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2012-07-20 09:35:16
HCCC Summer 2012 Microbiology

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  1. What is Anabolism?
    The synthesis of molecules in a cell.
  2. What is Catabolism?
    Is the decomposition reaction in a cell.
  3. Organic compounds always contain which two elements?
    Carbon and hydrogen
  4. Inorganic compounds lack with molecule?
  5. Why is water an important compound?
    It's inorganic, polar and a solvent.
  6. What is a Marco-molecule?
    Polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules.
  7. What two ways do monomers join?
    Dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions
  8. What is the rule of Carbohydrates?
    2H for every one C and O.
  9. What is a monosacchardies?
    A simple sugar with 3 to 7 C atoms.
  10. How are compounds broken apart?
  11. What is an oligosaccharides?
    A chain of 2 to 20 monosaccharides.
  12. What is a polysaccharides?
    A chain of >10 monosacchardies joined together by dehydration synthesis.
  13. What are lipids?
    Lipids make up cell membranes and consist of C, H, O and are non-polar.
  14. Name the three types of Lipids.
    Triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
  15. What are the two types of triglycerides?
    Saturated and unsaturated. Unsaturated have a double C bond.
  16. Name the four types of compounds needed for life!
    Lipids, Carbon, Proteins, and nucleic acid.
  17. Amino acids are made up of?
    An amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group, with a C base.
  18. What are stereoisomers?
    D or L (mirror amino acids)
  19. How are peptide bonds formed?
    Peptide bonds are formed by dehydration synthesis.
  20. Name the levels of Protein Structure.
    • 1. a polypeptide chain
    • 2. Secondary structure ( Helix or Pleated Sheet)
    • 3. Tertiary Structure ( 3D- when 2nd structures join)
    • 4. Quaternary Structures (when 3D's join together)
  21. What is Nucleic Acids consist of?
    Pentose (sugar), Phosphate group, and Nitrogen-containing base (A,T, C, or G).
  22. What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
    D is double stranded, R is single. D has deoxyribo, which R has ribosome (sugars). D has AT, CG and R has AU, CG bonds.
  23. What is ATP composed of?
    Ribose, Adenine, and 3 phosphate groups.
  24. Name the types of microscopes.
    Light and Electron
  25. What is total magnification in a compound microscope?
    The ocular and objective lens
  26. What is resolution?
    The ability of the lenses to distinguish two points.
  27. What is refractive index?
    A measure of the light-bending ability of a medium.
  28. What are the two types of staining?
    Simply and Differential (gram or acid)
  29. What is a mordant?
    Used to hold the stain or coating on a specimen.
  30. What is the difference between Pro and Eukaryote cells?
    • Pro have one chromosome, Eu have paired chromosome in a nuclear membrane.
    • Pro have no histones or organelles. Eu have both
    • Pro have a peptidoglycan cell well. Eu have a polysaccharide cell wall
    • Pro binary fission. Eu mitotic spindle
  31. What are the basic shapes of Prokaryote cells?
    Rod, spherical or spiral
  32. What are the basic arrangements of Prokaryote cells?
    Paired, Clusters, or Chain
  33. Name the structure of a Prokaryote cell.
    Cell Wall, Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleoid, and ribosomes.
  34. What is a Glycocalyx?
    An outside sugar coating. A capsule if neatly organized. A slime layer if unorganized.
  35. What's the importance of Fimbriae and pili?
    Fimbriae allow attachment; pili facilitate DNA transfer.
  36. What is the peptidoglycan made of?
    Polypeptide chains and two sugars (NAG and NAM)
  37. What is the difference between Gram Positive and Negative?
    Positive have only two layers. Negative have three layers; a lipidpolysacchride (LPS) layer.
  38. Name the three types of atypical cell walls.
    Acid-Fast cell walls (mycolic acid), mycoplasmas (lack cell wall), Archaea (wall-less).
  39. What is Protoplast?
    A wall-less cell
  40. What is a spheroplast?
    A wall-less gram-positive cell
  41. What are L forms, in Damaged Cell wall?
    Wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes.
  42. What is selective permeability?
    It allows passage of some molecules.
  43. What is Chromatophores or thylakoids?
    Photosynthetic pigments.
  44. What are the three types of movement of materials across membranes?
    Simple, facilitated, and active transport.
  45. What is Osmosis?
    Movement of water from high concentration to low concentration.
  46. What is an aquaporins?
    A protein on the plasma membrane that allows water into it.
  47. What is a hypotonic solution?
    A solution where there is less water than the cell. Water would move into the cell, causing it to burst.
  48. What is a hypertonic solution?
    A solution where there is more water than within the cell. The cell will lose water, causing it to shrink.
  49. What are the the three internal components of prokaryotic cells?
    Cytoplasm, the Nucleoid, and Ribosomes.
  50. Prokaryotic Ribosome has how many subunits?
    50S + 30S, 70S total, YES it's 70.
  51. What is a Sporulation?
    Endospore formation
  52. What is Germination?
    Return to vegetative state.
  53. How are Flagella and Cilia structured?
    Microtublues & Tubulin in 9 pairs and 2 arrays
  54. Eukaryotic Ribosome has how many subunits?
    60S + 40S, 80S total, YES it's 80!