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When did the US get attacked by Japan in Pearl Habour?
December 7 1941
What was the name given for the attack at Pearl Habour?
Day of Infamy
What were the two options for Japan in the 19th century?
- Do nothing and get colonized
- Emulate powers just like the west (start imitating military power, keep traditions)
When did Japan sign the non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union? Why?
- April 1941
- Felt as they knew a war would arise against SU, and did not want to fight in two fronts
In July 1941, what did the US do to Japan?
- Two things:
- - free Japanese assets in the US to stop expansion
- - revoke all exports
How was Japan simliar to Britain, resource wise?
- relied on other countries for resources, food, oil, etc.
Why was the attack on Pearl Habour a risky plan?
- - was a shallow location thus allowing the US to salvage the ships and create new ones
- - surprise attack = no declaration of war
- - no comprise settlement ot end the war possible
- - all at sea
What new technology arise in the Second world war during pearl habour?
the air craft carrier
What was the stereotype given to the Japanese?
- - not very good pilots
- - below the italian
- - eyes were not wide as theirs
- - racism
When did Hitler declare war on US?
December 11, 1941
Why did hitler declare war on the US?
- - thought they were run by Jews
- - will eventually be at war with them
- - got on his nerves
What is the carrot-stick approach?
an ongoing negotiation
Why was it a deception operation for Japanese to attack on Pearl habour?
- Mid-november 1941, Japs wanted to deceive the Americans to what they want to do
- - fools them, and wanted them to waste resources
- - Jap special abassador arrives at Washington
- - US do not realize the attack
What battle did Japan lose their 4 aircarft carriers? When?
Coral Sea (May7-8 1942)/Midway
What happen in Midway?
- US intercepted radio transmission from Japan
- sending back and forth messages
What was the desert war about?
Britain and Germany fighting back and forth in North Africa
WHen did the desert war stop?
Between October to November 1942
What did Mussolini attack Greece? what was the consequences?
- recreate the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean
- Doesn't tell Hitler he will attack and he becomes furious because its near the Balkans (unstable and wanted to stable it)
What country was Hitler eager to attack?
the Soviet Union
True or False: there has always been a lack of trust with the Axis Powers
What did Germany do during the Libyan Offensive?
- On march 1941, will start blitzkrieg
- - failure because of sand
What did Britain want from teh Middle East?
- oil since they produce 5% of the world's oil
What occured in Oct-Nov 1942?
Desert War in El Alamein, finally drives out the Germans of North Africa
What notion did Hitler say near the end of the war to his troops?
"Stand or die" in which they cannot retreat
What's operation Torch?
- British and Americans stage a landing in morocco
- - to open a second front
What is propaganda?
- based on some truth (half-truth) but it is exaggerated or modified to influence the public and the notion of manipulation
- - effort to shape the thoughts and feelings of a human collective
Explain what Hospitality and Atrocity propaganda
Hospitality - inviting some people and pay for their expenses and show them what you want to see hwo great the country is
Atrocity - idea based on somethign that you are about to unleash on half-truth
What was the state of the US and Propaganda?
- - strong nationalistic pride
- - patriotism is enhanced because of the state of the war
Who was the master in the third Reich of mass manipulation?
What did the Nazi Rally consists of?
Started in 1933 music, flags, uniforms, in order to show strength and a united country.
What was the propaganda plan for the Nazi?
keep bombarding people with the same messages over and over again
What was relevant in the book Mein Kampf?
- theory of a big lie
- propaganda based on half-truth
- elimination of the jews
- conquest of a living space (lebensraum)
What did the Nazi Flag mean?
power, a flag of winners
When did the Nazi flag become Germany's national flag?
What technologies did Goebbels apply with propaganda?
- all lead to the creation of a censorship committee
Berlin Summer Olympic Games. When? and what was applied?
1936, and Germany used the hospitality propaganda
What is Genocide?
- targeting a specific group of people
- physically exterminated
What law deprived the Jews of the German citizenship? when was it created?
- the nurembug law (1935)
- also prohitbited marriage between Jews and members of the master race
What was the plan for the Jews?
- put in ghettos (cramped, become malnutritient, encouraged to die quickly)
- Kristallnacht (1938) German police were given orders to do anything
When was the death camps established?
- December 1941
- 6 camps,
- Auschwitz, main camp that killed 24,000 a day
What is Einsatzgruppen?
are death squads in which was to massacre and shoot as many jews as possible. 6million perished
Explain Battle of Stalingrad
- desperate battle in human history
- phenonmenon of snipers
- Hitler's orders "surrender is forbidden"
Battle of Kursk?
- Summer of 1943, this was the last chance for Germany to attack
- - largest amount of tanks, use of blitzkrieg (failed)
Brief info on Stalin
- russian soviet dictator
- 1937-1938, ordered to shoot officers because he was paranoid and believed conspiracy was going on
- underestimated Nazi threat
What happened in Spring 1945?
- the fall of Berlin,
- April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide
What system was implemented in the US during the Industrial Revolution?
the assembly line - not created in the States but perfected thanks to FORD
Explain the war industries Board
- created in 1915
- planning and coordinating the mass production and the purchase of war supplies
- to increase efficiency
- allocate raw materials
Who controlled the most oil during the Second World War?
- US, supplying 85% of the world's oil
- Mediterranean with 5%
- i don't know who has the other 10%
What was the Soviet Union's new concept of the war?
- strategy and tactics
- concept of deep battle (similar to blitzkrieg)
- combined arms & cooperation
What were the economic factors for the US, Germany and Japan?
- both germany and japan could not keep up its production, producing military equipment as fast as the states
- 300,000 aircrafts were created by the US
- 70,000 aircrafts of Germany
What did Britain protect in order to keep exports and resources in their country?
Protecting the swiss canal in the mediterranean
Explain the Tehran Conference.
- Occurred Novemeber 28 to December 1 1943
- Roosevelt and Stalin will impose a landing in Normandy: Operation Overload
Explain Operation Bodyguard
- - Allied deception plan for Europe
- - Two operations within Bodyguard;
- - North: believe that AMericans were heading north of Norway
- - South: make germans believe that allies were planning on the pas de Calais (the closest location to land) when they were planning on staging in Normaday
What was Rommel's objective in the Atlantic during 1943-1944?
- Get rid of allied threat but allies were strong and thus wanted to stregnthen its wall
- - prevent allies from landing in western Europe in order to negotiate in position of strength and peace of comprise
What were the requirements of the landing for Operation Overload?
Must be dawn, required a full moon (send paratroopers), tide must be low in order to see obstacles
What were the 'wonder weapons' created by Germany?
- V1 - cruise missle; a flying bomb; august 1944
- V2 - rocket; launched in sept 1944
Name hitler's blunders
- declaring war on the US
- spending time, R&D, and resources in building bombs that were insufficient and did minimal damage
- Also called the Divine Wind
- - started in October 1944
- - idea of planes crashing on American pacific fleets
- - volunteered
Describe the brief history of the atomic bomb
- Created by Albert Einstein
- it was called the Manhattan project: largest weapons development
- July 16, 1945: first nuclear explosion in the desert of New Mexico
- Two atomic bombs: Little boy and fat man
- landed on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
When did Japan surrender to the US?
August 14, 1945. After the second explosion of the atomic bomb
Who were the two superpowers at the end of the Second World War?
United States & Soviet Union
When and where was the UN Charter created?
San Fransisco, July 26, 1945
What emerged out of the end of the second world war?
- a bipolar world
- - two doctrines clearly underlined the division of the wordl in two hostile sets of values
- - Truman & Marshall (Churchill)