsuits filed against the agency.
  79. Hyperpluralism
    the fundamental flaw in plural theory contends that pluralism weakens the backbone of democracy with too many common interest groups attempt to wield power, often leading to standstill because of unwillingness to compromise.
  80. Elite and Class Theory
    A pluralist theory by C. Wright Mills where a small number of wealthy elite wield most of the power. Fundamental to all governments around the world, the elite rule while they make the lower classes feel like they are involved in democracy. The elite work to "dumb" down the population in order to stay in control. They also use aversion to divert the attention of the masses from the real problems.
  81. Pluralist Theory
    Theory of democracy in which competition among common interest groups promote ideas to influence politics
  82. Articles of Confederation
    Under this governing document, national government lacked authority to set up tariffs, regulate commerce, levy taxes, control international relations, establish common currency
  83. Magna Carta
    This influential English document signed by King John in 1215 limited the absolute power of the monarchy, established due process, and limited arbitrary seizure of property.
  84. Petition of Right
    This influential English document refuted divine right of monarchy and made monarchs subject to laws and responsible for crimes
  85. Common Law
    Unwritten law based on custom and tradition.
  86. English Bill of Rights
    This 1689 English Document made the monarch
  87. Thomas Hobbes
    This author of Leviathon posited that government is necessary because people are generally in a state of conflict.
  88. John Locke
    This author was highly influential on Thomas Jefferson, rejecting divine right, proposing that government is a social contract requiring the consent of the govern and establishing the concept of self-evident rights of life, liberty, and property.
  89. Social Contract
    Theory that a government requires the consent of the governed.
  90. Rousseau
    Political theorist proposed the separation of church and state.
  91. Common Sense
    The 1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that prompted King George III's Prohibitory Act and the sending of mercenaries to the colonies.
  92. Federalist Papers
    a series of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the pseudonym Publius advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution.
  93. Baron de Montesquieu
    Author of The Spirit of the Laws advocating balance of power in politics with liberty is dependant upon a separation of the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government.
  94. Shay's Rebellion
    The uprising of farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes that revealed the failure of the Articles of Confederation.
  95. Mayflower Compact
    First governing document of the Plymouth Colony establishing freedom of religion.
  96. Habeas Corpus
    Grants that an accused may not be held in custody without charge, literally "You shall have the body".
  97. 1776
    Year of the 2nd Continental Congress.
  98. Rhode Island
    The absent colony at the 2nd Continental Congress.
  99. Virginia Plan
    Plan that proposed bicameral legislature where states were to have representation based on size in both houses.
  100. New Jersey Plan
    Plan that proposed unicameral legislature with each state having one vote.
  101. Great or Connecticut Compromise
    Compromise between the large states and small states that established the bicameral Legislature consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives. Also included 3/5 compromise on the status of slaves in representation.
  102. Albany Plan
    Proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 as an attempt to form a union of the colonies. Later used to help form the Articles of Confederation.
  103. Committees of Correspondence
    Important during the Revolution, these bodies organized by the local governments of the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution for the purposes of coordinating written communication outside of the colony.
  104. Ex Post Facto
    Prohibits conviction of a crime that occurred before the act became illegal
  105. Bill of Attainder
    An act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without benefit of a trial. Constitutionally prohibited.
  106. Privileges and Immunities Clause
    States that states may draw reasonable distinctions between the rights of residents and non-residents (ex. In state and out of state tuition)
  107. Establishment Clause
    This clause of the 1st amendment establishes a "wall of separation" between church and state.
  108. Free Exercise Clause
    This 1st amendment clause prohibits the government from making any law prohibiting the exercise of any religion
  109. Establishment Clause
    The Supreme Court's broad interpretation of this clause has denied direct aid from the government for religious groups, but does allow religious groups to make use of government services such as police and fire.
  110. Impartial
    The Supreme Court has sometimes used a narrow interpretation of the Establishment Clause allowing the government to provide aid to religious groups as long as it remains ______________ and does not promote one religion at the expense of another. This practice has been criticized by civil liberties groups
  111. Civil Liberties
    Freedoms that protect the individual from the government.
  112. 14th
    This amendment applied the Bill of Rights to states.
  113. Violation of Law
    The only instance in which the government can prohibit religious activities
  114. Baron v. Baltimore
    19th century case establishing that the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government, upheld until the 20th century. Ruling allowed stated to engage in activities such as establishing state churches and denying public office to people of certain religions.
  115. Gitlow v. New York
    1925 Supreme Court case overturned Baron v. Baltimore and applied the Bill of Rights to states.
  116. Lemon Test
    Test whereby the Supreme Court established criteria by which state may provide aid to religious groups.
  117. Murray v. Curlett
    1963 ruling prohibiting prayer in public schools.
  118. US v. Ballard
    1944 case established that as as long as a person accepted their beliefs in good faith that it is not the government's authority to determine whether those beliefs are valid.
  119. Free Exercise Clause
    In the 1990 case OR State Employment Division v. Smith 1990, the Supreme court allowed the state to fire employees who use peyote during native American religious ceremonies because it is in violation of drug laws. In this case, which clause of the 1st amendment was deemed less important than the violation of another law?
  120. Free Exercise of Religion
    In WV State BOE v Barnette (1943), the Supreme Court ruled that compelling citizens to salute the flag violates the principles of a free society, upholding which 1st Amendment rights?
  121. Self-Incrimination
    The 5th amendment protect against _____________.
  122. Miranda Rights
    States that arrestees must be informed of their right to remain silent, that anything they say can be held against them in a court, that they have a right to an attorney and that an attorney will be appointed to them if they cannot afford one.
  123. 6th Amendment
    Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial.
  124. Jury of Peers
    The vagueness of this phrase has allowed juries to exclude specific genders or races in order to affect the outcome of the verdict.
  125. Right to Counsel
    In addition to a quick and speedy trial, the 6th Amendment also guarantees ________________.
  126. Change of Venue
    In some cases where blicity too much publicity surrounds a trial, courts have granted _______________ to help ensure a fair trial. One example is the trial of Timothy McVeigh for the Oklahoma City Bombing.
  127. 8th Amendment
    Prohibits the use of cruel or unusual punishment.
  128. Death penalty
    Capital punishment is also known as the _________________.
  129. Two Trial
    The case of Gregg v. Georgia set the precedent for a ________________ system in which guilt and sentencing and tried separately.
  130. Scottsboro Boys Case
    This 1932 case established that a case can be too speedy and under-counseled, providing defendants in a capital case the right to a reasonable amount of time to establish a defense.
  131. Gideon v. Wainwright
    This 1963 case extended the right to counsel to all felony cases.
  132. Cruel and Unusual
    In the 1962 case of Robinson v. California, the Supreme Court ruled that incarcerating a drug addict is ______________________ because drug addiction is an illness.
  133. Free Exercise
    In Reynolds v. US (1879), the Supreme Court denied this right to Reynolds because his religion's practice of polygamy violated federal law.
  134. Free Exercise of Religion
    In 1943, The Supreme Court upheld the Jehovah's Witnesses right to refrain from saluting the American flag based on their right to _____________.
  135. Baker v. Wingo
    In this 1972 case, the Supreme Court established four guidelines for determining if a trial was appropriately speedy and fair: cause of delay, length of delay, affect on the outcome, and the defendant's claim to a speedy trial.
  136. Furman v. Georgia
    This 1972 Supreme Court case struck down all state laws allowing the death penalty stating that they allowed for too much discretion on the part of the judge and jury resulting in lack of consistent administration of the penalty.
  137. 100
    According to the Speedy Trial Act of 1974, federal trials must commence within _______ days of arrest with the exception of delay for mental health testing of the defendant and illness of the defendant or key witness.
  138. Cruel and Unusual
    in Woodson v. North Carolina, the Supreme Court struck down mandatory sentencing of capital punishment as ______________________ because it does not allow for any discretion.
  139. imprisoned
    In Argersinger v. Hamlin (1972), the Supreme Court extended the right to counsel to those accused of misdemeanors if the defendant is _____________.
  140. 4th Amendment
    Protects against unreasonable search and seizure.
  141. Writ of Assistance
    Broadly worded warrants used by British soldiers during colonial America to search for contraband and prevent smuggling.
  142. Warrant
    The issuance of this document by a judge requires probably cause and must be worded so as to allow for the search and seizure of specific evidence.
  143. Probable Cause
    While the verbiage of the 4th Amendment is vague as to what constitutes "reasonable". Police departments must rely on _____________; they cannot act on unfounded suspicion.
  144. Exclusionary Rule
    This contraversial legal technicality intended to protect civil liberties has allowed criminals to remain free when the courts refuse to admit evidence that may have been obtained illegally.
  145. Plain View
    Washington v. Chrisman (1982) established the _________________, allowing police officers to seize evidence without a warrant if the evidence is in obvious sight.
  146. Good Faith Exception
    This rule established by US v. Leon (1984) angered civil liberties groups by allowing exception to the Exclusionary Rule in instances where probably cause may not fully exist.
  147. Katz. v US
    This 1967 Supreme Court case prohibited illegal eavesdropping and extending the zone of privacy to include the home, office, person, and immediate public arena.
  148. Patriot Act
    This contraversial 2001 law allows anti-terrorism authorities to monitor e-mail and Internet traffic in order to prevent terrorist attacks. The government argues that cyberspace is public domain and that no warrants should be needed to access information.
  149. Automobiles
    In California v. Avecedo (1991), The Supreme Court established that authorities may search ____________________ without a warrant providing reasonable suspicion.
  150. Probable Cause
    New Jersey v. TLO (1985) established that school authorities may search students without _____________ as long as they are reasonable.
  151. Freedom of Speech
    Considered the most sacred right in American history. Colonists felt oppressed by the tyranny of the crown but were unable to speak up about it for fear of repercussion.
  152. Speech Plus
    Includes expressive conduct/assembly/actions and symbolic behavior (ex. Picketing or burning the flag) Based on our country history of symbolic acts such as the Boston Tea Party, courts almost always uphold symbolic acts of speech unless they are criminal.
  153. Pure Speech
    Direct oral or written speech directed at a specific individual or group
  154. Prior Restraint
    The 1st Amendment states that government cannot issue ______________, censoring publications before they are published.
  155. Freedom of Speech
    Limitations on this freedom including prohibition of defamation and obscenity, limitation on commercial speech, and restriction of inciting words that may cause immediate danger.
  156. Zenger
    Infamous 1735 English case established the precedent for Freedom of the Press in the US.
  157. Alien and Sedition Acts
    1798 Act that criminalized speech that was derisive to the government. Later ruled unconstitutional, Andrew Jackson issued blanket pardon in 1801
  158. Espionage Act
    1917 Reincarnation of the Sedition Act during WWI
  159. Clear and Present Danger
    In Schenck v. US (1919), The Supreme Court ruled that government may prohibit speech that creates an immediate threat of criminal action. Essentially established different standards for speech during wartime than in peacetime. Thus, establishing the ________________ doctrine.
  160. Roth v. US
    This 1957 judgement prohibited pornography material as utterly without redeeming social significance, later reversed in Miller v. California
  161. Slander
    Defamation by oral utterance rather than by writing, pictures
  162. Libel
    Defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures.
  163. NY Times v. Sullivan
    This 1964 case established strict standards for proving slander and libel, court must prove intent of malice on the part of the publisher.
  164. Freedom of Speech
    In Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969), the Supreme Court established precedents for ___________________ in schools and government institutions.
  165. Pentagon Papers
    The ruling in this case provided that the government must prove a threat to national security in order to impose prior restraint.
  166. Miller v. California
    This 1973 ruling gave local communities the authority to determine obscenity, established three part test for obscene material. To qualify as obscene, speech must be considered obscene by the "average" person, depict or describe material that is against state or federal law, and lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
  167. Speech Plus
    In Johnson v. Texas (1989), the Supreme Court ruled that burning the flag in a manner that does not pose a threat to people or property is allowed as this type of freedom of speech.
  168. 89
    Number of Federal District courts across 50 states, DC and Puerto Rico.
  169. Federal District
    Courts of original jurisdiction in federal crimes, civil suits under federal law, civil suits between citizens of different states where the amount in question exceeds $50,000, bankruptcy proceedings, cases involving some federal administrative agencies, maritime law cases, and cases that involve the naturalization of aliens.
  170. Federal Appellate
    These courts only hear appeals on cases from lower courts.
  171. Supreme Court
    The only court specifically outlined in the Constitution.
  172. Original
    The Supreme Court holds _____________ jurisdiction in cases against the US, ambassadors, public ministers, and consuls.
  173. 4
    _____ out of 9 justices must agree to hear an appellate case brought to them from a lower court.
  174. Writ of Certiorari
    Once the Supreme Court justices have agreed to hear an appeal, they issue a _________________.
  175. Majority Opinion
    A judicial opinion agreed to by a majority of the members of a court. A majority opinion sets forth the decision of the court and an explanation of the rationale behind the court's decision.
  176. Concurring Opinion
    A written opinion by some of the judges of a court which agrees with the majority of the court but might arrive there in a different manner.
  177. Dissenting Opinion
    An opinion of one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
  178. Supreme Court
    This body of government has final authority on the meaning of the Constitution.
  179. Legislative Courts
    Special courts assigned to deal with specific legislative issues such as taxes, military appeals, and international trade.
  180. Fixed
    Judges in Legislative Courts serve _______ terms and do not require impeachment.
  181. 2nd Amendment
    Guarantees the right to bare arms.
  182. 7th Amendment
    Guarantees the right to a civil trial by jury.
  183. 8th Amendment
    Guarantees that an accused in innocent until proven guilty.
  184. Elastic Clause
    This controversial clause of the 9th Amendment has allowed government to expand rights to suit its needs.
  185. 10th Amendment
    Guarantees that any rights not explicitly outlined heretofore are reserved for the states.
  186. 11th Amendment
    Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
  187. Civil War Amendments
    Includes the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. Abolished slavery and guaranteed due process and equal protection to all citizens.
  188. Due Process
    14th Amendment is often used to support the right to ____________.
  189. Incorporation Doctrine
    The 15th Amendment, also know as _________________, was intended to help recently freed blacks from unconstitutional state laws designed to circumvent federal laws.
  190. 16th Amendment
    Established national income tax.
  191. 18th Amendment
    Repealed by the 21st Amendment, this Amendment prohibited alcohol.
  192. 19th Amendment
    Guaranteed women the right to vote.
  193. 2
    Prompted by FDR's 4th election to the Presidency, the 22nd Amendment limited the number of Presidential terms to _____ terms.
  194. Poll Tax
    The 24th amendment banned _____________, making it harder for states to discriminate against poor and minority voters.
  195. Vietnam War
    Prompted by the ____________________, the 26th Amendment lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
  196. 25th Amendment
    Redefined Presidential succession and disability.
  197. 27th Amendment
    First proposed in 1789, this amendment passed in 1992 prohibits Congress from raising their own pay. Pay raises may not take affect until the beginning of the next term.
  198. District of Columbia
    The 23rd Amendment guaranteed voting rights to whom?
  199. Court of Appeals
    There are 11 circuit ____________________ who have no original jurisdiction.
  200. Political Party
    A group of people who try to influence policy agendas and whose ultimate goal is to run the government by getting their favorite candidates elected.
  201. Bipartisanship
    Representing, characterized by, or including members from two parties or factions
  202. Caucus
    A meeting of party leaders to select candidates, elect convention delegates, etc
  203. Political Machines
    During the 1800's and early 1900's, some state and local party committees became ________________ dominating party activities. Committee members would promise new recruits money, jobs, and other benefits for joining and voting the straight party ticket. The Democratic Party was especially successful at using this method to recruit immigrants and inner city poor. These groups functioned largely as welfare organizations controlling elections through corrupt means.
  204. Tammany Hall
    _____________ was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably the Irish) rise up in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s.
  205. Local
    It the job of _________ committees of a political party to hold voter registration drives, recruit new party members and final candidates for city and county positions.
  206. State
    Its the responsibility of ___________ committees of a political party to solidify the party within each state and organize primary elections
  207. National
    Members of the ______________ committee of a political party work to maintain influence during non election years through congressional campaign committees.
  208. Rank and File
    These voters are registered as a party member but only participate by voting in primary and general elections. Tend to vote straight-party ticket and follow the leads of local party officials.
  209. Party Regulars
    These party members take active non-leadership roles such as working polls or contributing money to campaigns. Tend to compromise on important issues and are mostly concerned about winning elections.
  210. Party Activists
    These party members are highly involved in the electoral process. Donate funds to party and candidates, demand a voice in state party agendas and tend to have a strong belief in their party's ideology.
  211. Party Purists
    These party members tend to be ideologues who put issues ahead of winning elections and withhold support from candidates who do not share their stance on issues. Very active in special interest groups and caucuses within the party. Willing to break away to form a 3rd party if the they feel ignored.
