b2 lec t2

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b2 lec t2
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2012-07-21 10:10:52
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bio 2 lecture test 2, Bacteria, Protists, Fungi and Plants
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  1. Thermoacidophile
    hot springs
  2. methanogen
    Organic decomposer archaebacteria that makes methane and oxygen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.  Most closely related to eykaryotes.  Live in swamps/sewage/large intestines of animals. 
  3. strepto
    chain of eubacteria
  4. staphylo
    clump of eubacteria
  5. tetrad
    4 of eubacteria
  6. diplo
    duo of eubacteria
  7. sarcine
    cube of eubacteria
  8. s. aureus
    staphylococcus aureus: clump of gold circles
  9. s. epidermitis
    staphylococcus epidermitis: clump of circles that live on your skin
  10. s. pyogenes
    streptococcus pyogenes: pus-generating chains of circles
  11. s. pnmeumonia
    streptococcus pnmeumonia: chain of pnmeumonia-causing circles
  12. bacterial reproduction
    binary fission
  13. b. cerus
    (strepto)bacillus ceres: live on grains and rice.  Can't let rice get too cool or endospores will go vegetative
  14. bacillus
    aerobic, facultative anaerobes.  Produce an endospore.  Anthrax
  15. Clostridium
    strict obligate bacillus anaerobes.  Oxygen causes endospore formation. 
  16. c. tetani
    clostridium tetani: causes tetanus (from endospore once in blood stream.  Horses need tetanus every 6 months.  Toxin paralyzes nerves. 
  17. endospore
    a form gram positive bacteria take to protect genetic material until it enters a favorable condition.  Resistant to heat, dry and cold.
  18. Botulism
    clostridium.  Botox. 
  19. C. difficil
    clostridium difficil (nasty diarrhea with bad smell)
  20. nosocomial infection
    hospital to patient to hospital to patient
  21. vibrio
    a bacillus bent like a boomerang.  Cholera, from fecally contaminated water
  22. Cholera
    vibrio (boomerang bacillus)
  23. archaebacteria
    • first evidence of life, 3.5 million years ago. 
    • Most closely related to humans (eukaryotes).  Ribosomes and RNA are more like Eukaryotes. 
    • no peptidoglycan in cell wall
  24. bacteriorhodopsin
    pigment in extreme halophile archaebacteria that allows photosynthesis by capturing sunlight. 
  25. all bacteria are:
    prokaryotes
  26. Atmosphere was created by
    photosynthetic bacteria
  27. All prokaryotes have
    single chromosome (haploid), double stranded, closed circular DNA
  28. Prokaryotes have no:
    • nuclear envelope/nucleus
    • histones
    • membrane-bound organelles
    • cytoskeletal elements
    • flagella/cilia
  29. Eubacteria
    • true bacteria. 
    • generally heterotrophs
    • break down organic material.  Some are saprobes. 
    • 3 shapes: coccus, bacillus, spirilla
  30. eubacteria motility
    monotrichus, lophotrichus, ambitrichus, peritrichus (not 9x2)
  31. gram positive wall
    • peptidoglycan bangles held together by teichoic and lipoteichoic acids.  stains purple.
    • penicillin, ampicillin.  Streptococcus, bacillis, pnmeumonia, clostridium, anthrax
  32. gram negative wall
    • lipopolysaccharide wall outside peptidoglycan wall (periplasm is layer of liquid in the middle) with ports or "porin".  Lipopolysacchride wall can be called capsule or slime layer.  Some are toxic (fever or shock).
    • stains pink
    • e. coli, salmonella (typhoid).  Urcinia pestis (plague)
  33. capsule
    lipopolysaccharide wall
  34. 3 types of eukaryote movement
    flagella (9x2 microtubules), cilia (9x2 microtubules), pseudopods (microfilaments)
  35. cyanobacteria
    Autotrophs.  Photosynthetic blue-green bacteria containing chlorophyll a that produce oxygen.  Many uses (fix nitrogen, symbiotic, blooms that kill fish, indicators of pollution). 
  36. chemoautotrophic bacteria
    produce energy and reduce inorganic molecules like sulfer, nitrogen, iron.  Seen at sulfer vents to fix sulfer (ecology). 
  37. myxobacteria
    short unicellular rods without rigid cell wall that excrete slime for movement.  Mostly saprobes (organisms that break down dead organic material).  Some make spores (fruiting bodies)
  38. saprobes
    organisms that break down dead organic material
  39. spirochetes
    spiral-shaped with flexible cell walls that move via endoflagellum or axial filaments.  Can be parasitic.  Include syphillus and lyme disease
  40. syphillus
    Treponema pallidum.  Parasitic spirochete with endoflagellum. 
