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- language is a form of education in which students are taught literacy and
- content in two languages.
There are 4 types
Developmental,or maintenance, bilingual programs
- These enroll primarily students who are
- native speakers of the partner language.
Two-way(bilingual) immersion programs.
- These enroll a balance of native English
- speakers and native speakers of the partner language.
Foreign language immersion
- language immersion or one-way immersion. These enroll
- primarily native English speakers.
Heritage language programs.
- These mainly enroll students who are dominant in English but
- whose parents, grandparents, or other ancestors spoke the partner language.
transitional bilingual programs
- Where the aim is to transition students out of their native
- language to English.
- dual language programs are considered to promote "additive
- bilingualism", meaning that students' primary language is developed and
- maintained as a second language is added.
Foreign language education
- where students receive less than half a day studying in the
- partner language, and often only study language arts and literature in that language as opposed to content area subjects such as mathematics, science, and
- social studies.
Full immersion, or 90/10
- Programs teach in the partner language 90% of the time in the primary
- grades (usually kindergarten and first grade) and 10% in English, and
- gradually adjust the ratio each year until the partner language is used
- 50% and English is used 50% by third or fourth grade (sometimes later if the
- program extends through eighth grade or beyond).
Partial immersion, or 50/50,
- Programs teach 50% of the day in English and 50% of the day in the partner
- language at all grade levels.
Instructional scaffolding is
- A learning process designed to promote a deeper learning. Scaffolding is the
- support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the
- student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning
- goals (Sawyer, 2006).