  212. Federalist
    During the period from 1976 to 1824, This party was lead by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. They wanted a stronger national government that would rectify the pitfalls of the Articles of Confederation. Their supporters held a stronghold in New England and the Middle Colonies, as well as urban centers of commerce and manufacturing.
  213. Democratic-Republicans
    Formerly known as the Anti-Federalist, this party lead by Thomas Jefferson advocated states rights pressing the causes of the common people and agrarian interest. Dominated the political arena until the Civil War.
  214. Democrats
    Political party lead by Andrew Jackson from 1828 to 1856. Campaigned against strong central government and fought to end elitism.
  215. Whigs
    Lead by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. Dedicated to defending federal authority and high tariffs. Gained supports of merchants, bankers, industrialists and planters.
  216. Republicans
    Formed as a third party on the issue of slavery by many former Whigs in the 1850's. Anti-slavery platform. Supported by farmers, laborers, and newly-freed blacks.
  217. Republicans
    Beginning with the election of Abraham Lincoln, the period between 1860 and the Great Depression was dominated by this political party.
  218. Democratic
    President Hoover's laissez-faire approach to the economy during the Great Depression left many poor voters disenfranchised by the Republican Party. They left to join the _______________ Party.
  219. New Deal Era
    The period of time after the election of FDR until the Vietnam War was dominated by the Democratic Party and know as the __________________ Era.
  220. Bull Moose Progressives
    Lead by Theodore Roosevelt, this party platform focused on women's suffrage, social reform, fair business practices, and direct election of senators. The won 25% of the popular vote in 1911, splitting the Republican vote and allowing Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win.
  221. Lafolette's Progressive s
    These dissenting Republicans won 17% of the popular vote in 1924 on a platform for public control of national resources and railways, tax reductions, and changes to the staff of the executive department
  222. Wallace's Progressives
    Dissenting Democrats focused on foreign affairs. Aligned with the US Communist Party.
  223. Lyndon B. Johnson
    The Democrats control over politics during the 20th century ended with this President's unpopular handling of the Vietnam War.
  224. Divided Government
    After the Vietnam war, American politics entered an era of __________________ during which neither party maintained control over the government.
  225. Northern and Southern
    The issue of slavery split the Democratic Party into what two factions?
  226. Third Parties
    Impact elections by siphoning off votes from major parties spoiling a party's chance in a close race.
  227. Third Party
    Electoral college system and other campaign practices make it exceedingly difficult for even popular ______________ candidates to successfully run for the presidency.
  228. Party Realignment
    When the minority party becomes stronger than the majority party, usually the result of winning a critical election.
  229. Critical Election
    The coming to power of a new coalition, replacing an old dominant coalition of the other party
  230. Third Parties
    These parties often emerge as off-shoots of major parties or as single-issue parties. They typically act as critic/innovator bringing attention to issues and influencing the platforms of the major parties.
  231. Conventions
    The Jacksonian Era marked an important change in the process used to nominate Presidential candidates with the emergence of party _________________, eliminating caucuses.
  232. Party Identification
    Voters tendency to identify with a party that shares their views on important issues ignoring the party's stance on issues they deem less important. to be life-long unless there is a major change in the party's platform. 2. Influenced by race, gender, education and religion. Age is less of a determining factor as most young people support the party their parents support.
  233. Party Dealignment
    When neither political party is dominant.
  234. High
    During Presidential election years or when the nation is divided on policy agenda, particularly regarding salient issues, voter turnout is _____________
  235. Internal Efficacy
    The belief that one can understand politics and therefore participate in politics
  236. External Efficacy
    The belief that one is effective when participating in politics, for example that the government will respond to one's demands
  237. Political Efficacy
    _______________ indicates a citizens' faith and trust in government and their own belief that they can understand and influence political affairs
  238. Interest Groups
    Organization of individuals with similar policy goals who enter the political process to influence legislation that affects the organizations interests
  239. Institutional
    Type of interest group represented in Washington by another individual or organization. (Ex. Ford Motor Company pays a lobbyist in Washington to represent them.)
  240. Membership
    An interest group organization that represents a specific group of people (Ex. NAACP, AARP)
  241. Political Action Committee
    The name commonly given to a private group, regardless of size, organized to elect political candidates. An organization becomes one by receiving contributions or making expenditures in excess of $1,000 for the purpose of influencing a federal election.
  242. Soft money
    Federal laws limit the amount of ___________ that can be donated directly to campaign coffers.
  243. Unlimited
    PACs may donate a ______________ amount of indirect or in-kind donations to a campaign. (Ex. placing ads to support their candidate)
  244. Negative
    The overall public has a ___________ view of PACS in terms of bought votes and adding to the cost of running for office
  245. Campaign Finance Reform
    Most Americans support ______________ primarily as part of their criticism of PACs
  246. 5,000
    Individual contributions to PACs are limited to ______________ dollars per candidate per election with primaries, general and special elections counting separately.
  247. Low
    When the population's overall feeling of political efficacy is low, voter turnout is _______.
  248. Unlimited
    Term limit for House of Representatives.
  249. 25
    Age Requirement for House of Representatives.
  250. 2
    Representatives serve ____ year terms
  251. Incumbents
    These candidates win re-election to the House 80-90% of the time.
  252. 30
    Age Requirement for the Senate
  253. 6
    Senators are re-elected every ___ years with 1/3 of the Senate being up for election every 2 years.
  254. Lower
    Senators have a __________ rate of re-election than Representatives primarily because of their larger constituency and lack of direct involvement with them.
  255. 9
    Number of years a Senator must reside in the US prior to taking office
  256. 7
    Number of years a Representative must reside in the US prior to taking office
  257. Pork Barrel Spending
    The appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats or campaign contributors.
  258. 12th Amendment
    Requires the Electoral College to vote for President and Vice President separately.
  259. 270
    Number of Electoral College votes required to win the Presidency.
  260. Electoral College
    Several Presidents have been elected without winning the popular vote. As a result, In 1970 and 1979, Amendments were proposed to disband the ______________, neither passed.
  261. 3
    Minimum number of voters per state in the Electoral College.
  262. Primary
    An election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election. In other words, one means by which a political party nominate candidates for the following general election.s
  263. Closed
    People may vote in a party's primary only if they are registered members of that party. Independents cannot participate. Note that because some political parties name themselves independent, the term "non-partisan" often replaces "independent" when referring to those who are not affiliated with a political party.
  264. Open
    A registered voter may vote in any party primary regardless of his own party affiliation. When voters do not register with a party before the primary, it is called a pick-a-party primary because the voter can select which party's primary he or she wishes to vote in on election day.
  265. Raiding
    Practice by which voters of one party crossing over and voting in the primary of another party, effectively allowing a party to help choose its opposition's candidate.
  266. Caucuses
    Popular until the early 20th century when they lost favor to primaries due to corruption, now used in only 12 states.
  267. General Election
    Held on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November.
  268. House of Representatives
    Elects the President if no candidate receives 270 Electoral College votes.
  269. Raise Public Awareness
    First step in the Policy Making Cycle.
  270. Policy Making Cycle
    Raise Public Awareness, Create Policy Agenda, Prioritize Agenda, Enact Policy, Public Evaluation
  271. Public Bills
    Legislature bills that affect all citizens.
  272. Private Bills
    Legislature bills that affect only a small group of citizens.
  273. Speaker of the House
    Assigns bills to the appropriate House committee.
  274. Committees
    Decides which bills will be considered.
  275. Sub-committee
    Responsible for further investigation, hearings, and amendment to a bill
  276. Rules Committee
    Powerful standing committee that puts bills on the legislative calendar and establishes the processes by which the bill will be discussed on the floor.
  277. Majority and Minority Leader
    Responsible for assigning bills to committee in the Senate.
  278. Unlimited
    Because there is no Senate Rules Committee, Senators can debate a bill for an _________________ time.
  279. Conference Committee
    After a bill has passed both the House and Senate, it goes to _________________ where any differences between the house bill and the senate bill are resolved before sending to the President for signature
  280. Enacted
    If 10 days remain in session and the president does not sign an act of Congress, the law is ___________.
  281. Dies
    If 10 days do not remain in session and the president does not sign an act of Congress, the bill __________.
  282. Veto
    Executive check on Legislative Branch.
  283. 2/3
    ___________ vote in both the House and Senate may override a Presidential veto of legislation.
  284. Republican
    Members of this party typically include Conservative Christian groups, higher socio-economic classes, middle-class white collar, and suburban voters.
  285. Democrats
    Members of this party typically include women who support liberal policies on abortion and equal pay, Jews, Catholics, Blacks and other minorities, Blue-collar working class, urban, labor unions, and intelligensia
  286. Salient Agenda
    Agenda that includes issues that affect the daily lives of the people.
  287. High
    Baby boomers, women, and voters with higher levels of education tend to have a ____________ voter turnout.
  288. Low
    High School Dropouts, Blacks, Hispanics, Recent immigrants, and People under 25 or over 75 tend to have a _________ voter turnout.
  289. Baby Boomers
    These voters tend to have a high voter turnout because of their strong since of civic duty due to growing up during an era of political and civil unrest.
  290. Blacks
    This group of voters historically supported Republicans, a party founded on an anti-slavery platform. During the 1930's they began supporting the New Deal policies of the Democratic party.
  291. Catholics
    While these voters have traditionally supported the Democrats, some have begun to support Republicans in light of the Democrats liberal policies on abortion.
  292. October 1st
    The federal fiscal year begins ___________.
  293. Cloture
    Procedure typically requiring 3/5 vote of the entire Senate to end a filibuster.
  294. Press Secretary
    Established by President Hoover, It is the _______________ job to keep the press informed and orchestrate press conferences
  295. Scandal Mongering
    At one time, the press generally refrained from publishing personal information that would be damaging. FDR, Eisenhower, and JFK all benefited from this reluctance to engage in _____________________. However, the American publics appetite for sensational stories along with intense competition among the media outlets has lead to less restraint. This has lead political parties to be much more careful in their candidate selection
  296. Trial Balloon
    Information sent out in order to observe the reaction of an audience. Used by politicians who deliberately leak information on a policy change under consideration.
  297. Smith Act
    1940 Act Prohibiting any person from advocating overthrowing the government through violence or force.
  298. Joseph McCarthy
    Wisconsin Republican who exploited public concern for political gain during the 1950's through freewheeling investigations of alleged Communists.
  299. Due Process of Law
    Designed to protect the individual against the arbitrary power of the state.
  300. Substantive Due Process
    Laws must be reasonable. The Supreme Court has abandoned this concept in regards to business matters citing that it is the responsibility of Congress to regulate economic matters. The court has continued to apply this to matters of civil liberties and privacy.
  301. Procedural Due Process
    Laws must be administered in a fair manner.
  302. John F. Kennedy
    First Roman Catholic elected President.
  303. Free Exercise Clause
    Guarantees that citizens cannot be compelled by the government to act in a way that is contrary to their religious beliefs. (ex. Conscientious objection to military service required by the draft is the execution of ______________)
  304. Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
    Permitted court authorized wire-tapping and bugging by federal, state, and local authorities and use of such evidence in trial. Later reversed by the Supreme Court based on 4th Amendment rights.
  305. Grand Jury Indictment
    Finding that enough evidence exists to warrant a criminal trial.
  306. Criminal Information
    In lieu of an indictment, the state prosecutor may file a _______________ charging the person with a crime.
  307. Double Jeopardy
    Constitutional protection of the accused to not be tried for the same crime twice.
  308. Mallory Rule
    Requires that a suspect in a federal case be arraigned without unnecessary delay.
  309. Selective Incorporation
    The Supreme Court practice of applying most of the provisions of the Bill of Rights to the states under the 14th Amendment.
  310. 14th Amendment
    Define US Citizenship as any person born or naturalized in the United States.
  311. Jus Soli
    Literally meaning "right of soil", confers citizenship by place of birth.
  312. Jus Sanguinis
    Literally meaning "right of blood", confers citizenship to a child from the parents.
  313. 5
    An immigrant who wished to become a citizen may be naturalized after living in the US for ___ years.
  314. national quotas
    The Immigration Act of 1965 abolished the practice of _______________ allowing more diversity among immigrants.
  315. 8 Million
    The estimated number of illegal aliens living in the US.
  316. Proposition 187
    California measure designed to deny welfare and other benefits to illegal aliens. Overwhelmingly passed the popular vote, but overturned in federal court because it extending beyond the bounds of state rights to attempt to control immigration.
  317. may not
    The Supreme Court has ruled that Congress_________________ take away a person's citizenship unless it is freely renounced.
  318. Democracy
    A word that comes from two Greek roots, demos, "the populace," and kratia, "rule"�taken together, "rule by the people."
  319. Distribution
    What occurs when government adopts a public policy that provides, or distributes, benefits to people or groups.
  320. Equality
    The concept that all people are of equal worth, even if not of equal ability.
  321. Government
    The individuals, institutions, and processes that make the rules for society and possess the power to enforce them.
  322. Implementation
    The action, or actions, taken by government to carry out a policy.
  323. Majority Rule
    Concept of government by the people in which everyone is free to vote, but normally whoever gets the most votes wins the election and represents all the people, including those who voted for the losing candidate.
  324. Policy
    A course of action decided upon by a government�or by any organization, group, or individual�that usually involves a choice among competing alternatives.
  325. Politics
    The pursuit and exercise of power
  326. Public Policy
    A course of action chosen by government officials
  327. Redistributive Policy
    A public policy that takes something away from one person or group and gives it to another person or group.
  328. Republic
    Form of government in which the people are sovereign but their power is exercised by their elected representatives.
  329. Articles of Confederation
    (1781-1789) The written framework for the government of the original 13 states before the Constitution was adopted. Under this, the national government was weak and dominated by the states. There was a unicameral legislature, but no national executive or judiciary.
  330. Charter Colonies
    Colonies in which freely elected legislatures chose the governor and the king could not veto laws.
  331. Checks and Balances
    The provisions of the Constitution that divide power among three constitutionally equal and independent branches of government�legislative, executive, and judicial�in the hope of preventing any single branch from becoming too powerful.
  332. Confederation
    A group of independent states or nations that come together for a common purpose and whose central authority is usually limited to defense and foreign relations.
  333. Elastic Clause
    Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution.
  334. Electoral College
    The body composed of electors from the 50 states who formally have the power to elect the president and vice president of the United States. Each state has a number of electors and electoral votes equal to its number of senators and representatives in Congress.
  335. Eminent Domain
    The principle that the government, as provided in the Fifth Amendment, can take property for "public use" with "just compensation" to the owners.
  336. Flexible Construction
    The principle, established by Chief Justice John Marshall in 1819 in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, that the Constitution must be interpreted flexibly to meet changing conditions.
  337. Military-Industrial Complex
    A term often used to describe the economic and political ties between the military establishment and the defense-aerospace industry.
  338. Natural Rights
    The belief that all people possess certain basic rights that may not be abridged by government.
  339. Proprietary Colonies
    Colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.
  340. Royal Colonies
    Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
  341. Supremacy Clause
    Article VI, Paragraph 2, of the Constitution, which declares that the Constitution, and the laws and treaties of the United States made under it, are "the supreme Law of the Land" and prevail over any conflicting state constitutions or laws.
  342. Unicameral
    A legislature with only one house.
  343. Concurrent Powers
    Powers of government exercised independently by both the federal and state governments, such as the power to tax.
  344. Creative Federalism
    A term coined by President Lyndon B. Johnson to describe his own view of the relationship between Washington and the states.
  345. Enumerated Powers
    Powers of government that are specifically granted to the three branches of the federal government under the Constitution.
  346. General Purpose Grants
    Federal aid that states and localities may use mostly as they wish.
  347. Implied Powers
    Powers of the national government that flow from its enumerated powers and the "elastic clause" of the Constitution.
  348. Inherent Powers
    Powers of government that the national government may exercise simply because it exists as a government, such as the right to conduct foreign relations.
  349. Unitary System
    A centralized system of government, such as that of France, where most of the important policy decisions are made by a central government.
  350. Absolute Position
    The view advocated by Supreme Court Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas that there are provisions of the Bill of Rights that cannot be diluted by judicial decisions.
  351. Balancing Test
    The view of the majority of the Supreme Court that First Amendment rights must be weighed against the competing needs of the community to preserve order.
  352. Civil Liberties
    The fundamental rights of a free society that are protected by the Bill of Rights against the power of the government, such as freedom of speech, religion, press, and assembly.
  353. Clear and Present Danger
    A test established by Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., in 1919 to define the point at which speech loses the protection of the First Amendment.
  354. Patriot Act
    A controversial law overwhelmingly passed by Congress in October 2001, after the terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. It greatly expanded the power of federal law enforcement authorities to move against suspected terrorists.
  355. Affirmative Action
    Programs of government, universities, and businesses designed to favor minorities and remedy past discrimination.