  41. Lyme disease
    Borrellia burgdorferi.  Parasitic spirochete spread by ticks (neuro lyme, too)
  42. Actinomycetes
    bacteria resembling molds that form branching filaments and spores. They have a peptidoglycan cell wall and are decomposers.  Streptomyces form antimicrobial drugs (Streptomyacin, Erythromyacin, Chloramphenical, tetracycline).  Some cause TB or leprosy
  43. leprosy
    Actinomycete.  Mycobacterium leprae
  44. Tuberculosis
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Actinomycete
  45. Chlamydias
    spherical in shape.  Do not depend on arthropods for transmission.  Obligate intercellular parasites.  Sensitive to antibiotics, infect humans and birds.  DNA, Ribosomes and RNA  but very few enzymes
  46. Nitrogen-fixing aerobic material
    fix nitrogen to form ammonia.  Cyanobacteria can have a heterocyst that fixes/reduces nitrogen from the atmosphere.  Some live symbiotically with plants or grow as nodules on plant roots. 
  47. Mycoplasmas (and Spiroplasmas)
    Smallest bacteria (some considered almost viruses because they are so small).  Lack cell walls.  Lipid cholesterol in membranes.  Resistant to drugs that target cell walls.  Cause "atypical" pnmeumonia.
  48. Rickettsias
    short, gram-negative rods that cannot metabolize and are obligate parasites on fleas, ticks and lice.  Cause diseases in humans via arthropod transmission.  Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.
  49. Protists
    tiny Eukaryotes that are not plants, animals or fungi.  Most are unicellular, some are colonial or single-celled.  Can be heterotrophs, autotrophs or mixotrophs, and have flagella, cilia, pseudopods or are non-mobile.  Both sexual and asexual. 
  50. giardia
    primitive protists with no mitochondria
  51. Euglena
    Euglenezoa.  Green protist flagellate with red eye spot and long flagella off front.  Long oval.
  52. Trypanosoma
    Euglenezoa.  Arthropod-borne flagellate with ungulating flagella.  Causes African Sleeping Sickness (related to South American Chagas Disease). Floaty worm found in a blood smear.  Tse Tse fly
  53. paramecium
    ciliaphora paramecium
  54. stentor
    ciliaphora.  The "mermaid's wine glass"
  55. sarcodine amoeba
    psuedopod with naked rhizopods
  56. foraminifera
    amoeba with calcium carbonate shell that makes up the white cliffs of Dover. 
  57. Radiolaria
    Amoeba with glass silica shell. 
  58. mixotrophs
    protists who combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.  They are both autotrophs and heterotrophs.
  59. endosymbiosis
    cause of much of protist diversity.  The process in which certain unicellular organisms engulf other cells who ultimately become organelles. 
  60. cyanobacteria
    photoautotroph bacteria protista with glycocalyx (sugar-wall), chlorophyll a and accessory pigments (blue-green).  Can perform Calvin cycle and light reactions.  No nucleus.  Create heterocysts, which fix nitrogen. 
  61. Phylum Chlorophyta
    Green plants.  Chlorophyll a and b
  62. Phylum Rhodophyta
    Red plant.  Red algae, sushi seaweed and in toothpaste.  Chlorophyll a and other accessory (no b). 
  63. Phylum Pyrrophyta
    fire plant.  Chlorophyll a and c (no b).  Include Dinoflagellates (red tide)
  64. Dinoflagellates
    part of phylum Pyrrophyta.  Cause red tides and paralytic shellfish disease.  Also zooxanthelle, which is symbiotic with coral reef polyps. 
  65. Phylum Bacillariophyta
    Yellow rod plants.  Have chlorophyll a and c.
  66. Phylum Chrysophyta
    golden plants.  Have chlorophyll a and c.  Gave us petroleum. 
  67. fungi
    Eukaryotes.  Cells are encased in cell walls at some point of life (not like plant cell walls.  No chlorophyll).  Heterotrophic and non motile.  Reproduce by spores either sexually or asexually (or both).  Exist as single cells (yeast) or multicellular mats (molds: mildew, rusts, smuts, mushrooms, puffballs, etc).  Saprobes.  Can be parasitic.  Alcohol, bread and cheese.  Often symbiotic.  Most produce chitin (protein that forms rigid cell wall)
  68. Mycorrihizae
    mutualistic symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a complex plant root.
