Gastrointestinal System

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Gastrointestinal System
2012-07-20 13:01:35
Gastrointestinal System Vocabulary

Gastrointestinal System
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  1. cheil/o
  2. cyst/o
    bladder or sac
  3. doch/o
  4. enter/o
    small intestine
  5. inguin/o
  6. jejun/o
  7. proct/o
    anus and rectum
  8. oral cavity
    cavity that receives food for digestion
  9. palate
    forms the roof of the mouth
  10. esophagus
    muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
  11. cardiac sphincter 
    opening from the esophagus to the stomach 
  12. pyloric sphincter 
    opening of the stomach into the duodenum
  13. duodenum
    first portion of the small intestine 
  14. jejunum
    second portion of the small intestine 
  15. ileum
    third portion of the small intestine 
  16. cecum
    first part of the large intestine 
  17. vermiform appendix 
    worm-like projection of lymphatic tissue that may serve to resist infection 
  18. colon
    portion of large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum 
  19. rectal ampulla
    dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal
  20. defecation
    evacuation of feces from the rectum
  21. peritoneum
    membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity-- the parental layer and visceral layer 
  22. peritoneal cavity
    space between the parental and visceral peritoneum
  23. gallbladder
    stores and concentrates bile
  24. pancreas
    gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum where it mixes with bile to digest food 
  25. biliary duct
    a tube that carries bile
  26. hypochondriac regions 
    upper lateral regions beneath the ribs
  27. epigastric region
    upper middle region below the sternum
  28. lumbar regions
    middle lateral regions 
  29. umbilical region
    region of the navel
  30. inguinal regions 
    lower lateral groin regions
  31. hypogastric region
    region below the navel
  32. aphagia
    inability to swallow
  33. ascites
    accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  34. buccal 
    in the cheek
  35. dyspepsia
  36. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing 
  37. eructation 
  38. halitosis 
    bad breath
  39. hematochezia 
    red blood in the stool 
  40. hematemesis
    vomiting blood 
  41. hyperbilirubinemia
    excessive level of bile pigment in the blood
  42. icterus 
    yellow discoloration of the skin, caused by excessive bile pigment in the blood 
  43. melena 
    dark-colored stool caused by old blood 
  44. steatorrhea
    feces containing fat
  45. sublingual
    under the tongue 
  46. stomatitis 
    inflammation of the mouth
  47. sialoadenitis 
    inflammation of a salivary gland 
  48. parotitis 
    inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps 
  49. cheilitis 
    inflammation of the lip 
  50. esophageal varices
    swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus
  51. esophagitis 
    inflammation of the esophagus 
  52. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus
  53. pyloric stenosis
    narrowed condition of the pylorus
  54. peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
    a sore on the mucous membrane on any part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices 
  55. gastroenteritis 
    inflammation of the stomach and small intestine 
  56. enteritis 
    inflammation of the small intestine 
  57. ileitis 
    inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine 
  58. diverticul
    an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract
  59. diverticulosis
    presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract
  60. dysentery
    inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent bloody stools 
  61. hernia 
    protrusion of a part from its normal location
  62. intussusceptio
    prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part 
  63. volvulus
    twisting of the bowel
  64. polyposis
    multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum 
  65. polyp
    tumor on a stalk
  66. proctitis 
    inflammation of the rectum and anus
  67. anal fistula
    tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum
  68. hemorrhoid
    swollen, twisten vein in the anal region 
  69. cirrhosis 
    degeneration of liver tissue 
  70. cholangitis 
    inflammation of bile ducts
  71. cholecystisis 
    inflammation of the gallbladder 
  72. cholelithiasis 
    presence of stones in the gallbladder of bile ducts
  73. choledocholithiasis 
    presence of stones in the common bile duct
  74. laparoscopy
    examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope 
  75. peritoneoscopy
    examination of the peritoneal cavity 
  76. capsule endoscopy
    examination of the small intestine made by a tiny video camera placed in a capsule and swallowed 
  77. upper GI series
    x-ray of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after the patient has swallowed a contrast medium
  78. barium swallow 
    x-ray of the esophagus used to locate swallowed objects
  79. small bowel series
    x-ray exam of the small intestine
  80. lower GI series 
    barium enema
    x-ray of the colon after administration of an enema containing contrast medium
  81. cholangiogram
    x-ray of the bile ducts
  82. cholecystogram 
    x-ray of the gallbladder taken after oral ingestion of iodine 
  83. incisional biopsy
    removal of a portion of a lesion of examination
  84. needle biopsy
    removal of a core specimen of tissue using a special hollow needle 
  85. stool culture and sensitivity (C&S)
    isolation of a stool specimen in a culture medium to identify disease-causing organisms
  86. bariatric surgery
    treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach or intestines 
  87. cheiloplasty
    repair of the lip
  88. glossectomy
    excision of all or part of the tongue 
  89. glossorrhaphy 
    suture of the tongue 
  90. esophagoplasty
    repair of the esophagus 
  91. gastric resection
    partial removal and repair of the stomach
  92. abdominocentesis
    puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid
  93. laparotomy
    incision into the abdomen
  94. laparoscopic surgery
    abdominal surgery using a laparoscope
  95. herniorrhaphy
    repair of a hernia
  96. colostomy
    creation of an opening in the colon 
  97. anastomosis
    union of two hollow vesses
  98. ileostomy
    surgical creation of an opening on the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ill discharges 
  99. polypectomy
    excision of polyps
  100. proctoplasty
    repair of the anus and rectum
  101. anal fistulectomy
    excision of an anal fistula
  102. hemmorrhoidectomy
    excision of hemorrhoids
  103. hepatic lobectomy
    excision of a lobe of the liver
  104. cholecystectomy
    excision of the gallbladder
  105. laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
    excision of the gallbladder through a laparoscope
  106. cholelithotomy
    incision for removal of gallstones
  107. choledocholithotomy
    incision of the common bile duct for extraction of gallstones
  108. cholelithotripsy
    crushing of gallstones 
  109. pancreatectomy
    excision of the pancreas
  110. gastric lavage
    oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment 
  111. nasogastric (NG) intubation
    insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach for various purposes
  112. antacid
    drug that neutralizes stomach acid
  113. antiemetic
    drug that prevents or stops vomiting 
  114. antispasmodic 
    drug that decreases spasms or diarrhea in the gastrointestinal tract 
  115. cathartic
    drug that causes movement of the bowels