  356. Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas
    Ruling by the Supreme Court in 1954 that racial segregation in public schools violates the Fourteenth Amendment's requirement of equal protection of the laws for all persons.
  357. Dred Scott Decision
    A ruling by the Supreme Court in 1857�reversed by the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868�that black Americans were not citizens under the Constitution.
  358. Gerrymandering
    The drawing of the lines of congressional districts, or of any other political district, in order to favor one political party or group over another.
  359. Jim Crow Laws
    Laws that were designed to segregate black and white Americans and give legal recognition to discrimination.
  360. Literacy Tests
    Tests of a voter's ability to read and write, which were often used to keep recent immigrants and blacks from voting.
  361. Poll Tax
    A tax on voting abolished by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964, long used by southern states to keep blacks (and, in some cases, poor whites) from participating in elections.
  362. Segregation
    The separation of people by race.
  363. Bandwagon
    The possible tendency of some voters or convention delegates to support the candidate who is leading in the polls and seems likely to win.
  364. Cluster Sampling
    A technique polling organizations use in which several people from the same neighborhood are interviewed.
  365. Exit Polls
    Polls taken as people leave voting places. In the past, television networks sometimes used these polls to predict election outcomes before the polls close. In 1992, the television networks agreed not to project the winner in a state until the majority of the polls had closed in that state.
  366. Political Culture
    A nation's set of fundamental beliefs about how government and politics should be conducted.
  367. Political Socialization
    The process through which an individual acquires a set of political attitudes and forms opinions about political and social issues.
  368. Public Opinion
    The expression of attitudes about government and politics.
  369. Quota Sampling
    A method of polling, considered less reliable than a random sample, in which interviewers are instructed to question members of a particular group in proportion to their percentage in the population as a whole.
  370. Random Sample
    A group of people, chosen by poll-takers, that is representative of the universe that is being polled.
  371. Reference Group
    Groups whose views serve as guidelines to an individual's opinion. See also primary groups and secondary groups.
  372. Secondary Group
    Organizations or groups, such as labor unions or fraternal, professional, or religious groups, that may influence an individual's opinion.
  373. Universe
    The total group from which poll-takers may select a random sample in order to measure public opinion.
  374. Independent Expenditures
    Funds spent for or against a candidate by committees not formally connected to the candidate's campaign and without coordination with the campaign.
  375. Interest Groups
    Private groups that attempt to influence the government to respond to the shared attitudes of their members.
  376. Lobbying
    Communication with legislators or other government officials to try to influence their decisions.
  377. Political Action Committees
    Independent organizations, but more often the political arms of corporations, labor unions, or interest groups, established to contribute to candidates or to work for general political goals.
  378. Equal Time
    A provision of the Federal Communications Act that requires broadcasters to provide the same amount of exposure to all legally qualified political candidates.
  379. Freedom of Information Act
    A law passed in 1966 that requires federal executive branch and regulatory agencies to make information available to journalists, scholars, and the public unless it falls into one of several confidential categories.
  380. Muckrakers
    A group of writers, journalists, and critics who exposed corporate malfeasance and political corruption in the first decade of the 20th century.
  381. Shield Laws
    Laws passed by state legislatures that are designed to protect reporters from being forced to reveal their news sources.
  382. Dark Horse
    A political candidate who is thought to have only an outside chance of gaining the nomination.
  383. Major Political Party
    A broadly based coalition that attempts to gain control of the government by winning elections in order to exercise power and reward its members.
  384. National Chair
    The head of a national political party
  385. National Committee
    Between conventions, the governing body of a major political party. Members of this group are chosen in the states and formally elected by the party
  386. National Convention
    The formal source of all authority in each major political party. It nominates the party candidates for president and vice president, writes a platform, settles disputes, writes rules, and elects the members of the national committee.
  387. 527 Organizations
    Groups named for the section of the Internal Revenue Service code under which they must report their expenditures. The tax-exempt groups were created to exploit a loophole in the law regulating campaign finance.
  388. Negative Advertising
    Political commercials that strongly attack a rival candidate.
  389. Soft Money
    Until the law was changed in 2002, the term described unregulated campaign funds not subject to the limits of federal law because they went to party committees and not directly to candidates. The 2002 law banned contributions of soft money to national political parties.
  390. Blanket Primary
    A primary in which any registered voter is able to vote for candidates from more than one party. A voter, for example, may vote for a Democrat for U.S. senator and for a Republican for governor. In 2000, the Supreme Court struck down the blanket primary in California, Washington state, and Alaska but left intact Louisiana's somewhat different "nonpartisan" version of the blanket primary.
  391. Deviating Elections
    Elections in which the majority party (according to party identification) is defeated in a temporary reversal.
  392. Maintaining Elections
    Elections that reflect the basic party identification of the voters.
  393. Office Column Ballot
    Also known as the Massachusetts ballot, groups candidates according to the office for which they are running�all the presidential candidates of all the parties appear in one column or row, for example.
  394. Party Column Ballot
    Also known as the Indiana ballot, lists the candidates of each party in a row or column, beside or under the party emblem. In most cases, the voter can make one mark at the top of the column, or pull one lever, and thus vote for all the party's candidates for various offices. This ballot encourages straight-ticket voting.
  395. Periodic Registration
    A system of voter registration in which voters must register every year or at other stated intervals.
  396. Permanent Registration
    A system of voter registration in which voters must register only once in their district.
  397. Realigning Elections
    Elections that may lead to a basic shift in the party identification of the electorate.
  398. Retrospective Voting
    Voting based on looking back and making judgments about the way things have gone and the kind of government experienced during a political leader's time in office.
  399. Appropriation Bills
    Bills passed by Congress to pay for the spending it has authorized.
  400. Authorizations
    Congress' first step towards allocating funds
  401. Committee of the Whole
    A device that allows the House of Representatives to conduct its business with fewer restrictions on debate and a quorum of only 100 members.
  402. Hold
    The practice that allows senators to delay or even kill floor action on legislation, a nomination, or other matters by asking their party leaders not to schedule them.
  403. Instructed Delegate
    A legislator who automatically mirrors the will of the majority of his or her constituents.
  404. Joint Committees
    Committees of Congress composed of both representatives and senators.
  405. Legislative Veto
    A provision of law in which Congress asserts the power to nullify actions of the executive branch. In 1983 the Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional, but Congress continued to pass laws containing such provisions.
  406. Pork-Barrel Legislation
    Bills that benefit legislators' home districts, or powerful corporate contributors, with sometimes wasteful or unnecessary public works or other projects.
  407. Recorded Vote
    A vote in the House of Representatives in which the position of each member is noted and published in the Congressional Record.
  408. Select Committee
    Committees created by Congress to conduct special investigations. Although normally temporary, some become, in effect, permanent.
  409. Senatorial Courtesy
    An unwritten custom by which individual senators who belong to the same political party as the president exercise an informal veto power over presidential appointments in their states.
  410. Seniority System
    A system, until modified and reformed in the 1970s, that automatically resulted in the selection as committee chair of those members of the majority party in Congress who had the longest continuous service on a committee.
  411. Standing Committees
    The permanent committees of a legislature that consider bills and conduct hearings and investigations.
  412. Trustee
    Concept of the British statesman Edmund Burke that legislators should act according to their own consciences.
  413. Whip
    A legislative leader of each party who is responsible for rounding up party members for important votes.
  414. Cabinet
    The president, the vice president, the heads of the major executive departments of the government, and certain other senior officials who may hold "cabinet rank."
  415. Civilian Supremacy
    The principle of civilian control of the military, based on the clear constitutional power of the president as supreme commander of the armed forces.
  416. Cold War
    (1945-1991) The period after the Second World War marked by rivalry and tension between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union. The Cold War ended when the Soviet government collapsed in 1991.
  417. Executive Agencies
    Units of government under the president, within the executive branch, that are not part of a cabinet department.
  418. Executive Agreements
    International agreements between the president and foreign heads of state that, unlike treaties, do not require Senate approval.
  419. Executive Privilege
    The claim by presidents of an inherent right to withhold information from Congress and the judiciary.
  420. Independent Regulatory Agencies
    Government agencies that exercise quasi-judicial and quasi-legislative powers and are administratively independent of both the president and Congress (although politically independent of neither).
  421. Line-Item Veto
    The power of the president, struck down by the Supreme Court in 1998, to veto parts of appropriations bills. Most state governors have this power.
  422. National Security Council
    A White House council created under the National Security Act of 1947 to advise the president and help coordinate American military and foreign policy.
  423. Pocket Veto
    A power of the president to kill a bill by taking no action (if Congress adjourns during the 10-day period after the president receives the bill). Some court rulings have suggested that a president may exercise a pocket veto only when Congress adjourns for good at the end of a second session, and not during a recess.
  424. Riders
    Provisions tacked on to a piece of legislation that are not relevant to the bill.
  425. Veto
    Disapproval of a bill by a chief executive, such as the president or a governor.
  426. War Powers Resolution
    A law passed by Congress in 1973 in an effort to set a time limit on the use of combat forces abroad by a president.
  427. Constituencies
    Voters in a political district, or supporters of an elected official; or interest groups or client groups that are either directly regulated by the bureaucracy or vitally affected by its decisions.
  428. Government Corporations
    Agencies that were at one time semi-autonomous but that through legislation have been placed under presidential control since 1945.
  429. Hatch Act
    A federal law passed by Congress in 1939 to restrict political activities by federal workers. The law prevents federal employees while on duty from taking an active part in party politics or campaigns and also bars federal employees from running for public office as a candidate of a political party.
  430. Iron Triangle
    A powerful alliance of mutual benefit among an agency or unit of the government, an interest group, and a committee or subcommittee of Congress. Also called a triangle or a subgovernment.
  431. Issue Networks
    A loose grouping of people and organizations who seek to influence policy formation.
  432. Political Patronage
    The practice of victorious politicians to reward their followers with jobs. Also known as the spoils system.
  433. Public Administration
    The term most political scientists prefer to describe the bureaucratic process�the business of making government work.
  434. Senior Executive Service
    A group of high-level administrators and managers at the top of the government bureaucracy. SES members have less job tenure but are eligible for substantial cash bonuses for merit.
  435. Social Regulation
    Laws, rules, and government programs designed to protect individual rights and specific groups, as well as to benefit society as a whole in such areas as health, worker safety, consumer protection, and the environment.
  436. Spoils System
    The practice under which victorious politicians reward their followers with jobs.
  437. Sub-government
    A powerful alliance of mutual benefit among an agency or unit of the government, an interest group, and a committee or subcommittee of Congress. Also called a triangle or iron triangle.
  438. Whistle-blowers
    Government employees who publicly expose evidence of official waste or corruption that they have learned about in the course of their duties.
  439. Administrative Law
    The rules and regulations made and applied by federal regulatory agencies and commissions.
  440. Arraignment
    The proceeding before a judge in which the formal charges of an indictment or information are read to an accused person, who may plead guilty or not guilty.
  441. Civil Cases
    Court cases that involve relations between individuals and organizations, such as a divorce action, or a suit for damages arising from an automobile accident or for violation of a business contract.
  442. Criminal Cases
    Court cases that concern crimes committed against the public order.
  443. Equity
    A legal principle of fair dealing, which may provide preventive measures and legal remedies that are unavailable under existing common law and statutory law.
  444. Felonies
    Serious crimes, such as murder, arson, or rape.
  445. Judicial Activism
    A philosophy that Supreme Court justices and other judges should boldly apply the Constitution to social and political questions.
  446. Judicial Restraint
    A philosophy that the Supreme Court should avoid constitutional questions when possible and uphold acts of Congress unless they clearly violate a specific section of the Constitution.
  447. Jurisdiction
    The kinds of cases that a court has the authority to decide.
  448. Laissez-Faire
    The philosophy that government should intervene as little as possible in economic affairs.
  449. Marbury v. Madison
    The 1803 case in which the Supreme Court, by declaring a portion of an act of Congress unconstitutional, first firmly set forth and established the power of judicial review.
  450. Misdemeanors
    Minor criminal offenses, such as speeding.
  451. Original Jurisdiction
    The right of the Supreme Court, under the Constitution, to hear certain kinds of cases directly, such as cases involving foreign diplomats, or cases in which one of the 50 states is a party.
  452. Stare Decisis
    A Latin phrase meaning "stand by past decisions," a principle that judges often use in deciding cases. Ruling based on precedents.
  453. Statutory Law
    Law enacted by Congress, or by state legislatures or local legislative bodies.
  454. Writ of Certiorari
    A writ designed to protect against illegal imprisonment by requiring that a person who is detained be brought before a judge for investigation.
  455. Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
    A 1972 treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union limiting the number of defensive missiles each country could build. In 2001 President George W. Bush withdrew the United States from the treaty.
  456. Containment
    The foreign policy of the United States during the period after the Second World War, designed to contain the expansion of Soviet power.
  457. Detente
    A relaxation of international tensions.
  458. Foreign Policy
    The sum of the goals, decisions, and actions that govern a nation's relations with the rest of the world.
  459. Globalization
    A world economy characterized by the free movement of goods, capital, labor, and information across national borders.
  460. Internationalism
    The policy established after the Second World War that America must take an active leadership role in world affairs
  461. Interventionism
    A strand of American foreign policy that was visible by the end of the 19th century; it included "gunboat diplomacy" and other forms of military involvement by the United States in various parts of the world.
  462. Isolationism
    A policy of avoiding foreign involvement.
  463. Joint Chiefs of Staff
    The chair and the heads of the three armed services, and, when Marine Corps matters are under consideration, the commandant of the marines. By law, they advise the president and the secretary of defense and are the chiefs of their respective military services.
  464. Marshall Plan
    A plan to provide billions of dollars of American aid to Western Europe to speed its economic and social recovery after the Second World War.
  465. Monroe Doctrine
    A declaration by the President in 1823 that warned European powers to keep out of the Western Hemisphere and pledged that the United States would not intervene in the internal affairs of Europe.
  466. National Security
    A broad concept that may be defined in many ways, but the term is generally used to refer to the basic protection and defense of the nation.
  467. Nationalism
    Love of country and a desire for independence; it can also mean an excessive form of patriotism exploited by political leaders.
  468. Nuclear Proliferation
    The spread of nuclear weapons to more nations.
  469. Strategic Deterrence
    A policy adopted by the United States after the Second World War that assumed that if enough nuclear weapons were deployed by the United States, an enemy would not attack for fear of being destroyed in retaliation.
  470. Transnational Relations
    Contacts, coalitions, and interactions across national boundaries�such as personal contacts or business relationships�that are not controlled by the central foreign policy organs of governments.
  471. Balance of Payments
    The net balance or relationship between total income and total expenditures by the nation in its dealings with the rest of the world, including trade, loans, and investments.
  472. Balance of Trade
    The relationship between the total cost of foreign goods imported to this country and sales of U.S. products overseas.
  473. Budget Resolutions
    Overall spending targets set by the Congress.
  474. Budget Surplus
    The amount of money available when the government's income is greater than what it spends in a fiscal year.
  475. Capitalism
    An economic system of free enterprise with private ownership of the means of production.
  476. Deficit
    The gap between the government's income and outlays.
  477. Fiscal Policy
    Government regulation of the economy through its control over taxes and government spending. Controlled by the Department of Treasury.
  478. Gross Domestic Product
    The yearly value of goods and services produced within a country.
  479. Monetary Policy
    Government regulation of the economy through its control over the supply of money and the cost and availability of credit. Controlled by the Federal Reserve Board.
  480. National Debt
    The total amount of money that the United States owes to its creditors.
  481. Supply Side Economics
    An economic philosophy that advocates both tax and budget cuts to increase incentives to produce in order to expand the total supply of the nation's goods and services.
  482. Tariff
    A federal tax on imports.
  483. Closed Shop
    A place of work in which only union members may be hired.
  484. Conglomerates
    Multi-interest and often multinational corporations that, under one corporate roof, may manufacture a wide variety of products.
  485. Entitlement Programs
    Programs mandated by law and not subject to annual review by Congress or the president.
  486. Medicaid
    A public assistance program established in 1965 to help pay hospital, doctor, and medical bills for people with low incomes.
  487. Medicare
    A federal program established in 1965 to provide hospital and medical services to older people through the Social Security system.
  488. Monopoly
    Control of a market by a single company.
  489. Oligopoly
    The concentration of economic power in the hands of a relatively few large companies.
  490. Right to Work Laws
    State legislation designed to outlaw the union shop, passed by 21 states acting under Section 14B of the federal Taft-Hartley Act.
  491. Social Security
    A compulsory national insurance program, financed by taxes on employers and employees. The insurance falls into four categories: old-age and survivors insurance, disability insurance, Medicare, and unemployment insurance.
  492. Union Shop
    A place of work in which any person may be hired provided that he or she joins the union within a specified time.