  69. Lichen
    symbiotic relationship between a fungus and green alga or cyanobacterium
  70. Chitin
    protein produced by most fungi that forms the rigid cell wall and is very resistant to decomposition
  71. yeasts
    unicellular fungi.  Reproduce asexually (budding, fission or spore formation) and sexually (spore formation).  Larger than bacteria and can form colonies.  Usually classified as Ascomycetes
  72. Molds
    multicellular filamentous structure with filaments called hyphae, which aggregate to form a mycellium
  73. hyphae
    filaments of molds
  74. mycellium
    a collection of hyphae
  75. coenocytic
    a type of hyphae containing one or more nuclei not separated by cell walls
  76. monokaryotic hyphae
    one nucleus per cell, cells separated by septal walls.  Cytoplasmic streaming between cells. 
  77. dikaryotic hyphae
    two nuclei per septal-wall-cell.  Cytoplasmic streaming between. 
  78. homokaryotic
    if both nuclei in a dikaryotic hyphae are genetically identical
  79. heterokaryotic
    if the nuclei in a dikaryotic hyphae are genetically different. 
  80. Thallus
    fungal body
  81. Fruiting bodies
    contains spores
  82. Sporocarp, sporangium
    fruiting body--contains spores. 
  83. Dimorphic fungi
    exist as yeasts or molds and change between due to temperature, nutrients or environmental pressures. 
  84. Conditions for fungal growth
    • darkness
    • moisture
    • availability of nutrients
  85. Fungal reproduction (4)
    • asexually by fission
    • asexually by budding
    • asexually by spore formation (sporangia)
    • sexually (gametangia)
  86. Normal state of molds
    haploid.  Only zygote is diploid. 
  87. Sexual reproduction of mold:
    two hyphae form two genetically different mating types (+ and -).  Some do not have to be different.  Form a gametangium where zygotes form.  Sometiems nuclei do not fuse immediately. 
  88. heterokaryotic hyphae
    a hyphae with two nuclei per cell, each being genetically different.  Each cell is dikaryotic. 
  89. homokaryotic hyphae
    a dikaryotic hyphae with two nuclei per cell that are genetically identical. 
  90. 4 divisions (phyla) of kingdom fungi
    • Zygomycota (300 million years old)
    • Ascomycota (300 million years old)
    • Basidiomycota (300 million years old)
    • Deuteromycota or Imperfecta (no sexual reproduction)
  91. Zygomycota
    phyla of kingdom fungi.  Class Zygomycetes.  Produce sexual spores named zygospores (dormant for a while).  Hyphae are coenocytic (no septa).  Saprobes (eats decaying plants and animals).  Parasitic (eat living plants and animals).
  92. Asexual reproduction of zygomycota
    • spore lands on bread and produces horizontal hyphae called stolons.
    • Rhizoids grow into bread and anchor mold. 
    • Hyphae grow up and produce sporangium that contains spherical spores
    • Spores scatter to land on more bread
  93. sexual reproduction of zygomycota
    • Hyphae form two different mating types (+ and -) next to each other.  Tips grow towards each other and form gametangium (zygosporangia) that contains gametes. 
    • nuceli fuse to form diploid zygote.  Meiosis.  Germination. 
    • An aerial hyphae is produced with 4 haploid zygospores.
  94. Ascomycota
    Sac or Cup fungi.  Produce sac-like structure called asci where ascospores are produced.  30,000 known species.  Septa.  Yeasts, powdery mildew, and most blue-green, red and brown molds.  Responsible for many food spoilages and plant diseases (Dutch Elm, Chestnut Blight, Ergot Disease (rye plants, toxic to us), Powdery mildew (ornamental trees and bushes).  Unicellular yeasts or multicellular cup fungi. 
  95. Asexual reproduction of Ascomycota
    Conidiospores (spore-bearing structures that form Conidia (spores)).  Develop to form monokaryotic hyphae.  Each conidium gives rise to a new hyphae. 
  96. Conidiospores
    Spore-bearing structures of Ascomycota.  Look like sparklers or dandilion heads.  Each conidium (spore) forms a new hyphae. 
  97. Sexual Reproduction of Ascomycetes
    • Occurs between either heterothallic or homothallic hyphae (same types or different), depending on species. 
    • Matink hyphae grow together, fusing to form an ascogonium.  Hetero Dikaryotic hyphae are produced.  They form an ascocarp (spiky half watermelon).  Nuceli fuse.  Meiosis, Mitosis (8 haploid ascospores).
