Viral and Prion Diseases

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Author:
onondarice
ID:
163368
Filename:
Viral and Prion Diseases
Updated:
2012-07-21 13:52:30
Tags:
microbiology
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Description:
unit 3
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  1. 4 types of viral diseases are
    • Influenza
    • Rabies
    • EEE
    • Mumps
  2. Prion related diseases include?
    Transmissible Spongiform Encephaopathies (TSE)
  3. 5 Examples of TSE's are:
    • Mad Cow Disease
    • Scrapies
    • Kuru
    • Chronic Wastruing Disease
    • Creutzfeld-Jacob Disorder
  4. Influenza agent name?
    orthomyxovirus
  5. Influenza  characteristics?
    • segmented, (-) sense ssRNA
    • capsid
    • envelope
  6. Influenza subtypes, and classified by?
    • A,B,C
    • are classifies by antibody response to viral glycoprotiens.
  7. 2 types of glycoproteins are?
    • 17 Hemagluttins (HA), attach to host cell
    • 9 Neuraminidase (NA), release from host cell
  8. pathogenesis of influenza A
    • Virus binds to and enters epithelial cells via hemogluttin proteins.
    • Viral replication
    • Viral protein synthesis
    • viral release and spread
  9. (influenza A)
    what happens when the Virus binds to and enters epithelial cell via hemogluttin proteins:
    • Attachment via HA glycoproteins spikes to host sialic acid receptors
    • Virus undergoes endocytosis
  10. (influenza A)
    what happen during Viral release and Spread
    • NA proteins cleave sialic acid receptors
    • Virus builds envelope as it buds through hosts cell membrane.
  11. Influenza transmission
    • No cross-species transmission because of restrictions by virus subtype.
    • Airborne, Droplet
    • Source (animal host) transmits viruses before onset of symptoms
  12. Influenza Antigenic Variation: Drift
    • Involves point mutations that result in mild changes in the characteristics of viral vurface proteins
    • When sufficient Drift occurs, any previously developed host antibodies will be ineffective against the new "drifted"virus type
    • Ex. seasonal Flu
  13. Influenza Antigenic Variation: Shift
    • involves dramatic changes in viral characteristics due to Gene reassortment with other viral strains
    • Ex. Pandemics : H1N1 2009 "swine flu", quadruple reassortment virus (contained 4 different pieces of DNA)
  14. Influenza A incubation and symptoms:
    • typically 1-7 days
    • fever
    • chills
    • headache
    • cough
    • sore throat
    • extreme fatigue
    • body aches
  15. influenza A complications
    • pneumonia
    • bronchitis
    • sinus and ear infections
  16. Influenza A treatment
    • Rest
    • Hydrate
    • Antiviral medications when necessary
    • Supportive therapy
  17. influenza A prevention
    • Seasonal vaccines
    • Flu shot (contain the killed virus)
    • FluMist Nasal spray (contain live attenuates virus)
  18. influenza A control
    • wash hands frequently
    • cough into elbow
    • properly dispose of used tissue
    • stay home and rest
  19. Rabies Agent name:
    Rhabdovirus
  20. Rabies characteristics:
    • non- segmented, (-) sense ssRNA
    • capsid
    • envelope
  21. rabies viral replication:
    • requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for reverse transcription
    • cytopathic effects: negri bodies (viral junk left over found in nervous tissue)
  22. Rabie transmission
    • has to replicate in nervous tissue in brain
    • Being directly bitten by a rabid animal
    • saliva is infected
    • Iatrogenically (corneal transplant)
  23. Rabid host range:
    can infect humans, terrestrial and aquati,  livestock and crops
  24. rabies incubation period:
    • varies 13 days to 2 years
    • time if effected by the distance between the wound and the brain
  25. Rabies commmon symptoms:
    • Flu-like
    • numbness
    • anxiety
    • confusion
    • agitation
    • hollucinations
    • insomnia
    • delerium
    • nearly always deadly
  26. Rabies treatment
    • wound care
    • human rabies immune globulin (HRIG)
    • vaccine
  27. rabies prevention
    • vaccine
    • animal vector control
  28. most common domestic rabid animal
    • cats(us)
    • dogs( worldwide)
    • Bats
  29. EEE agent name:
    • Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus
    • (+) ssRNA genome
  30. EEE transmission
    • Reguires transmission from primary vertebraet host (birds) to secondary host (human, horse (accidental host)) via blood sucking arthropods (mosquitoes)
    • (few mosquito species are capable of transmitting EEEv)
  31. EEE incidences
    • US about 6 cases/yr.