  493. Commission Plan
    A form of city government under which a board of city commissioners is popularly elected (often on a nonpartisan ballot). The commissioners make policy as a city council, but they also run city departments as administrators.
  494. Council-Manager Plan
    A form of city government under which a council, usually elected on a nonpartisan ticket, hires a professional city manager, who runs the city government and has power to hire and fire officials.
  495. Enterprise Zones
    Urban or rural areas in which businesses are encouraged to locate because of tax breaks and other incentives.
  496. Home Rule
    The power of some municipalities to modify their charters and run their affairs without approval by the state legislature.
  497. Initiative
    A method of amending state constitutions under which proposed constitutional amendments can be placed on the ballot if enough signatures are obtained on a petition. Almost half the states also employ the initiative on the ballot to allow voters to enact or repeal laws.
  498. Mayor-Council Plan
    A form of city government under which power is divided between a mayor and an elected city council.
  499. Power Structure
    A term popularized by sociologist Floyd Hunter to describe the community leaders who he said determined policy in Atlanta, Georgia. More broadly, the term is used to describe "power elites" generally.
  500. Recall
    A procedure that in certain circumstances permits voters to remove elected state or local officials from office before their terms have expired.
  501. Referendum
    A method available in most states that allows voters, in effect, to "veto" a bill passed by the legislature or to accept or reject a proposal, such as a bond issue, made by a government agency.
  502. Town Meeting
    An annual meeting held in the spring in many New England towns, at which the townspeople come together to elect a board of selectmen and to discuss local policy questions. It has become a symbol of participatory democracy.
  503. Lord Acton
    According to this nineteenth-century British peer and historian, "power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely."
  504. Demands
    Requests from people or groups for health care for the aged, loans for college students, equal opportunity for minorities, and higher subsidies for farmers are examples of:
  505. Little Difference
    Most modern political scientists believe there is ________________ between politics and government.
  506. Political System
    It is possible either to describe people, government, politics, and power as isolated, static elements, or to look at them as interacting elements in a_______________.
  507. Outputs
    6 In the view of Robert L. Lineberry, policy analysts focus on the _______________.
  508. Redistributive Policy
    A policy that takes something away from one person and gives it to someone else,
  509. Suburbia
    Population migration patterns since the second World War have increased the power of _____________.
  510. Government
    Economists generally agree that the major responsibility for promoting prosperity and full employment falls on ________________.
  511. Winston Churchill
    Which historical figure described democracy as "the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time?"
  512. Shay's Rebellion
    This event was an important factor in creating the climate for a new Constitution.
  513. Great Compromise
    This called for three-fifths of all slaves in a state were counted for purposes of apportioning representation in the House of Representatives.
  514. Export Taxes
    As part of the negotiations concerning the Constitution, the South fought for and won an agreement forbidding the imposition of _______________.
  515. Enact a Bill of Rights
    In order to win support for ratification of the Constitution, the Federalists had to promise that the first order of business under a new government would be to _______________.
  516. Flexible Construction
    In his historic decision in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Chief Justice Marshall established the principle of _____________.
  517. Committees of Correspondence
    The ______________________ were formed to unite the colonists against Britain.
  518. 14th Amendment
    This amendment includes the due process clause, the equal protection clause, and gave rights to former slaves.
  519. Concurrent
    The power to tax is an example of _______________ powers.
  520. Interstate Compact
    The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is an example of an
  521. Categorical Grants
    By far, the largest amount of federal aid to state and local governments comes in the form of:
  522. Categorical Grants
    The Medicaid and Food Stamp programs are examples of two very large
  523. Federal
    Germany, Switzerland, and India are examples of countries with a _______________ system of government.
  524. Implied Powers
    Which powers of the national government flow from its enumerated powers and from the "elastic clause" of the Constitution?
  525. National Supremacy
    In addition to the doctrine of implied powers, Chief Justice Marshall, in his decision in the Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), established the key concept of:
  526. Regulatory Federalism
    The 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act, the 1965 Highway Beautification Act and the 1964 Civil Rights Act are all examples of ____________________.
  527. Roe v. Wade
    In which case did the Supreme Court rule that the concept of privacy included the right to a legal abortion?
  528. Selective Incorporation
    In the 1925 Gitlow case, the Supreme Court began a process of ______________ of the Bill of Rights to the states.
  529. Freedom of Religion
    In 2002, a federal appeals court struck down the Pledge of Allegiance on the grounds that it violated ________________.
  530. Free Speech
    In a 1943 case, the Supreme Court upheld the right to refuse to salute the American flag on the basis of the constitutional guarantee of _________________.
  531. Due Process of Law
    The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments provide for _____________.
  532. Commonwealth
    Puerto Rico has ____________ status.
  533. 77
    The median income of women is ___________ percent of men.
  534. It Failed to be Ratified
    The Equal Rights Amendment was defeated in 1982 because ____________________________.
  535. Gay
    In the year 2000, the Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts of America had a constitutional right to ban _____________ members.
  536. 1964 Civil Rights Act
    This act prohibited Discrimination because of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin by employers or labor unions; The adoption by voting registrars of different standards for black and white applicants; and Racial or religious discrimination in public accommodations.
  537. Weber
    In which case did the Supreme Court rule that the 1964 Civil Rights Act does not prohibit private affirmative action programs?
  538. Situational
    In the view of W. Lance Bennett, the people who hold and express opinions are constantly changing, as are the issues and conditions to which the public responds. As a result, Bennett suggests that public opinion is______________.
  539. Diminish
    A study of Bennington College students in the 1930s illustrated that the influence of the family on political attitudes tends to ______________ as they grow older and come into contact with other groups.
  540. Exit Polls
    In 1992, the television networks agreed not to release these until a majority of polling places had closed in each state
  541. Public Opinion
    Political leaders typically try to both lead and follow ____________.
  542. Pluralist
    In his classic study of community power in New Haven, Connecticut, political scientist Robert A. Dahl concluded that the city was a __________ system dominated by many different sets of leaders
  543. The Federalist #10
    In this essay, James Madison recognized that reconciling the competing interests of various groups was what legislation was all about
  544. 31
    According to one survey, what percentage of Americans belongs to groups that sometimes take a stand on public issues
  545. Decreased
    Between 1909 and 2002, the number of daily newspapers in the United States______________.
  546. Political Advertising
    The FCC's equal time policy applies to _____________.
  547. 1st Amendment
    In 1987, the FCC abandoned the fairness doctrine on the grounds that it unconstitutionally restricted the ______________ rights of broadcasters.
  548. Offensive Language
    In 1978, the Supreme Court, in the "seven dirty words" case, ruled that the government has the right to prohibit the broadcasting of _______________.
  549. Federal Courts
    Although camera are allowed in most trial courts, they are banned from ______________.
  550. Adversarial
    To an extent, the press and the government have a relationship that is _______________ and mutually dependent.
  551. Proportional Representation
    A system of _______________, as in Italy, encourages the existence of many parties by allotting seats to competing candidates according to the percentage of votes they win.
  552. Convention Bounce
    This term refers to the gain in the polls that a candidate often enjoys after a national convention
  553. Republicans
    Today the South is is a two-party battleground, in which the ______________ often have the upper hand
  554. Party of Economic Protest
    According to V. O. Key, Jr., the Populist Party of the 1890s is an example of a ____________________.
  555. 2/3
    After analyzing 1,795 platform pledges over a 10-year period, Gerald M. Pomper concluded that almost ____________ of these promises were fulfilled
  556. Television
    In a political campaign, the surest way of reaching the largest number of voters is usually _____________.
  557. Ticket Splitters
    Walter DeVries and Lance Tarrance have concluded that in many elections the outcome is determined by ______________.
  558. Populous
    Political strategists believe that presidential elections will normally be won or lost in _______________states.
  559. Republicans
    In the area of foreign affairs, _______________ often have the advantage because
  560. 2/3
    ________ of voters identify with one political party in advance of the campaign.
  561. National Political Parties
    The 2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act banned contributions of soft money to______________.
  562. Television and Radio
    The single biggest item in campaign spending at the presidential level is ___________________.
  563. 55
    The average voter turnout between 1960 and 2004 was __________ percent
  564. Gender Gap
    ______________ refers to the differences in political attitudes and voting behavior between men and women
  565. Independent
    Approximately 33% of American voters identify themselves as _______________ party.
  566. Closed
    In states using primaries, the most common form of primary election is the ___________ primary.
  567. Permanent Registration
    Which form of registration prevails in all but a few states?
  568. Straight Ticket Voting
    The party-column ballot, or Indiana ballot, encourages _______________.
  569. Custom
    The reason that electors are chosen in each state by popular vote is ____________.
  570. Reynolds v. Sims
    In the 1964 case of ____________, the Supreme Court: established "one person, one vote",
  571. Electoral Connection
    David R. Mayhew has suggested that this influences congressional behavior. The ________________ is the relationship between members of Congress and their constituents.
  572. House of Representatives
    The framers of the Constitution created the Senate to function as a check on the ________________.
  573. General Accounting
    Which office serves as a watchdog into waste or fraud in the bureaucracy and conducts investigations at the request of congressional committees
  574. Supports
    The attitudes and actions of people that sustain and buttress the political system at all levels and allows the political system to continue to work.
  575. Politics
    The pursuit and exercise of power.
  576. Outputs
    The binding decisions that the government makes whether in the form of laws,regulations, or judicial decisions
  577. Inputs
    The demands of and supports for a political system
  578. Feedback
    The response of the rest of society to actions by the authorities.
  579. Separate but Equal
    The 1896 case of Plessy v. Fergusan established the racial segregation policy of __________________.
  580. Voting
    Southern whites prevented blacks from ____________ through use of poll taxes, literacy tests and intimidation tactics after the Civil War.
  581. W.E.B. DuBoise
    Early civil rights leader established the Niagara Movement and helped to establish the NAACP.
  582. CORE
    First civil rights organization to use non-violent tactics to promote racial equality and desegregation
  583. Truman
    Signed the executive order banning segregation in the armed forces.
  584. Blacks
    Smith v. Allwight (1994) was the first vase in which the Supreme Court upheld the voting rights of _____________ in state primary elections.
  585. Separate but Equal
    in Sweatt v. Painter (1950), The Supreme Court upheld that ___________________ was inherently not the case as is applied to the University of Texas Law School.
  586. Dynamic Conservatism
    Eisenhower's philosophy of being liberal in all things human and being conservative with all things fiscal. Appealed to both Republicans and Democrats.
  587. Earl Warren
    Appointed by Eisenhower, this Supreme court justice who played an important role in the court's stance on the advancement of civil rights.
  588. Thurgood Marshall
    First African American appointed to the Supreme Court
  589. Affirmative Action
    Programs are designed to give preferential access to education, employment, health care, or social welfare to groups of people, especially minorities and women, who have historically been discriminated against.
  590. Reverse Discrimination
    In _______________ cases such as Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Supreme Court has upheld that while Affirmative action policies are legal, race and gender cannot be the only determining factors.
  591. School Desegregation
    Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman (1979) upheld that bussing programs were an acceptable way to enforce ______________________.
  592. Legislative
    Article I of the Constitution establishes the ___________________ branch.
  593. Executive
    Article II of the Constitution establishes the ______________ branch.
  594. Article IV
    ________________ of the Constitution governs the relationships of the states.
  595. Article V
    ________________ of the Constitution dictates how the Constitution shall be amended.
  596. Article VI
    The Supremacy Clause appears in ________________ of the Constitution.
  597. Ratification
    Article VII of the Constitution outlines the process of ____________________.
  598. Secretary of State
    The state officer typically responsible for overseeing federal elections at the state level is the
  599. Declining
    Since 1960, there has been a general trend of ______________ participation in elections.
  600. Department of State
    First Executive Branch
  601. Family
    The strongest factor contributing to an individual's political socialization tends to be
  602. AARP
    Largest interest group in the US.
  603. Republicans
    Proponents of limited government, unregulated free markets, national self-reliance, and conventional social values are best describes as
  604. Propose an Amendment
    This may be done by a national constitutional convention called by Congress on the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures OR By the passage of a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress
  605. Campaign Contributions
    Lobbyists for special interest groups have found ____________________ to be the most direct and effective method to secure their objectives in Congress.
  606. Royalists
    he United States Constitution was opposed by which group?
  607. General Accounting Office
    The agency that provides Congress with evaluations of public policies is the
  608. Parallel
    Federal and State Courts function in a _____________manner so that federal courts may receive appeals from state courts.
  609. State Legislatures
    ____________________ define Congressional voting districts acting within constraints set down by Congress and the Supreme Court.
  610. Bicameral
    Most states have ___________ legislatures.
  611. Intelligence
    Which of the following factors is likely to be the weakest indicator of an individual's political beliefs and opinions? Age, Race, Intelligence, or Religion
  612. Bowers v. Hardwick
    In this case, a gay man from Georgia charged with committing sodomy in his own home with a consenting adult. The court ruled that the Constitution does not explicitly grant the right for homosexuals to practice their lifestyle and that laws against sodomy were Constitutional.
  613. Mark Up Session
    After hearings are complete, a congressional subcommittee will usually determine a bill's future in final deliberations known as
  614. Caucuses
    In Congress, _____________ are informal organizations of individual congressional representatives with like interests or constituencies. Members work together to promote the interests of the groups they represent through legislation, policy, and pressure on government agencies.
  615. Separation of Powers
    James Madison proposed to deal with the threat of political factions by ______________________.
  616. Department of Treasury
    ______________________is responsible for the management of the federal debt and the printing of currency. It is the major fiscal policy agency.
  617. The Federal Reserve Board
    _____________ is responsible for monetary policy.
  618. States
    The Supreme Court is the only judicial body that may hear disputes between _________________.
  619. Entitlement Spending
    Spending determined by the number of qualified recipients and their legally determined need is called
  620. Electoral Votes
    The number of ______________ a state receives is based on the number Representatives and Senators that the state has in Congress
  621. Lose
    In the mid-term elections following a President's inauguration, his party tends to ___________ seats in Congress.
  622. Economic Interest Groups
    This category of interest groups has been the strongest and most effective in lobbying Washington
  623. Increased
    The expansion of cable and satellite tv has _________________ the president's power to influence public opinion.
  624. Pass the fundraising threshold
    In presidential campaigns, federal matching funds are provided to candidates who ______________.
  625. de facto
    The way things actually are.
  626. de jure
    The way things should be by law
  627. Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    Congress defined the steps for the creation and admission of new states. It forbade slavery while the region remained a territory although citizens could legalize it. First congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges. Second as soon as 5 thousand male adults lived in a territory, the people could write a temporary constitution and elect a legislature that would pass the territories laws. Third, when the total population reached 60,000 the settlres could write a constituion which Congress would have to approve before granting statehood
  628. Constitutional Initiative
    Process by which citizens propose an amendment by petition.
  629. State Treasurer
    In charge of all state funds. Supervises the collection of taxes and payment of state's bill
  630. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
    Presides over any impeachment trial.
  631. State Government
    Laws on Schools, Marriage, and owning property;Licensee Lawyers, Doctors, and Teachers.
  632. Delegated Powers
    Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
  633. Ratification
    Formal approval or consent given to a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty before it goes into effect.
  634. Reserved Powers
    Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
  635. Popular Sovereignty
    The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
  636. Preamble
    The introductory statement of the U.S. Constitution, setting forth the general principles of American government and beginning with the words, "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union. ..."
  637. Majority Rule
    the doctrine that the numerical majority of an organized group can make decisions binding on the whole group
  638. Attorney General
    In charge of state's legal business. provide advice to other state official and represents the state in court if the state is involved in a lawsuit
  639. State Auditor
    Makes sure that funds are used safely and wisely. They oversee the state's financial records
  640. Public Policies
    Things government decides to do, example: taxation, crime control, national defense, education, etc.
  641. Mixed Economy
    An economy in which most economic decisions result from the interaction of buyers and sellers in markets, but in which the government plays a significant role in the allocation of resources.
  642. Writ of Mandamus
    An extraordinary writ commanding an official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion
  643. Impoundment
    Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated.
  644. Non-protected Speech
    Libel, obscenity, fighting words, and commercial speech, which are not entitled to constitutional protection in all circumstances.
  645. Right of Expatriation
    The right to renounce one's citizenship.
  646. Police Powers
    Inherent powers of state governments to pass laws to protect health, safety, and welfare; the national government has no directly granted police powers but accomplishes the same goals through other delegated powers.
  647. Contract Clause
    Clause of the Constitution (Article 1, Section 10) intended to prohibit state governments from modifying contracts made between individuals; interpreted as prohibiting state governments from taking actions that adversely affect property rights.
  648. Petit Jury
    a jury of 6 to 12 persons who determine guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action
  649. Equal Protection Clause
    Clause in the 14th Amendment that forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. The 5th Amendment also imposes this limitation on the national government.