  98. Basidiomycota
    Basidiomycetes.  25,000 known species: mushroom, toadstools, bracket fungi, puffballs, rusts, smuts.  Fruiting body called basidiocarp (basidium and basidiospores).  Vegetative feeding body is white, branching, thread-like hyphae below ground.  Heterothallic or homothallic (same or different types (+ or -)
  99. Basidiomycetes life cycle
    mycelium (collection of hyphae) produced from monokaryotic basidiospore.  Two hyphae fuse to form secondary mycelim (dikaryotic).  Basidiocarp forms producing more basidiospores.
  100. mushroom
    Basidiocarp.  Cap and stipe.  Basidiospores produced in the gills.
  101. Sexual reproduction of Basidiomycetes
    Basidiospore germinates.  1st mycleium forms (monokaryotic).  2nd mycelium forms (dikaryotic).  Vegetative mycelium gives rise to mushroom (button or fruiting body)(basidiocarp).  Basidia form on gills of cap.  nuclei in Basidia fuse to form zyote.  Meiosis.  4 basidiospores.
  102. Deuteromycota
    Imperfect.  No sexual reproduction.  Most use conidia (dandilion).  Cheese (Penicillin requefortii), Pharmacy (Penicillin nodum).  Cause disease (Aspergillus--ringworm and athlete's foot) and Candida albicans (thrush and vaginal yeast infections.)
  103. Lichens
    symbiotic relationship between fungus and green alga or cyanobacterium.  Usually an ascomycete, soometimes basidiomycete.  Resistant to temperature and dehydration.  Sensitive to air pollution (no cities). Like rocky areas--form new nitches by etching.  Food source for reindeer and caribou, used to make litmus paper and reproduce by asexual fragmentation.
  104. Mycorrihizae
    a symbiotic relationship between fungus and roots of a higher plant.  Fungus absorbs phosphate needed by the plant and recieves carbohydrates.  Basidiomycetes are trees and woody plants; zygomycetes are non-woody.
  105. only diploid part of mold
    zygote
  106. stype
    mushroom stem
  107. Morel
    mushroom-like ascocarp. 
  108. 4 kinds of plants
    • non-vascular
    • seedless vascular
    • naked seed (gymnosperms)
    • enclosed seed (angiosperms)
  109. Land plants evolved from
    volvocales (green algae). 
  110. volvocales
    green algae that land plants evolved into.  Chlorophyll a, b, carotene and xanthophylls, store carbs as starch, use cellulose in cell walls, form cell plate in cell division
  111. gametangia
    plant sex organs.  Archegonium and antheridium.  Form haploid gametes. 
  112. archegonium
    female plant gametangia
  113. antheridium
    male plant gametangia
  114. alternation of generations
    some plants exist in the haploid state during part of their life cycle and the diploid state for another part. 
  115. haploid generation of plants
    gametophyte generation
  116. diploid generation of plants
    sporophyte generation
  117. Plant life cycle (alternation of generations, starting with gametophyte)
    • gametophyte (N) to archegonium and antheridium
    • fertilization
    • zygote (2N), mitosis, embryo
    • Sporophyte (2N)
    • Spore mother cells (2N)
    • meiosis
    • spore (N), mitosis
    • gametophyte (N)
  118. sporangium
    where mother spores are made
  119. 2 adult stages of plants
    Gametophyte (N) and Sporophyte (2N)
  120. Bryophytes, Bryopsida
    non-vascular.  Small and close to ground.  Require moisture for growth and reproduction.  Found in dense colonies or beds.  Visible plant is gametophyte (dominant generation).  Need water for reproduction.  Rhizoids
  121. Bryopsida life cycle (begin at gametophyte)
    • archegonium and antheridium
    • rain.  Sperm swim to archegonium. 
    • fertilization.  Zygote (2N)
    • sporophyte grows out of top of archegonium. 
    • Capsule on top of sporophyte makes spore mother cells (breaks off) 
    • meiosis
    • spores within capsule germinate
    • protonema
    • gametangia
  122. Bryophyta, Hepatopsida
    Liverworts.  Gametophyte is a flat, leaf-forming thallus (N) with rhizoids.  Use antheridium and archegonium to produce (2N) sporophyte generation or reproduce asexually with gemma or balls or tissue forming a gemmae cup.  gametophyte generation dominant
  123. Bryophyta, Anthocerpsida
    Hornworts.  Thallus resembles liverworts.  One large single chloroplast per cell (dif that liver and moss).  Antheridium and archegonium are embedded in thallus.  2N sporophyte projects from thallus and looks like a horn. 