    • most common in and around freshwater hardwood swamps( late july through september)
  32. EEE forms of disease
    • Systemic
    • Encenphelitic
  33. EEE Systemic disease is:
    Abrupt onset of chills, fever malaise, joint and muscle pain (on CNS)
  34. EEE Encephalitic Onset
    abrupt in infants; after few days of systemic ilness in oler children and adults
  35. EEE Encephalitic Systems
    Fever, headache, iritability, restlessness, drowsiness,anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, cyanosis, convulsions and coma
  36. EEE Encephalitic Sequelae
    Brain dysfunction, seizures, paralysis
  37. EEE Encephalitic morality rate
    1/3
  38. EEE treatment
    none
  39. EEE prevention
    • no vaccine
    • control vector
    • avoid high risk areas
  40. who is at risk of EEE
    • people who engage in outdoor work and recreational activities
    • >50 yrs and <15 yrs are at greatest risc of severe infection
  41. Mumps agent
    Rubella paramyxovirus
  42. rubella transmission
    • direct
    • droplet
    • fomites
    • and extremely contagous
  43. rubella symptoms
    • low-grade fever
    • headache
    • muscle weakness
    • stiff neck
    • loss of appetite
    • swelling (lymphnodes)
    • tenderness
  44. rubella complications
    rare severe complications include encephalitis, menengitis, sterility in men( mostly during adolescence), deafness ( permanent or temp.)
  45. Mumps treatment
    • supportive therapy
    • bed rest
    • hydration
    • pain/fever relievers
  46. Mumps prevention
    • Timely vaccination with 2 doses of MMR/MMV
    • isolation
    • surveillance
    • awareness and education
  47. TSE stand for
    Transmissable Spongiform Encephaopathies
  48. TSE agent
    • prions,
    • infectious proteins(prp) induce normal proteins to fold improperly
  49. TSE is resistant to
    • resistant to inactivation by heating, radiation or denaturing agents
    • Host range do not appear to be species-specific
  50. Chronic Wasting Disease(CWD)
    • also known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
    • US FDA established enhanced feed ban which reduced the risk of tissue of infected cattle most likely to transmit BSE from entering into animal feed or human food
  51. Kuru
    • outbreak in New Guinea
    • 8x more common in wemen because they were more likely to participate in ritual mortuary cannibalism
  52. Kuru incubation
    1-15 yrs
  53. Kuru transmission
    direct contact, blood and nervous tissue
  54. Kuru symptoms
    • headache
    • minor loss of coordination
    • inability to stand or walk
    • inability to swallow
  55. Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD)
    • incubate about 40 yrs
    • primarily effect older idevidual due to its long incubation
    • illness lasts about 4-5 mos
  56. CJD symptoms
    • progressive dementia
    • impaired muscular coordination
    • impaired vision
    • involintary muscle spasms
    • inability to move or talk
    • coma
  57. vCJD
    varian Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
  58. vCJD incubation and charateristics
    • 2-4 yrs
    • primarily affects younger indeviduals (29 yo)
    • mean duration of illness is 14 mos
  59. vCJD symptoms
    • psychiatric and behavorial issues
    • unusual sensory symptoms
    • progressive dimentia
    • loss of movement and ability to talk
    • come
  60. TSE treatment
    •  no cure- disease is lethal
    • supportive therapy
  61. TSE prevention
    •  normal disinfection process does not render meat sterile
    • surveillance
    • eradication

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