  650. Class Action Suit
    lawsuit brought by an individual or group of people on behalf of all those similarly situated
  651. Restrictive Covenant
    A provision in a deed to real property prohibiting its sale to a person of a particular race or religion. Judicial enforcement is unconstitutional.
  652. Plurality
    In an election with more than 2 options, the number of votes for the candidate or party receiving the greatest number, but less that half of the votes.
  653. Safe seat
    An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted
  654. Closed rule
    a procedural rule in the House of Representatives that prohibits any amendment to bills or provides that only memebers of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments
  655. Open rule
    a procedural rule in the House of Representatives that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill.
  656. Earmarks
    Special spending projects that are set aside on behalf of individual members of Congress for their constituents.
  657. Delegate
    An offical who is expected to represent the views of his or her constituents even when personally holding different views; one interpretation of the role of the legislator
  658. Logrolling
    Act of exchanging favors for mutual gain
  659. Discharge Petition
    Petition that, if signed by a majority of the members of the House of Representatives, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration
  660. Presidential Ticket
    Th joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot as required by the twelfth amendment
  661. Take Care Clause
    The constitutional requirement (in article II, sec 3) that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws
  662. Office of Management and Budget
    Presidential staff agency that serves as a clearinghouse for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies.
  663. Cycle of Decreasing Influence
    The tendency of presidents to lose support over time.
  664. Hatch Act
    Law enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activists roles in partisan campaigns .This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particualr party,or campaining for a particualr canidate
  665. Precedent
    A court decision in an earlier case with facts and legal issues similar to a dispute currently before a court.
  666. Amicus Curiae Brief
    Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguements in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case
  667. Pendleton Civil Service Act
    passed in 1883, it created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
  668. Omaha platform
    the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
  669. Charismatic authority
    authority based on an individual's outstanding traits, which attract followers
  670. Welfare State
    a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
  671. Nuclear Proliferation
    the spread of nuclear weapons to new nations
  672. Selective exposure
    The process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases
  673. Focus Groups
    a small group of voters chosen by a political campaign for their demographic similarities who are brought together to gauge how the group they represent feels about the candidate.
  674. Horse race
    A close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates.
  675. Free Rider
    An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the group's influence.
  676. Federal Register
    An official document, published every weekday, which lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
  677. Collective Action
    How groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate.
  678. Issue network
    loose, competitive relationships among policy experts, interest groups, congressional committees, and federal agencies. Many observers argue that these have replaced iron triangles.
  679. Bundling
    A tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded individuals and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle," thus increasing the PAC's influence.
  680. Quid Pro Quo
    something given in exchange for something else; swap
  681. 527 Organization
    A political group organized under section 527 of the IRS code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted.
  682. Antitrust Legislation
    law intended to promote free competition in the market place by outlawing monopolies
  683. Political ideology
    a coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose. It helps give meaning to political event, personalities, and policies.
  684. Liberalism
    belief in the value of strong government to provide economic secruity and protection for civil rights, combined with a belief in personal freedom from government intervention in social conduct
  685. Conservatism
    an ideology that advocates limits on government power to address economic and social problems, relying instead on economic markets and individual initiative to address problems like health care and education, while promoting government involvement in moral matters to, for instance, minimize or eliminate abortions or permit prayer in public schools.
  686. Socialism
    an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the publicand operate for the welfare of all.
  687. Libertarianism
    An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on a sharply limited government, promoting a free market economy, a non-interventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in the moral and social spheres.
  688. Agriculture
    the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy)
  689. Senate Standing Committees
    Included are Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Appropriations; Armed Services; Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs; Commerce, Science and Transportation; Energy and Natural Resources; Environment and Public Works; Finance; Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions; Foreign Relations; Homeland Security and Government Affairs; Judicial; Rules and Administration; Small Business; and Veteran Affairs
  690. House Standing Committees
    Included are Ways and Means, Veteran's Affairs, Transportation and Infrastructure, Standards of Official Conduct, Small Business, Science, Judiciary, Rules, Resources, Oversight of Government Reform, House Administration, Homeland Security, Foreign Affairs, Financial Services, Energy and Commerce, Education and Labor, Budget, Armed Services, Appropriations, and Agriculture.
  691. Veteran's Affairs
    Department established in 1988 by President G.H. Bush.
  692. Defense
    Established in 1947 as a combined Department of War and Navy.
  693. Coordinated Spending
    Spending by the national committees of the political parties to support the election of congressional candidates is known as
  694. Inverse
    There is an _____________ relationship between Presidential approval ratings and unemployment.
  695. Judicial
    Which branch has the power to stop an executive order?
  696. Interest groups
    ____________ often influence political appointments in an effort to influence bureaucracy.
  697. Fast Track Authority
    To negotiate a complex and politically sensitive trade treaty, a President will often
  698. Bill of Rights
    the only amendments to be ratified through the process of "ratifying conventions," not a vote in the state legislatures
  699. Clothespin vote
    the vote cast by a person who does not like either candidate and so votes for the less objectionable of the two, putting a clothespin over his nose to keep out the unpleasant stench
  700. Valence issue
    An issue on which voters distinguish rival parties by the degree to which they associate each party or candidate with conditions, goals, or symbols the electorate universally approves or disapproves of. Examples of such issues are economic prosperity and political corruption.
  701. Independent expenditures
    Money spent by individuals or gorups not asociated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office
  702. Public hearing
    After a bill is assigned to a committee, the next step is typically a ______________.
  703. Clean bill
    If significant amendments are made to a bill during committee, the bill is sometimes given a new number as a _______________.
  704. Recommit the Bill to Committee
    After the bill reaches the house floor, if opponents have many changes, they may vote to ______________________.
  705. Elite
    American politics is dominated by a small ___________ who is responsible for most of the important policy decisions
  706. Appropriations
    Which committee assignments would confer the most power and influence on members of the Senate?
  707. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
    The primary purpose of _______________consolidate the nation's disability laws and provide for strong federal enforcement of a strengthened disability rights mandate
  708. Probable Cause
    What principle, contained in the Fourth Amendment, protects a citizen from unwarranted search and seizure?
  709. Increased competition
    When the President's own party gains power and influence, it more puts pressure on the President to conform to the will of the party, leading to________________ between the President and the party to define their public identities
  710. Unicameral
    The Articles of Confederation established a ________________ legislature.
  711. blockbusting and redlining
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was somewhat undermined by racist practices in the real estate market such as _____________ and ______________, which continued illegally in many areas following passage of the Act.
  712. Judicial Selection
    The responsibility of the President to appoint federal judges when vacancies occur on the bench is referred to as
  713. Republican
    The 19th Century __________ party platform was opposed to the spread of slavery, promoted preservation of the union, supported the abolition of slavery, and promoted post civil was reconstruction.
  714. Voting
    In 1872, Susan B Anthony was arrested in Rochester, New York for
  715. Declining
    In the last 30 years, voter turnout among American 18- to 24-year-olds has been
  716. Ways and Means Committee
    This house committee is responsible for Supervising the authority of the federal government to borrow money, Raising the revenue required to finance the federal government by levying taxes, Overseeing Social Security and other social insurance programs, and Shielding American companies from unfair competition by levying tariffs on foreign goods.
  717. 12
    The House appropriations committee has ___ subcommittees.
  718. 7
    The house armed services and foreign affairs committees each have ___ subcommittees.
  719. 5
    Most house committees are limited to _____ subcommittees.
  720. unlimited
    Each Senate committee may have ________ subcommittees.
  721. Committees
    The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 restructured the number of ______________ in both the House and Senate.
  722. Foreign Relations and the Judiciary Committees
    These two Senate standing committees have existed, largely unchanged, since 1816.
  723. 20
    Today the Senate operates with ____ standing and select committees. These select committees, however, are permanent in nature and are treated as standing committees under Senate rules.
  724. Ways and Means Committee
    The oldest House committee still in existence.
  725. Spoiler Candidate
    tips the balance between two leading candidates by attracting a minority of voters who otherwise might have voted for one of the leading candidates.
  726. Dred Scott
    This Supreme Court case infamously decided that a slave was not a citizen but property to be "used in subservience to the interests, the convenience, or the will of his owner"
  727. Majority Whip
    responsible for determining which bills will be considered on the House floor, and when they will be considered.
  728. a senior senator of the majority party
    The elected position of President pro tempore of the Senate is almost always held by
  729. Securities and Exchange Commission or Securities Act of 1933
    requires reporting of financial information by companies with publicly traded securities
  730. state legislatures
    According to the Constitution, the electors in the Electoral College shall be appointed in a manner to be determined by the
  731. The Enlightenment
    The European political philosophers whose writings influenced the concepts of liberty and government contained in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution belonged to the intellectual and cultural movement known as
  732. Mugwumps
    The class of independent voters who do not vote according to party affiliation, but who typically have a broader range of concerns than single-issue voters, are known colloquially as
  733. congressional oversight committee
    In addition to overseeing the activities of one or more federal agencies, a ___________________may also serve as the authorizing committee for federal agencies' programs and operations.
  734. Democratic
    While both Asian and Hispanic immigrants experience various types of discrimination, Hispanic immigrants are more likely to experience economic discrimination. This explains why most Hispanics identify with the ____________ party, while Asians do not.
  735. Gerrymandering
    While the voting rights act of 1965 did direct the Attorney General to investigate the constitutionality of poll taxes and prohibit literacy tests, it did not expressly prohibit _____________.
  736. Voting Rights Act of 1965
    This was amended in 1985 to prohibit vote dilution without requiring the proof of discriminatory purpose demanded by the original Act.
  737. Pre-clearance
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965 required states in the covered jurisdiction to attain _________________ from the Attorney General before making changes to voting standards, practice, or procedure
  738. Small Business Administration (SBA)
    The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), founded in 1932 by President Herbert Hoover to help combat the Great Depression, was the predecessor of which federal agencies?
  739. presidential line-item veto
    In 1998, the Supreme Court struck down the________________ law, declaring it unconstitutional, because Congress did not have the constitutional authority to hand that power to the President.
  740. The Sugar Act and the Currency Act
    Which two British Acts, passed in 1764, caused American colonists for the first time to organize protests against the injustices of British rule, and sparked the rallying cry "no taxation without representation"?
  741. Confirmed
    Cabinet positions must be ____________ by the Senate
  742. Members of Congress
    _____________ are expected to specialize in a few policy areas rather than claim expertise in the whole range of legislative concerns
  743. Woodrow Wilson
    Established the Federal Reserve Bank, responsible for conducting the nation's monetary policy, maintaining the stability of the financial system, supervising and regulating banking institutions, and protecting the credit rights of consumers, and providing various financial services to the U.S. government, the public, financial institutions, and foreign official institutions.
  744. Atomic Energy Act of 1946
    Gave authority over atomic energy from military to civilians.
  745. legislative and executive
    Philosopher John Locke, in his 1690 work Civil Government (second treatise), advised separation of government power between
  746. Impeachment
    charge of misconduct brought against a government official.
  747. Democratic
    The Constitution requires that state governments, like the federal government, must be _____________ in form, with final authority resting with the people.
  748. Appealed
    A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be ___________.
  749. binding
    Voter turnout is usually ____________ when there is a binding referendum on the ballot.
  750. Supreme Court
    Overturning unjust laws is the responsibility of _________________.
  751. Residual
    In the Federalist Papers, James Madison proposed that the states under the new Constitution would retain ____________ sovereignty.
  752. Implied
    The right to privacy is ___________ in the Constitution.
  753. Caucus
    the main mechanism used by modern political parties to nominate their candidate for President.
  754. Swing Voters in the Democratic Party
    The term "Reagan Democrats" has become a generic term for
  755. Budget Resolution
    concurrent resolution, adopted by both Houses of Congress, that sets forth a Congressional budget plan for the budget year and at least four out-years.
  756. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
    Responsibilities include: Coordinating the nation's intelligence activities and Evaluating and disseminating intelligence that affects national security
  757. Coast Guard
    most likely to board a foreign ship suspected of drug trafficking at a U.S. port
  758. 20th
    "lame duck" amendment
  759. authority
    Command of the obedience of society's members by a government.
  760. behaviorism
    An approach to the study of politics that emphasizes fact-based evaluations of action.
  761. community
    Any association of individuals who share a common identity based on geography, ethical values, religious beliefs, or ethnic origins.
  762. country
    As a political term, it refers loosely to a sovereign state and is roughly equivalent to "nation" or "nation-state"; country is often used as a term of endearment�for example, in the phrase "my country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty" in the patriotic song every U.S. child learns in elementary school; country has an emotional dimension not present in the word state.
  763. government
    The persons and institutions that make and enforce rules or laws for the larger community.
  764. justice
    Fairness; the distribution of rewards and burdens in society in accordance with what is deserved.
  765. legitimacy
    The exercise of political power in a community in a way that is voluntarily accepted by the members of that community.
  766. legitimate authority
    The legal and moral right of a government to rule over a specific population and con trol a specific territory; the term legitimacy usually implies a widely recognized claim of governmental authority and voluntary acceptance on the part of the population(s) directly affected.
  767. methodology
    The way scientists and scholars set about exploring, explaining, proving, or disproving proposi tions in different academic disciplines. The precise methods vary according to the discipline and the object, event, process, or phenomenon under investigation.
  768. multinational state
    Sovereign state that contains two or more (sometimes many more) major ethno-linguistic groups (or nations) in the territories it controls; notable examples include India, Nigeria, Russia, China, as well as the former Yugoslavia.
  769. nation
    Often interchangeable with state or country; in common usage, this term actually denotes a specific people with a distinct language and culture or a major ethnic group� for example, the French, Dutch, Chinese, and Japanese people each constitute a nation as well as a state, hence the term nation-state; not all nations are fortunate enough to have a state of their own�modern examples include the Kurds (Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), Palestinians (West Bank and Gaza, Lebanon, Jordan), Pashtuns (Afghanistan), and Uighurs and Tibetans (China).
  770. nation-state
    A geographically defined community administered by a government.
  771. normative approach
    An approach to the study of politics that is based on examining fundamental and enduring questions.
  772. order
    In a political context, refers to an existing or desired arrangement of institutions based on certain principles, such as liberty, equality, prosperity, and security. Also often associated with the rule of law (as in the phrase "law and order") and with conservative values such as stability, obedience, and respect for legitimate authority.
  773. political realism
    The philosophy that power is the key variable in all political relationships and should be used pragmatically and prudently to advance the national interest; policies are judged good or bad on the basis of their effect on national interests, not on their level of morality.
  774. positivism
    A philosophy of science, originated by Auguste Comte, that stresses observable, scientific facts as the sole basis of proof and truth; a skeptical view of ideas or beliefs based on religion or metaphysics.
  775. power
    The capacity to influence or control the behavior of persons and institutions, whether by persuasion or coercion.
  776. rational choice
    The role of reason over emotion in human behavior. Political behavior, in this view, follows logical and even predictable patterns so long as we understand the key role of self-interest.
  777. republic
    A form of government in which sovereignty resides in the people of that country, rather than with the rulers. The vast majority of republics today are democratic or representative republics, meaning that the sovereign power is exercised by elected representatives who are responsible to the citizenry.
  778. sovereignty
    A government's capacity to assert supreme power successfully in a political state.
  779. state
    In its sovereign form, an independent political-administrative unit that successfully claims the allegiance of a given population, exercises a monopoly on the legitimate use of coercive force, and controls the territory inhabited by its citizens or subjects; in its other common form, a state is the major political-administrative subdivision of a federal system and, as such, is not sovereign but rather depends on the central authority (sometimes called the "national government") for resource allocations (tax transfers and grants), defense (military protection and emergency relief), and regulation of economic relations with other federal subdivisions (non-sovereign states) and external entities (sovereign states).
  780. stateless nation
    People (or nations) who are scattered over the territory of several states or dispersed widely and who have no autonomous, independent, or sovereign governing body of their own; examples of stateless nations include the Kurds, Palestinians, and Tibetans
  781. anarchism
    A system that opposes in principle the existence of any form of government, often through violence and lawlessness.
  782. bourgeoisie
    In Marxist ideology, the capitalist class.
  783. capitalism
    An economic system in which individuals own the means of production and can legally amass unlimited personal wealth. Capitalist theory holds that governments should not impose any unnecessary restrictions on economic activity and that the laws of supply and demand can best regulate the economy. In a capitalist system, the private sector (mainly business and consumers), rather than government, makes most of the key decisions about production, employment, savings, investment, and the like. The opposite of a centrally planned economy such as existed in the Soviet Union under Stalin and Stalin's successors.
  784. collectivism
    The belief that the public good is best served by common (as opposed to individual) ownership of a political community's means of production and distribution.
  785. commercial republic
    This concept, found in the Federalist Papers, is most closely identified with Alexander Hamilton, who championed the idea of a democracy based on economic vitality, capitalistic principles, and private enterprise free of undue state regulation.