  124. Seedless vascular plants
    • Pterophyta (fern), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Spenophyta (horsetails), Lycophyta (club mosses). 
    • Dominant 2N generation.  Use Phloem and Xylem.  Most have roots and leaves (microphyll and megaphyll)
  125. Microphyll
    plant (fern) leaves that are small with one vascular strand
  126. Megaphyll
    plant (fern) leaves with more than one vascular strand
  127. Pterophyta
    ferns (wing plant).  360 million years old.  Alternation of Generations with sporophytes (2N) dominant.  Still water for reproduction. 
  128. Pterophyta life cycle
    Photosynthetic prothallus is gametophyte with archegonium.  Has rhizoids.  Spores land on it, swim in.  Fertilization occurs inside to make a zygote.  Stems, leaves and roots develop as gametophyte dies.  Sporophyte (2N) grows to have fiddleheads and fronds with sorus on back (sporangium).  Spore mother cells go through meiosis to produce spores that germinate. 
  129. sorus
    spots on back of fern leaves.  Sporoangium with spore mother cells.
  130. rhizome
    "underground stem"(root) of ferns.
  131. Psilophyta
    whisk ferns.  Do not resemble pterophyta but have similar life cycle.  some have no true roots or leaves but have vascular, photosynthetic stems with dichotomous branching.  Gametophyte is non photosynthetic prothallus that is symbiotic with a fungus. 
  132. Spenophyta
    horsetails.  Contributed to coal depsoits.  Silica in stems (scouring rushes).  Roots, stems and leaves.  Reproductive called a strobilus (cone-like).  Fern-like life cycle. 
  133. strobilus
    cone-like reproductive structure of spenophyta (horse-tails) and Lycophyta (club mosses/ground pines).
  134. Lycophyta
    • club mosses (ground pines).  Related to ferns, not mosses or pines.  True roots, stems and microphyll leaves.  Sporangia are in strobili at top of stems. 
    • HETEROSPOROUS.  Microsporangium produce micro mother cells and microspores and megasporangium produce mega moter cells and megaspores which become egg.
  135. Seed plants
    gymnosperms and angiosperms.  Seed contains a multicellular young plant with embryonic root, stem and elaves and a food supply (superior to spores).  All seed plants have vascular tissue, alternation of generations (sporophyte dominant) and are heterosporous (microspores and megaspores)
  136. gymnosperms
    • world's largest organism (giant sequoia), world's tallest tree (redwood) and world's oldest (bristle pinecone). 
    • coniferophyta
    • ginkophyta
    • cycadophyta
    • gnetophyta
  137. coniferophyta
    conifers.  Wood trees and shrubs (non-herbacious).  Most evergreen and monoecious.  Separate male and female parts on same plant.  Sporophyte dominant, gametophytes are cones.  Reproduction dependant on (pollen carried by) wind not water. 
  138. Cycadophyta
    250 million years ago.  Palm-like.  Dioecious.  Motile sperm that doesn't need water. 
  139. Ginkophyta
    only one living representative (China).  Resistant to pollution.  Deciduous and dioecious.  Female stinks. 
  140. Gnetophyta
    vessel in xylem for conducting water (?).  Other gymnosperms don't.  Cone clusters resemble flowers. 
  141. Angiosperms, Magnoliophyta
    • reproduce with flowers, fruits and seeds.  Vessels in xylem for water conduction.  2 classes:
    • Liliopsida and Magnoliopsida
  142. Lilopsida
    monocots.  Palms, grasses, orchids, lillies.  Single embryonic leaf (monocotyledon). 
  143. Magnoliopsida
    dicots.  Oak, roses, cacti.  2 embryonic leaves (dicotyledons). 
  144. sepals
    green leaves outside flower
  145. stamen
    male part of flower, includes anther and filament
  146. carpel
    female part of flower.  Includes stigma, style, ovary. 
  147. Reproduction in angiosperms
    • Stamen puts off pollen sac with mother pollen cells (2N). 
    • Meiosis makes pollen grains (microspores). 
    • megaspore mother cell, meiosis makes 4 megaspores.  3 die, one goes through 3 mitotic divisions (8 nucleus and 7 cells)
    • Pollen grains land on stigma, one digs down style and dies, other splits. 
    • Sperm fertilizes single nucleus cell (embryo) and double nucleus  cell (endosperm).  Overy becomes fruit.  Ovules become seeds. 

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