  786. communism
    A political system based on radical equality; the antithesis of capitalism.
  787. conservative
    A political philosophy that emphasizes prosperity, security, and tradition above other values (see also liberal).
  788. democratic socialism
    A form of government based on popular elections, public ownership and control of the main sectors of the economy, and broad welfare pro grams in health and education to benefit citizens.
  789. dialectic
    Karl Marx's theory of historical progression, according to which economic classes struggle with one another, producing an evolving series of economic systems that will lead, ultimately, to a classless society.
  790. dialectical materialism
    Karl Marx's theory of historical progression, according to which economic classes struggle with one another, producing an evolving series of economic systems that will lead, ultimately, to a classless society.
  791. fascism
    A totalitarian political system that is headed by a popular charismatic leader and in which a single political party and carefully controlled violence form the bases of complete social and political control. Fascism differs from communism in that the economic structure, although controlled by the state, is privately owned.
  792. gradualism
    The belief that major changes in society should take place slowly, through reform, rather than suddenly, through revolution.
  793. ideology
    Any set of fixed, predictable ideas held by politicians and citizens on how to serve the public good.
  794. laissez-faire capitalism
    An ideology that views the marketplace, unfettered by state interference, as the best regulator of the economic life of a society.
  795. law of capitalist accumulation
    According to Karl Marx, the invariable rule that stronger capitalists, motivated solely by greed, will gradually eliminate weaker competitors and gain increasing control of the market.
  796. law of pauperization
    In Karl Marx's view, the rule that capitalism has a built-in tendency toward recession and unemployment, and thus workers inevitably become surplus labor.
  797. liberal
    A political philosophy that emphasizes individualism, equality, and civil rights above other values (see also conservative).
  798. libertarianism
    A system based on the belief that government is a necessary evil that should interfere with individual freedom and privacy as little as possible; also known as minimalism.
  799. Marxism
    The political philosophy of Karl Marx (1818-1883), who theorized that the future belonged to the industrial underclass ("proletariat") and that a "classless society" would eventually replace one based on social distinctions (classes) tied to property ownership. During the Cold War (1947-1991), the term was often mistakenly applied to everyone who embraced the ideology or sympathized with the policies of the Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China against the West.
  800. Marxism-Leninism
    In the history of the Russian Revolution, Lenin's anticapitalist rationale for the overthrow of the czar (absolute monarch) and the establishment of a new political order based on communist principles set forth in the writings of Karl Marx.
  801. monarchism
    A system based on the belief that political power should be concentrated in one person (for example, a king) who rules by decree.
  802. monarchist
    One who supports the idea of absolute rule based on divine right or any other principle of hereditary rule; most often associated with pre-modern times, when kings ruled over feudal systems and land ownership was a matter of aristocratic entitlement.
  803. Nazism
    Officially called National Socialism, Nazism is a form of fascism based on extreme nationalism, militarism, and racism; the ideology associated with Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust.
  804. neoconservative
    In the United States, a term associated with the ideology of top advisors and Cabinet members during the presidency of George W. Bush; neoconservatives advocate a strong national defense, decisive military action in the face of threats or provocations, pro-Israeli policy in the Middle East, and a minimum of government interference in the economy. In general, neoconservatives are opposed to federal regulation of business and banking.
  805. nihilism
    A philosophy that holds that the total destruction of all existing social and political institutions is a desirable end in itself.
  806. proletarian
    In Marxist theory, a member of the working class.
  807. public good
    The shared beliefs of a political community as to what goals government ought to attain (for example, to achieve the fullest possible measure of security, prosperity, equality, liberty, or justice for all citizens).
  808. royalist
    One who favors absolutism or rule by an all-powerful monarch.
  809. socialism
    An ideology favoring collective and govern ment ownership over individual or private ownership.
  810. utopian socialist
    Individuals who believed that public ownership of property could be effectively accomplished and could solve most important political problems.
  811. war on terror
    After 9/11, President George W. Bush declared a worldwide "war on terrorism" aimed at defeating international terrorist organizations, destroying terrorist training camps, and bringing terrorists themselves to justice.
  812. welfare state
    A state whose government is concerned with providing for the social welfare of its citizens and does so usually with specific public policies, such as health insurance, minimum wages, and housing subsidies.
  813. behavioral engineering
    The carefully programmed use of rewards and punishments to instill desired patterns of behavior in an individual or an animal.
  814. behavioral psychology
    A school of psychological thought that holds that the way people (and animals) act is determined by the stimuli they receive from the environment and from other persons and that human or animal behavior can be manipulated by carefully structuring the environment to provide positive stimuli for desired behavior and negative stimuli for unwanted behavior.
  815. classless society
    In Marxist political theory, the ideal society in which wealth is equally distributed according to the principle "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
  816. dictatorship of the proletariat
    In Marxist theory, the political stage immediately following the workers' revolution, during which the Communist Party controls the state and defends it against a capitalist resurgence or counterrevolution; the dictatorship of the proletariat leads into pure communism and the classless society.
  817. dystopia
    A society whose creators set out to build the perfect political order only to discover that they cannot remain in power except through coercion and by maintaining a ruthless monopoly over the means of communication.
  818. eugenics
    The science of controlling the hereditary traits in a species, usually by selective mating, in an attempt to improve the species.
  819. human nature
    The characteristics that human beings have in common and that infl uence how they react to their surroundings and fellow humans.
  820. philosopher-kings
    Wise philosopher who governs Plato's ideal city in The Republic.
  821. state
    In its sovereign form, an independent political-administrative unit that successfully claims the allegiance of a given population, exercises a monopoly on the legitimate use of coercive force, and controls the territory inhabited by its citizens or subjects; in its other common form, a state is the major political-administrative subdivision of a federal system and, as such, is not sovereign but rather depends on the central authority (sometimes called the "national government") for resource allocations (tax transfers and grants), defense (military protection and emergency relief), and regulation of economic relations with other federal subdivisions (non-sovereign states) and external entities (sovereign states).
  822. utopia
    Any visionary system embodying perfect political and social order.
  823. withering away of the state
    A Marxist category of analysis describing what happens after capitalism is overthrown, private property and social classes are abolished, and the need for coercive state power supposedly disappears.
  824. bicameralism
    Division of the legislature into two houses.
  825. bill of attainder
    A legislative decree that declares a person guilty and prescribes punishment without any judicial process.
  826. brokered democracy
    This theory holds that the interests of major groups cannot be steamrolled by the majority without jeopardizing democracy and that legislators and decision makers should act as brokers in writing laws and devising policies that are acceptable to all major groups in society.
  827. checks and balances
    Constitutional tools that enable branches of government to resist any illegitimate expansion of power by other branches.
  828. concurrent majority
    John Calhoun's theory of democracy, which holds that the main function of government is to mediate between and among the different economic, social, and sectional interests in U.S. society.
  829. concurrent powers
    Joint federal and state control.
  830. cosmopolitan democracy
    A model of democracy that sees the individual as part of a world order, not merely (or even primarily) as a citizen of a particular nation-state.
  831. developmental democracy
    A model of democracy that stresses the development of virtuous citizens.
  832. direct democracy
    A form of government in which political decisions are made directly by citizens rather than by their representatives.
  833. dual federalism
    Under this system, which prevailed in the United States between 1835 and 1860, the power of the national government was limited to enumerated powers; during this period, the Southern states claimed sovereign powers.
  834. due process
    A guarantee of fair legal procedure; it is found in the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments of the U.S. Constitution.
  835. equal protection
    The doctrine enshrined in the Fourteenth Amendment that holds that the prohibitions placed on the federal government and the protections afforded American citizens under the Bill of Rights also apply to the states.
  836. ex post facto law
    A law that retroactively criminalizes acts that were legal at the time they were committed.
  837. federalism
    A system of limited government based on the division of authority between the central government and smaller regional governments.
  838. homeland security
    A term President George W. Bush popularized after the 9/11 terrorist attacks; it refers to a whole range of counterterrorist policies, including tighter border and immigration controls, stepped-up airport security, expanded FBI surveillance powers, and more invasive police investigations.
  839. Magna Carta
    A list of political concessions granted in 1215 by King John to his barons that became the basis for the rule of law in England.
  840. majority rule
    The principle that any candidate or program that receives at least half of all votes plus one prevails.
  841. nullification
    According to this controversial idea, a state can nullify acts of the U.S. Congress within its own borders; John Calhoun and other states'-rights advocates put forward this doctrine prior to the Civil War.
  842. participatory
    A model of democracy that seeks to expand citizen participation in government to the maximum possible degree.
  843. pluralist democracy
    A model of democracy that stresses vigorous competition among various interests in a free society.
  844. plurality vote system
    A system in which candidates who get the largest number of votes win, whether or not they garner a majority of the votes cast; in a majority vote system, if no candidate gets more than half the votes cast, a runoff election is held to determine the winner.
  845. power of the purse
    Under the U.S. Constitution, the provision that gives the Congress the exclusive right to impose taxes and the final word on government spending.
  846. presidential democracy
    A democratic form of government in which the chief executive is chosen by separate election, serves a fixed term, and has powers carefully separated from those of the other branches of government.
  847. protective democracy
    A theory of democracy that places the highest priority on national security.
  848. republic
    A form of government in which sovereignty resides in the people of that country, rather than with the rulers. The vast majority ofrepublics today are democratic or representative republics, meaning that the sovereign power is exercised by elected representatives who are responsible to the citizenry.
  849. rule of law
    The concept that the power and discretion of government and its officials ought to be restrained by a supreme set of neutral rules that prevent arbitrary and unfair action by government; also called constitutionalism.
  850. separation of powers
    The organization of government into distinct areas of legislative, executive, and judicial functions, each responsible to different constituencies and possessing its own powers and responsibilities; the system of dividing the governmental powers among three branches and giving each branch a unique role to play while making all three interdependent.
  851. Supremacy Clause
    Article VI, Section 2, of the Constitution, which declares that acts of Congress are "the Supreme law of the Land . . . binding on the Judges in every State."
  852. tyranny of the majority
    The political situation in which a dominant group uses its control of the government to abuse the rights of minority groups.
  853. unitary system
    A system in which the government may choose to delegate affairs to local government.
  854. war powers
    The U.S. Constitution gives the Congress the power to raise and support armies, to provide and maintain a navy, to make rules regulating the armed forces, and to declare war; it makes the president the commander in chief of the armed forces.
  855. apartheid system
    The South African system designed to perpetuate racial domination by whites prior to the advent of black majority rule there in the early 1990s.
  856. authoritarian states
    Governments in which all legitimate power rests in one person (dictatorship) or a small group of persons (oligarchy), individual rights are subordinate to the wishes of the state, and all means necessary are used to maintain political power.
  857. autocracy
    Unchecked political power exercised by a single ruler.
  858. charismatic leader
    A political leader who gains legitimacy largely through the adoration of the populace. Such adoration may spring from past heroic feats (real or imagined) or from personal oratorical skills and political writings.
  859. coup d'etat
    The attempted seizure of governmental power by an alternate power group (often the military) that seeks to gain control of vital government institutions without any fundamental alteration in the form of government or society.
  860. junta
    A ruling oligarchy, especially one made up of military officers.
  861. oligarchy
    A form of authoritarian government in which a small group of powerful individuals wields absolute power.
  862. cells
    Small, tightly knit organizational units at the grassroots level of V. I. Lenin's Bolshevik party.
  863. collectivization
    The takeover of all lands and other means of production by the state.
  864. Gestapo
    In Nazi Germany, the secret state police, Hitler's instrument for spreading mass terror among Jews and political opponents.
  865. Gleichschaltung
    Hitler's technique of using Nazi-controlled associations, clubs, and organizations to coordinate his revolutionary activities.
  866. Great Leap Forward
    Mao Zedong's attempt, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, to transform and modernize China's economic structure through mass mobilization of the entire population into self-sufficient communes in which everything was done in groups.
  867. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
    A chaotic period beginning in 1966, when the youth of China (the Red Guards), at Mao Zedong's direction, attacked all bureaucratic and military officials on the pretext that a reemergence of capitalist and materialist tendencies was taking place. The offending officials were sent to forced labor camps to be "reeducated."
  868. gulag archipelago
    Metaphorical name for the network of slave labor camps established in the former Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin and maintained by his secret police to which nonconformists and politically undesirable persons were sent.
  869. Hundred Flowers
    A brief period in China (1956) when Mao Zedong directed that freedom of expression and individualism be allowed; it was quashed when violent criticism of the regime erupted.
  870. kulaks
    A class of well-to-do landowners in Russian society that was purged by Joseph Stalin because it resisted his drive to establish huge collective farms under state control.
  871. Kuomintang
    The Chinese Nationalist Party, led by Chiang Kai-shek, defeated by Mao Zedong in 1949.
  872. partiinost
    The spirit of sacrifice, enthusiasm, and unquestioning devotion required of Communist Party members.
  873. propaganda
    The use of mass media to createwhatever impression is desired among the general population and to influence thoughts and activities toward desired ends.
  874. purges
    The elimination of all rivals to power through mass arrests, imprisonment, exile, and murder, often directed at former associates and their followers who have (or are imagined to have) enough influence to be a threat to the ruling elite.
  875. rectification
    In Maoist China, the elimination of all purported capitalist traits, such as materialism and individualism.
  876. salami tactics
    The methods used by Vladimir Lenin to divide his opponents into small groups that could be turned against one another and easily overwhelmed.
  877. theocracy
    A government based on religion and dominated by the clergy.
  878. totalitarianism
    A political system in which every facet of the society, the economy, and thegovernment is tightly controlled by the ruling elite. Secret police ter rorism and a radical ideology implemented through mass mobilization and propaganda are hallmarks of the totalitarian state's methods and goals.
  879. appellate courts
    A court that reviews cases on appeal from district courts.
  880. Balfour Declaration
    Named for the British foreign secretary who, in 1947, declared that the United Kingdom favored "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" and pledged to "facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."
  881. barristers
    In Great Britain, an attorney who can plead cases in court and be appointed to the bench.
  882. British Raj
    British colonial rule on the Asian subcontinent from the eighteenth century to 1947, when India and Pakistan became independent.
  883. Bundesrat
    The upper house in the German federal system; its members, who are appointed directly by the L�nder (states), exercise mostly informal influence in the legislative process.
  884. Bundestag
    The lower house in the German federal system; most legislative activity occurs in this house.
  885. Camp David Accords
    A 1979 agreement by which Israel gave the Sinai back to Egypt in return for Egypt's recognition of Israel's right to exist; the two former enemies established full diplomatic relations and pledged to remain at peace with one another.
  886. cohabitation
    In France, the uneasy toleration of a divided executive.
  887. common law
    In Great Britain, laws derived from consistent precedents found in judges' rulings and decisions, as opposed to those enacted by Parliament. In the United States, the part of the common law that was in force at the time of the Revolution and not nullified by the Constitution or any subsequent statute.
  888. district courts
    The court in which most U.S. federal cases originate.
  889. divided executive
    Situation in French government in which the president and the prime minister differ in political party or outlook.
  890. dual executive
    In a parliamentary system, the division of the functions of head of state and chief executive officer between two persons; the prime minister serves as chief executive, and some other elected (or royal) figure serves as ceremonial head of state.
  891. intifada
    An Arabic word meaning "uprising"; the name given to the prolonged Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation in the West Bank and Gaza in 1987-1993 and again in 2001-2002.
  892. judicial review
    The power of a court to declare acts by the government unconstitutional and hence void.
  893. Knesset
    The unicameral Israeli parliament.
  894. Lok Sabha
    The lower house of India's Federal Parliament; the directly elected House of the People; in India, as in the United Kingdom and other parliamentary systems, governments are formed by the majority party (or a coalition of parties) in the lower house following national elections (see also Rajya Sabha).
  895. Loyal Opposition
    The belief, which originated in England, that the out-of-power party has a responsibility to formulate alternative policies and programs; such a party is sometimes called the loyal opposition.
  896. Meiji Restoration
    The end of Japan's feudal era, in 1868, when a small group of powerful individuals crowned a symbolic emperor, embarked on an economic modernization program, and established a modern governmental bureaucracy.
  897. mixed regime
    A nation in which the various branches of government represent social classes.
  898. Moghuls
    Muslim invaders who created a dynastic empire on the Asian subcontinent; the greatest Moghul rulers were Babur (1526-1530), Akbar (1556-1605), Shah Jahan (1628-1658), and Aurangzeb (1658-1707); Shah Jahan was the architect of the Taj Mahal.
  899. National Assembly
    Focal point of France's bicameral legislative branch that must approve all laws.
  900. no-confidence vote
    In parliamentary governments, a legislative vote that the sitting government must win to remain in power.
  901. parliamentary sovereignty
    In the United Kingdom, the unwritten constitutional principle that makes the British parliament the supreme lawmaking body; laws passed by Parliament are not subject to judicial review and cannot be rejected by the Crown.
  902. parliamentary system
    A system of democratic government in which authority is concentrated in the legislative branch, which selects a prime minister and cabinet officers who serve as long as they have majority support in the parliament.
  903. party discipline
    In a parliamentary system, the tendency of legislators to vote consistently as a bloc with fellow party members in support of the party's platform.
  904. Question Time
    In the United Kingdom, the times set aside Monday through Thursday every week for Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (the party out of power) to criticize and scrutinize the actions and decisions of the government (the party in power); twice each week, the prime minister must answer hostile questions fired at him or her by the opposition.
  905. Rajya Sabha
    The upper house of India's Federal Parliament; the indirectly elected Council of States (see also Lok Sabha).
  906. solicitor
    In Great Britain, an attorney who can prepare court cases and draw up contracts and other legal documents but cannot plead cases or become a judge.
  907. sovereignty
    A government's capacity to assert supreme power successfully in a political state.
  908. Supreme Court
    The U.S. federal court of last resort, settling cases that raise particularly troublesome questions of legal interpretation or constitutional principle.
  909. Weimar Republic
    The constitutional democracy founded in Germany at the end of World War I by a constitutional convention convened in 1919 at the city of Weimar; associated with a period of political and economic turmoil, it ended when Hitler came to power in 1933.
  910. Zionism
    The movement whose genesis was in the reestablishment, and now the support of, the Jewish national state of Israel.
  911. Asian flu
    A term used to describe the widespread financial turmoil in Asian stock markets, financial institutions, and economies in 1997.
  912. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
    A loose federation of newly sovereign nations created after the collapse of the Soviet Union; it consisted of almost all the republics that previously had made up the USSR.
  913. Democracy Wall
    A wall located in the heart of Beijing on which public criticism of the regime was permitted to be displayed in 1978.
  914. democratization
    Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of encouraging democratic reforms within the former Soviet Union, including increased electoral competition within the Communist party.
  915. Duma
    Officially called the State Duma, it is the lower house of the Federal Assembly, Russia's national legislature, reestablished in the 1993 constitution, after having been abolished in 1917. It comprises 450 members, half of whom are elected from nationwide party lists, with the other half elected from single-member constituencies.
  916. Federal Assembly
    Russia's national legislature, a bicameral parliament, established under the 1993 constitution, comprising a lower chamber (State Duma) and an upper chamber (Federation Council).
  917. glasnost
    Literally "openness"; this term refers to Mikhail Gorbachev's curtailment of censorship and encouragement of political discussion and dissent within the former Soviet Union.
  918. institutional interest group
    A group of government officials and bureaucrats with expertise and vested interests in certain policies and programs that often par allel those of special interests in the private sector; as insiders with powerful allies in the private sector, members of certain institutional interest groups (such as defense, intelligence, energy, and agriculture) are in an advantageous position to lobby U.S. Congress for increased funding in the annual "battle of the budget."
  919. Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
    The dominant political party in Mexico from 1929 to the present. The PRI had never lost an election until 2000, when Vicente Fox of the National Action Party won the presidency.
  920. National Action Party (PAN)
    The main opposition party in Mexico; the PAN's candidate, Vicente Fox, was elected president in 2000.
  921. nomenklatura
    The former Soviet Communist Party's system of controlling all important administrative appointments, thereby ensuring the support and loyalty of those who managed day-to-day affairs.
  922. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    Agreement signed in 1994 by the United States, Mexico, and Canada that established a compact to allow free trade or trade with reduced tariffs among the three nations.
  923. perestroika
    Term given to Mikhail Gorbachev's various attempts to restructure the Soviet economy while not completely sacrificing its socialist character.
  924. politburo
    A small clique that formed the supreme decision-making body in the former Soviet Union. Its members often belonged to the Secretariat and were ministers of key governmental departments.
  925. sovereign wealth fund
    A state owned investment fund made up of financial assets such as stocks, bonds, precious metals, and property; such funds invest globally. China, for example, has invested huge sums in the United States via its sovereign wealth fund.
  926. Tiananmen Square
    In 1989, unarmed civilian workers and students marched in Tiananmen Square in Beijing to demand democratic freedom and government reforms. Army troops responded with force, killing 1,500 demonstrators and wounding another 10,000.
  927. ascriptive
    A society in which an individual's status and position are ascribed by society on the basis of religion, gender, age, or some other attribute.
  928. colonialism
    The policy of seeking to dominate the economic or political affairs of underdeveloped areas or weaker countries (see also imperialism).
  929. democratic correlates
    Conditions or correlates thought to relate positively to the creation and maintenance of democracy within a nation.
  930. developing countries
    Term used loosely to denote countries that have not achieved levels of economic pros perity and political stability found in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Asia (particularly Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore); in general, a country where the ratio of population to land, jobs, and other factors (private capital, infrastructure, education, etc.) is unfavorable and where political stability, public services, and individual safety are lacking. Developing countries are found mainly in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America and are characterized by high levels of unemployment, widespread poverty and malnutrition, highly restricted access to education and medical care, official corruption, and social inequality.
  931. Doha Round
    The trade negotiations within the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO), formerly the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT).
  932. ethnic cleansing
    The practice of clearing all Muslims out of towns and villages in Bosnia by violent means; the term has also been used to characterize genocidal assaults on minority populations in other parts of the world, including the Darfur region of Sudan.
  933. G33
    In political thought, the theory that the gradual transfer of economic and social functions to international cooperative agencies (for example, specialized UN agencies, such as UNESCO) will eventually lead to a transfer of actual authority and integration of political activities on the international level.
  934. Green Revolution
    A dramatic rise in agricultural output, resulting from modern irrigation systems and synthetic fertilizers, characteristic of modern India, Mexico, Taiwan, and the Philippines.
  935. imperialism
    A policy of territorial expansion (empire building), often by means of military conquest; derived from the word empire.
  936. nation building
    The process by which inhabitants of a given territory�irrespective of ethnic, religious, or lin guistic differences�come to identify with symbols and institutions of their nation-state.
  937. nonviolent resistance
    A passive form of confrontation and protest; also called civil disobedience at times.
  938. political development
    A government's ability to exert power effectively, to provide for public order and services, and to withstand eventual changes in leadership.
  939. poorest developing countries (PDCs)
    The 20 or so countries with the lowest per capita income in the world; all are located in sub-Saharan Africa with the exceptions of Afghanistan and Nepal.
  940. state building
    The creation of political institutions capable of exercising authority and allocating resources effectively within a nation.
  941. terms of trade
    In international economics, the valuation (or price) of the products (commodities, manufactures, services) that countries buy on the world market relative to the valuation of the products they sell; the structure of prices for different kinds of goods and services in international trade�for example, if manufactures are generally high-priced relative to minerals and agricultural products, then the terms of trade are unfavorable for countries that produce only farm commodities or raw materials.
  942. Third World
    Collectively, the developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, most of which were once European colonies; Third World nations tend to be poor and densely populated.
  943. citizenship
    The right and the obligation to participate constructively in the ongoing enterprise of self-government.
  944. civic education
    The process of inculcating in potential citizens the fundamental values and beliefs of the established order.
  945. collective memory
    The things we learn about in grade school�what we come to "know" about our leaders, about crises we have survived as a nation, and about wars we have fought.
  946. gender gap
    A term used to refer to differences in voting between men and women in the United States; this disparity is most obvious in political issues and elections that raise the issue of appropriateness of governmental force.
  947. liberal education
    A type education often associated with private colleges in the United States; stresses the development of critical thinking skills through the study of literature, philosophy, history, and science.
  948. mass media
    The vehicles of mass communication, such as television, radio, fIlm, books, magazines, and newspapers.
  949. peer group
    A group of people similar in age and characteristics.
  950. political culture
    The moral values, beliefs, and myths people live by and are willing to die for.
  951. political socialization
    The process by which members of a community are taught the basic values of their society and are thus prepared for the duties of citizenship.
  952. selective service
    The Selective Service System was the official name of the military draft in the United States prior to 1972, when an all volunteer army replaced it.
  953. subversion
    The attempt to undermine a government, often using outside assistance.
  954. terrorism
    Political activity that relies on violence or the threat of violence to achieve its ends.
  955. coalition
    In a multiparty parliamentary system, the political situation in which no single party has a majority and the largest party allies itself loosely with other, smaller parties to control a majority of the legislative seats.
  956. elitist theories of democracy
    In political thought, the theory that a small clique of individuals (a "power elite") at the highest levels of government, industry, and other institutions actually exercise political power for their own interests; according to elitist theories, ordinary citizens have almost no real influence on governmental policy.
  957. euro area
    In the EU, the euro area zone refers to the 12 member states that have adopted the euro, including Germany, France, and Italy, but not the United Kingdom.
  958. first past the post
    An electoral system used in the United Kingdom and the United States in which legislative candidates run in single-member districts and the winner is decided by plurality vote; this system favors broad-based, entrenched political parties and tends toward a two-party configuration. Critics contend that it is undemocratic because it places a huge hurdle in the path of small or new parties and forces voters to decide between voting for a major party candidate near the center of the political spectrum and wasting their votes on a third-party candidate who cannot possibly win.
  959. government
    The persons and institutions that make and enforce rules or laws for the larger community.
  960. Hare plan
    In parliamentary democracies, an electoral procedure whereby candidates compete for a set number of seats and those who receive a certain quota of votes are elected. Voters vote only once and indicate both a first and a second choice.
  961. individualism
    According to Alexis de Tocqueville, the direction of one's feelings toward oneself and one's immediate situation; a self-centered detachment from the broader concerns of society as a whole. According to John Stuart Mill, the qualities of human character that separate humans from animals and give them uniqueness and dignity.
  962. initiative
    In U.S. government, a vote by which citizens directly repeal an action of the legislature.
  963. interest aggregation
    A term political scientists use to describe how the interests, concerns, and demands of various individuals and groups in society are translated into policies and programs; in constitutional democracies, a major function of political parties.
  964. interest group
    An association of individuals that attempts to influence policy and legislation in a confined area of special interest, often through lobbying, campaign contributions, and bloc voting.
  965. iron law of oligarchy
    The elitist theory that because of the administrative necessities involved in managing any large organization, access to and control of information and communication become concentrated in a few bureaucrats, who then wield true power in the organization.
  966. list system
    Method of proportional representation by which candidates are ranked on the ballot by their party and are chosen according to rank.
  967. lobbyist
    A person who attempts to influence governmental policy in favor of some special interest.
  968. low-information rationality
    The idea that voters can make sensible choices (for example, casting their ballot wisely) even though they lack knowledge and sophistication about public policy, candidates, and current events.
  969. motor voter law
    A statute that allows residents of a given locality to register to vote at convenient places, such as welfare offices and drivers' license bureaus; the idea behind laws of this kind is to remove technical obstacles to voting and thus promote better turnouts in elections.
  970. oligarchy
    A form of authoritarian government in which a small group of powerful individuals wields absolute power.
  971. one-party dominant
    One-party dominant systems are different from authoritarian one-party systems in that they hold regular elections, allow open criticism of the government, and do not outlaw other parties; until recently, Japan operated as a one-party dominant system, as did Mexico; South Africa is one current example.
  972. plebiscite
    A vote by an entire community on some specific issue of public policy.
  973. political action committee (PAC)
    Group organized to raise campaign funds in support of or in opposition to specific candidates.
  974. political apathy
    Lack of interest in political participation.
  975. political efficacy
    The ability to participate meaning fully in political activities, usually because of one's education, social background, and sense of self-esteem.
  976. political party
    Any group of individuals who agree on some or all aspects of public policy and organize to place their members in control of the national government.
  977. proportional representation (PR)
    Any political structure under which seats in the legislature are allocated to each party based on the percentage of the popular vote each receives.
  978. public interest
    In political parlance, policies aimed at the general good or society as a whole; in contrast to private interest or special interest, which involve laws or policies favoring individuals or groups.
  979. public opinion
    A view held by citizens that influences the decisions and policies of government officials.
  980. random sampling
    A polling method that involves canvassing people at random from the population; the opposite of stratified sampling.
  981. recall
    Direct voting to remove an elected official from office.
  982. referendum
    A vote through which citizens may directly repeal an action taken by the legislature.
  983. simple majority
    The largest bloc of voters in an election.
  984. soft money
    Campaign contributions to U.S. national party committees that do not have to be reported to the Federal Election Commission as long as the funds are not used to benefit a particular candidate; the national committees funnel the funds to state parties, which generally operate under less stringent reporting requirements. Critics argue that soft money is a massive loop hole in the existing system of campaign finance regulation and that it amounts to a form of legalized corruption.
  985. special interest
    An organization or association that exists to further private interests in the political arena; examples in the United States are the U.S. Chamber of Commerce or the National Association of Manufacturers (business), the AFL-CIO (labor), and the National Farmers Organization (NFO).
  986. stratified sampling
    A manner of polling in which participants are chosen on the basis of age, income, socioeconomic background, and the like, so that the sample mirrors the larger population; the opposite of random sampling.
  987. straw poll
    Unscientific survey; simple, inexpensive poll open to all sorts of manipulation and misuse.
  988. tracking poll
    Repeated sampling of voters to assess shifts in attitudes or behavior over time.
  989. winner-takes-all
    Electoral system in which the candidate receiving the most votes wins.
  990. citizen-leader
    An individual who influences government decisively even though he or she holds no official government position.
  991. delegate theory of representation
    A theory that elected officials should reflect the views of their constituencies.
  992. demagogue
    Someone who uses his or her leadership skills to gain public office through appeals to popular fears and prejudices and then abuses that power for personal gain.
  993. ordinary politician
    Individual who concentrates on getting reelected.
  994. Solon
    Lawmaker who successfully reconciles the functions of delegate and trustee; Solon was the great law-giver of ancient Athens, birthplace of western civilization's first democracy.
  995. statecraft
    "The use of the assets or the resources and tools (economic, military, intelligence, media) that a state has to pursue its interest and to affect the behavior of others, whether friendly or hostile," according to foreign policy expert and former diplomat Dennis Ross.
  996. statesman
    A politician in a position of authority who possesses exceptional political skills, practical wisdom, and concern for the public good and whose leadership has a significant positive effect on society.
  997. trustee theory of representation
    The theory that elected officials should be leaders, making informed choices in the interest of their constituencies.
  998. affirmative action
    Giving preferential treatment to a socially or economically disadvantaged group in com pensation for opportunities denied by past discrimination.
  999. Balanced Budget Act of 1997
    Passed by Congress in 1997, this historic measure mandated a balanced federal budget by 2001 but was ironically undone in that very year by the events of 9/11.
  1000. deterrence
    In criminal justice theory, punishing a criminal for the purpose of discouraging others from committing a similar crime. In international relations, the theory that aggressive wars can be prevented if potential victims maintain a military force sufficient to inflict unacceptable punishment on any possible aggressor.
  1001. economic stimulus
    A fiscal tool of government designed to bolster a weak economy and create jobs via public works projects and deficit spending.
  1002. Emission Trading Scheme (ETS)
    In the European Union, part of an antipollution drive aimed at significantly reducing Europe's "carbon footprint" by 2020 by assigning carbonemission allowances to industries and factories and creating a carbon exchange, or a market where "clean" companies (ones that do not use their full allowances) can sell the "credits" they accumulate by not polluting to "dirty" companies (ones that exceed their allowances).
  1003. entitlements
    Government expenditures that provide benefits that are deeply ingrained in the fabric of American life and that Americans expect as a matter of right because they have made mandatory tax contributions to government-run retirement and health insurance funds.
  1004. exclusionary rule
    In judicial proceedings, the rule that evidence obtained in violation of constitutional guidelines cannot be used in court against the accused.
  1005. federal budget deficit
    In the United States, the difference between federal revenues and federal expenditures in a given year; the national debt is the cumulative sum of budget deficits over many years.
  1006. gross national debt (GND)
    The U.S. federal government's accumulated deficits stood at $8.8 trillion in the spring of 2007, or just under 63 percent of gross national product.
  1007. incarceration
    The isolation of criminals in an effort to protect society and to prevent lawbreakers from committing more crimes.
  1008. Kyoto Protocol
    Countries that ratify this treaty, which went into effect in 2005, agree to cut emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases or to engage in emissions trading if they exceed a certain cap; the United States signed it under President Bill Clinton, but President George W. Bush renounced it shortly after taking office in 2001.
  1009. national security
    Protection of a country from external and internal enemies.
  1010. prior restraint
    The legal doctrine that the government does not have the power to restrain the media from publication, except in cases of dire national emergency.
  1011. rehabilitation
    Education, training, and social conditioning aimed at encouraging imprisoned criminals to become normal, productive members of society when they are released.
  1012. retribution
    The punishment of criminals on the ground that they have done wrong and deserve to suffer.
  1013. reverse discrimination
    When affirmative action aimed at giving historically disadvantaged groups greater access to jobs, housing, and educational opportunities becomes an obstacle to members of the majority; an unintended consequence of giving preferences to minorities and victims of gender discrimination.
  1014. sustainable growth
    A concept popular among environmentalists and liberal economists that emphasizes the need for economic strategies that take account of the high-cost and long term impact on the environment (including global warming) of economic policies aimed at profit-maximization, current consumption, and the like.
  1015. American Revolution (1775-1783)
    Also called the War of Independence and the Revolutionary War, this epoch-making event led to the end of British rule over the 13 colonies.
  1016. Bastille
    At the time of the French Revolution (1789), the Bastille was the infamous royal prison in Paris; the mass storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, and the freeing of the prisoners constituted a direct attack against the monarchy and symbolized the end of an era in French history; the revolutionaries then used the guillotine against none other than the reigning Bourbon monarch, King Louis XVI, and his extravagant wife, Queen Marie Antoinette.
  1017. Declaration of the Rights of Man
    Enacted by the French National Assembly in August 1789, this brief manifesto was intended as the preamble to a liberal-democratic constitution to be written later; it affirmed the sovereign authority of the nation but limited that authority by recognizing the right to individual life, property, and security.
  1018. Estates-General
    The legislature of France before 1789 in which each of the three estates (clergy, nobility, and commoners) was represented.
  1019. French Revolution
    (1789) Brought down the Bourbon monarchy in France in the name of "libert�, egalit�, et fraternit�" (liberty, equality, and fraternity); introduced the contagion of liberalism in a Europe still ruled by conservative, aristocratic, and royalist institutions; and ushered in the rule of Napol�on Bonaparte. Prelude to the First Republic in France and to the Napoleonic Wars.
  1020. Reign of Terror
    During the French Revolution, the mass executions, ordered by Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety, of those deemed to be public enemies, namely all who opposed the revolution or dared to dissent.
  1021. revolution
    A fundamental change in the political and social institutions of a society, often accompanied by violence, cultural upheaval, and civil war.
  1022. Revolutionary War
    The American War of Independence (1775-1783); see American Revolution.
  1023. right to revolution
    John Locke's theory that when governmental actions undermine the essential rights of life, liberty, and property, citizens have a right to revolt and replace the government with one that will rule correctly.
  1024. counterterrorism
    Methods used to combat terrorism.
  1025. domestic terrorism
    A form of terrorism practiced within a country by people with no ties to any government.
  1026. state terrorism
    Usually violent methods used by a government's own security forces to intimidate and coerce its own people.
  1027. transnational terrorism
    Exists when terrorist groups in different countries cooperate or when a group's terrorist actions cross national boundaries.
  1028. ABC war
    A general term for war involving weapons of mass destructions (WMD), especially atomic (nuclear), biological, and chemical weapons. See weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
  1029. accidental war
    In the modern age, the unintentional launching of a nuclear attack because of a mistake or miscalculation.
  1030. arms race
    Reciprocal military buildups between rival states; a process that tends to accelerate research, technology, and development in weapons systems and, according to some experts, is a potential cause of war.
  1031. brinkmanship
    In diplomacy, the deliberate use of military threats to create a crisis atmosphere; the calculated effort to take a tense bilateral relationship to the brink of war in order to achieve a political objective (for example, deterring a common enemy from carrying out an act of aggression against an ally).
  1032. catalytic war
    A conflict that begins as a localized and limited encounter but grows into a general war after other parties are drawn into the conflict through the activation of military alliances.
  1033. civil war
    A war between geographical sections or political factions within a nation.
  1034. crimes against humanity
    A category of crime, first introduced at the Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals, covering the wanton, brutal extermination of millions of innocent civilians.
  1035. crimes against peace
    A Nuremberg war crimes trial category, covering the violation of international peace by waging an unjustified, aggressive war.
  1036. ethnocentric bias
    The inability of nations to be reasonably objective when judging their own acts because of ideology or nationalism.
  1037. guerrilla warfare
    The tactics used by loosely organized military forces grouped into small, mobile squads that carry out acts of terrorism and sabotage, then melt back into the civilian population.
  1038. inadvertent war
    A war resulting from misperception, misinformation, or miscalculation; an unnecessary war.
  1039. intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
    A long-range missile armed with multiple nuclear warheads capable of striking targets anywhere in the world; both the United States and Russia possess large arsenals of these ultimate strategic weapons.
  1040. interstate war
    Conflicts between sovereign states.
  1041. just war
    A war fought in self-defense or because it is the only way a nation can do what is right.
  1042. limited war
    The opposite of all-out war, particularly all-out nuclear warfare.
  1043. low-intensity conflict
    Occurs when one state finances, sponsors, or promotes the sporadic and prolonged use of violence in a rival country.
  1044. massive retaliation
    Strategic military doctrine based on a plausible standing threat of nuclear reprisal employed by the United States in the 1950s during the short-lived era of the U.S. nuclear monopoly; according to this doctrine, if the Soviet Union attacked U.S. allies with conventional military forces, the United States would retaliate with nuclear weapons.
  1045. moral relativism
    The idea that all moral judgments are inherently subjective and therefore not valid for anybody but oneself; the belief that no single opinion on morality is any better than another.
  1046. multiple independently targeted reentry vehicle (MIRV)
    The name given to intercontinental missiles containing many nuclear warheads that can be individ ually programmed to split off from the nose cone of the rocket upon reentry into the earth's atmosphere and hit different specific targets with a high degree of accuracy.
  1047. mutual assured destruction (MAD)
    A nuclear stale mate in which both sides in an adversarial relationship know that if either one initiates a war, the other will retain enough retaliatory ("second strike") capability to administer unacceptable damage even after absorbing the full impact of a nuclear surprise attack; during the Cold War, a stable strategic relationship between the two superpowers.
  1048. mutual deterrence
    The theory that aggressive wars can be prevented if potential victims maintain a military force sufficient to inflict unacceptable punishment on any possible aggressor.
  1049. national self-determination
    The right of a nation to choose its own government.
  1050. nationalism
    Devotion to one's nation; a label sometimes applied to excessive patriotism.
  1051. nationalistic universalism
    A messianic foreign policy that seeks to spread the ideas and institutions of one nation to other nations.
  1052. nuclear monopoly
    When only one side in an adversarial relationship possesses a credible nuclear capability; the United States enjoyed a nuclear monopoly for roughly a decade after World War II.
  1053. overkill
    Having a much larger nuclear arsenal than is (or would be) needed to wipe out an adversary completely.
  1054. paradox of democratic peace
    Democratic states are often militarily powerful, fight other states, engage in armed intervention, and sometimes commit acts of aggression, but they do not fight each other.
  1055. proxy war
    A war in which two adversaries back opposing parties to a conflict by supplying money, weapons, and military advisors, while avoiding direct combat operations against each other.
  1056. reasons of state
    The pragmatic basis for foreign policy that places the national interest above moral considera tions or idealistic motives; also raison d'�tat.
  1057. second strike
    Retaliation in kind against a nuclear attack(er); this capability paradoxically minimizes the likelihood that a nuclear confrontation will lead to an actual nuclear exchange.
  1058. state of nature
    The condition of human beings before the creation of a social code of behavior and collective techniques to control normal human impulses.
  1059. submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)
    Strategic missiles with multiple nuclear warheads launched from submarines that prowl the ocean depths and that cannot be easily detected or destroyed by a preemptive attack.
  1060. ultranationalism
    Extreme nationalism often associated with fascism; a militant right-wing orientation typically characterized by militarism, racial bigotry, and xenophobia.
  1061. unconditional surrender
    Giving an all-but vanquished enemy a stark choice between surrendering immediately (placing itself entirely at the mercy of the victor) or being utterly destroyed.
  1062. war
    Armed conflict between or among nation-states.
  1063. war by misperception
    Armed conflict that results when two nations fail to perceive one another's true intentions accurately.
  1064. war crime
    Violation of generally accepted rules of war as established in the Geneva Conventions on the conduct of war. The Geneva Conventions call for the humanitarian treatment of civilians and prisoners of war, and respect for human life and dignity; crimes against humanity, such as genocide and ethnic cleansing, are also war crimes.
  1065. balance-of-power
    A classic theory of international relations that holds that nations of approximately equal strength will seek to maintain the status quo by preventing any one nation from gaining superiority over the others. In a balance-of-power system, participating nations form alliances and fight limited wars, with one nation acting as a "keeper of the balance," alternately supporting rival blocs to prevent a power imbalance.
  1066. bipolar system
    The breakdown of the traditional European balance-of-power system into two rival factions headed by the United States and the former Soviet Union, each with overwhelming economic and military superiority and each unalterably opposed to the politics and ideology of the other.
  1067. containment
    The global status quo policy followed by the United States after World War II; the term stems from the U.S. policy of containing attempts by the Soviet Union to extend its sphere of control to other states as it had done in Eastern Europe. NATO, the Marshall Plan, and the Korean and Vietnam wars grew out of this policy.
  1068. deterrence
    In criminal justice theory, punishing a criminal for the purpose of discouraging others from committing a similar crime. In international relations, the theory that aggressive wars can be prevented if potential victims maintain a military force sufficient to inflict unacceptable punishment on any possible aggressor.
  1069. deterrence theory
    Holds that states acquire nuclear weapons mainly to deter the use of such weapons by other states; this idea spawned a whole new literature on war in the nuclear age in the second half of the twentieth century.
  1070. equilibrium
    A synonym for the word balance; also often used interchangeably with stability in literature on international relations.
  1071. expansionist strategy
    A strategy by which a nation seeks to enlarge its territory or influence.
  1072. globalization
    The process by which values, attitudes, preferences, and products associated with the most technologically advanced democracies are being spread around the world via mass media and trade.
  1073. idealism
    A political philosophy that considers values, ideals, and moral principles as the key to comprehending, and possibly changing, the behavior of nation-states.
  1074. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    An international organization established by the United Nations and composed of the governments of many nations that is designed to promote worldwide monetary cooperation, international trade, and economic stability. It also helps equalize balance of payments by allowing member countries to borrow from its fund.
  1075. keeper of the balance
    In a balance-of-power system, the nation-state that functions as an arbiter in disputes, taking sides to preserve the political equilibrium.
  1076. kin-country syndrome
    Phenomenon wherein countries whose peoples and leaders are culturally tied to one another take similar positions.
  1077. Marshall Plan
    A post-World War II program of massive economic assistance to Western Europe, inspired by the fear that those war devastated countries were ripe for communist backed revolutions.
  1078. Monroe Doctrine
    A status quo international policy laid down by U.S. president James Monroe, who pledged the United States to resist any attempts by outside powers to alter the balance of power in the American hemisphere.
  1079. national interest
    The aims of policies that help a nation maintain or increase its power and prestige.
  1080. neutrality
    The policy of giving the very highest priority to staying out of war by adopting a nonthreatening posture toward neighboring states, maintaining a strictly defensive military capability, and refusing to take sides in conflicts; Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland are among the countries that have pursued a policy of neutrality most successfully.
  1081. nonalignment
    A policy specific to the Cold War in which many developing countries�formerly known as Third World countries�preferred not to align them selves with either the United States and its allies (the West) or the Soviet Union and its allies (the East); nonalignment differs from neutrality in that it does not commit a state to nonaggression or noninvolvement in local conflicts and, unlike neutrality, it did not become an important concept in international relations until after World War II.
  1082. political realism
    The philosophy that power is the key variable in all political relationships and should be used pragmatically and prudently to advance the national interest; policies are judged good or bad on the basis of their effect on national interests, not on their level of morality.
  1083. status quo strategy
    A national policy of maintaining the existing balance of power through collective security agreements, diplomacy, and negotiation, as well as through "legitimizing instruments," such as international law and international organizations.
  1084. superpower
    A superpower must, above all, have a full range of power capabilities, including not only military muscle but also economic, political, diplomatic, and even moral clout. Second, it must have global reach, the capacity to project power to all parts of the world. Third, it must be willing to assert its leadership role in the international arena. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union both qualified as superpowers by these criteria.
  1085. Truman Doctrine
    President Harry Truman's pledge of U.S. support for any free people threatened with revolution by an internal armed minority or an outside aggressor.
  1086. unipolar system
    In international relations theory, the existence of a single invincible superpower; the inter national system said to have existed after the collapse of the Soviet Union left the United States as the sole remaining (and thus unrivalled) military and economic superpower on the world stage.
  1087. Warsaw Pact
    A military alliance between the former Soviet Union and its satellite states, created in 1955, that established a unified military command and allowed the Soviet army to maintain large garrisons within the satellite states, ostensibly to defend them from outside attack.
  1088. Zionism
    The movement whose genesis was in the reestablishment, and now the support of, the Jewish national state of Israel.
  1089. Antarctic Treaty
    An international agreement that prohibits all military activity on the Antarctic continent and allows for inspection of all nations' facilities there. It also nullifies allterritorial claims to Antarctic land and pledges the signatories to peaceful cooperation in exploration and research.
  1090. Biological Weapons
    A 1972 international arms control treaty that pledged the destruction of biological weapon stockpiles and outlawed the production and storage of such weapons.
  1091. Chemical Weapons Convention
    A 1993 international arms control treaty to eliminate chemical weapons within 10 years. It calls for the destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles and the monitoring of companies making compounds that can be used to produce nerve agents in order to end production of chemical weapons.
  1092. co-decision
    In the European Union, a method of legislation and rule-making that involves both the European Council (heads of government) and the European Parliament.
  1093. collective security
    In international relations, the aim of an agreement among several nations to establish a single powerful bloc that will be turned on any nation that commits an act of aggression; because no single nation could ever overpower the collective force, aggression would be futile.
  1094. European Union (EU)
    The economic association of European nations; formerly known as the Common Market or European Economic Community.
  1095. functionalism
    In political thought, the theory that the gradual transfer of economic and social functions to international cooperative agencies (for example, specialized UN agencies, such as UNESCO) will eventually lead to a transfer of actual authority and integration of political activities on the international level.
  1096. Geneva Convention
    A body of international law dealing with the treatment of the wounded, prisoners of war, and civilians in a war zone.
  1097. globalization
    The process by which values, attitudes, preferences, and products associated with the most technologically advanced democracies are being spread around the world via mass media and trade.
  1098. Hague Convention
    A widely accepted set of rules governing conduct in land wars, the use of new weapons, and the rights and duties of both neutral and warring parties.
  1099. interdependence
    In political thought, the theory that no nation can afford to isolate itself completely from the political, economic, and cultural activities of other nations and that as a result, a growing body of international organizations whose interests transcend national concerns has arisen.
  1100. international law
    The body of customs, treaties, and generally accepted rules that regulate the rights and obligations of nations when dealing with one another.
  1101. international nongovernmental organizations (INGO)
    International organization made up of private individuals and groups.
  1102. multinational corporations (MNC)
    A company that conducts substantial business in several nations.
  1103. Nonproliferation Treaty
    An international agreement, drafted in 1968, not to aid nonnuclear nations in acquiring nuclear weapons; it was not signed by France, China, and other nations actively seeking to build these weapons.
  1104. nonstate actors
    Entity other than nationstates, including multinational corporations, nongovern mental organizations, and international nongovernmental organizations, that plays a role in international politics.
  1105. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    A military alliance, founded in 1949, originally consisting of the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Germany, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Portugal, Norway, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Iceland, and Luxembourg; previously, its principal aim was to prevent Soviet aggression in Europe. At present, 26 states, including many former Eastern European states that were once members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact, belong to NATO.
  1106. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    A cartel established in 1961 that, since 1973, has successfully manipulated the worldwide supply of and price for oil, with far-reaching consequences for the world economy and political structure.
  1107. Outer Space Treaty
    An international agreement, signed by the United States and the former Soviet Union, that banned the introduction of military weapons into outer space, prohibited the extension of national sovereignty in space, and encouraged cooperation and sharing of information about space research.
  1108. qualified majority voting (QMV)
    In the European Union a form of voting in the European Council and Council of Ministers in which no member state has a veto but passage of a measure is based on an elaborate formula that involves a triple majority, including more than 70 percent of the votes cast.
  1109. Seabed Treaty
    An international agreement that forbids the establishment of nuclear weapons on the ocean floor beyond the 12-mile territorial limit.
  1110. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II)
    A treaty negotiated between the United States and the former Soviet Union that limited strategic nuclear weapons.
  1111. Warsaw Pact
    A military alliance between the former Soviet Union and its satellite states, created in 1955, that established a unified military command and allowed the Soviet army to maintain large garrisons within the satellite states, ostensibly to defend them from outside attack.
  1112. World Court
    Also known as the International Court of Justice, the principal judicial organ of the United Nations; the Court hears any case brought before it by parties who voluntarily accept its jurisdiction.