BioChem #5

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BioChem #5
2012-07-25 16:59:48

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  1. A type of lipid that is prevalent in animals but occurs very little in plants is ___ .
  2. When correctly matching three different structures to their names (cholesterol vs. estradiol vs. testosterone), the structure with a carbonyl group is
  3. Dolichol, ubiquinone (coenzyme Q), and retinal are three lipids derived from isoprene. The lipid involved in the electron transport chain is ___
  4. Farnese and squalene are isoprene derivatives containing ___farmesene or ___squalene isoprene units respectively.
    3 (farnesene) ; 6 (squalene)
  5. We have seen examples where fatty acids are covalently linked to all of the following EXCEPT ___ .
  6. Glucose permease ___ the equilibrium ratio I/O for glucose located on the inside (I) vs. outside (O) of cells.
    does not affect
  7. Glycophorin is a transmembrane protein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Carbohydrates are attached to it at residues located ___ .
    on the extracellular surface
  8. Which of the lipids below is NOT derived from isoprene?
  9. Which of the two membranes below has the greater variety of different proteins?
    mitochondrial inner plasma membrane
  10. Sites of O-linked sugars in glycoproteins include ___
    ser and thr
  11. A protein which is loosely attached to the outside of a membrane is called a(an)
    peripheral membrane protein
  12. The dominant type of secondary structures in porin and bacteriorhodopsin are ___ and ___ respectively.
    sheet (porin) ; helices (bacteriorhodopsin)
  13. Which of the types of human cells listed below contains only the outer plasma membrane and no nuclear membrane or other organelle membrane?
    mature red blood cell (erythrocyte)
  14. In the visual cycle, light causes
    cis-retinal to isomerize to trans-retinal
  15. A dietary precursor for vitamin A is ___ .
  16. Which of the following is an anabolism pathway?
    (beta oxidation
    PDH reaction
  17. ATP is kinetically ___ . ATP is thermodynamically ___ .
    stable ; unstable
  18. Beta-oxidation is the name given to the pathway which ___ fatty acids.
    breaks down
  19. In the glycolysis pathway, there are examples of carbon chains that are ___ carbons long.
    6 or 3
  20. The Catabolism process which begins with NADH as the starting material is...
    electron transport
  21. Citric acid has ___ carboxyl groups.
  22. During aerobic catabolism of glucose, most of the CO2 production occurs during
    the Krebs cycle
  23. A reaction which releases ___ is highly favorable.
    CO2 or PPi
  24. Palmitate (16 carbon fatty acid) is broken down into 8 acetyl units (8 acetyl @ 2C = 16 carbons). Glucose (6 carbons) is broken down into ___ acetyl units.
  25. The H+ gradient produced by the electron transport chain is characterized by low [H+] in the ___ .
    mitochondrial matrix
  26. Movement of protons into the inside (matrix) of the mitochondrion is called...
    gradient-driven ATP synthesis
  27. Which of the following is NOT a high energy form?
  28. The more stable form of pyruvic acid is the ___ form.
  29. NADH converts to NAD+ during...
    electron trnasport
  30. The pathway creating a transmembrane proton gradient is ___ .
    electron transport
  31. Catabolism process which begins with acetyl-CoA as the starting material....
    Krebs cycle
  32. Fatty acids and carbohydrates both are converted into a common fuel for subsequent processing by a single set of enzymes. This common fuel is
  33. Metabolism pathway which for the most part is a repeated cycle of reactions
    beta oxidation
  34. NADH and FADH2 store ___ energy compared with ATP and Ac-CoA.
    much more
  35. Thermogenin is located in the ___ .
    mitochondrial inner membrane
  36. A thioester is a high energy compound because there is ___ of the S and C atoms of the thioester group.
    little overlap between the p orbitals
  37. In glycolysis, two ATP are spent during the preparatory phase. The payoff phase produces ___ total ATP, for a net gain of ___ ATP.
    4 (total) ; 2 (net)
  38. The enzyme which catalyzes the following reaction is named for the forward direction. G3P + (NAD+) + Pi -> 2,3-BPG + NADH . It is a ___ .
  39. ADP is a reaction product in the glycolysis ___ phase.
  40. A dehydratase is an enzyme which removes ___ from the substrate.
  41. DHAP and G3P are phosphorylated 3-carbon ketose and aldose forms respectively. During conversion of glucose into pyruvate, step 5 is DHAP-> G3P. The enzyme which catalyzes this step is named
    triose phosphate isomerase
  42. Conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglycerate is ___ .
    oxidation of GAP
  43. One purpose of phosphorylating Glc at the very beginning of glycolysis is to make Glc into a product which is ___ .
    less able to diffuse across the cell's outer membrane
  44. Glycolysis occurs in the
  45. Glycolysis intermediates with two phosphates have ___ in their abbreviation.
  46. When an entire functional group moves from one position to another, such as 3-phosphoglycerate -> 2-phosphoglycerate, the enzyme type is a (an) ___ .
  47. In the list of three compounds below, the compound which is not an isomer of the other two is
  48. The 10th step in glycolysis is PEP + ADP -> pyr + ATP. It is a kinase reaction in the ____ direction. The enzyme catalyzing the reaction is ___ kinase.
    reverse ; pyruvate (pyr)
  49. For the reactions below, in the direction written, a kinase catalyzes ___

    (X-Phos -> X + Pi
    X + Pi -> X-Phos
    X + ATP -> X-Phos + ADP
    X + Y -> X-Y (bonded together)
    X + Y + ATP -> X-Y + ADP + Pi)
    X + ATP -> X-Phos + ADP
  50. During glycolysis (running in the forward direction glucose -> pyruvate), a compound which is both synthesized and consumed is ___ .
  51. The conversion of one molecule of Glc into two molecules of Pyr by glycolysis results in a net formation of
    2 NADH and 2 ATP
  52. Glucose and pyruvate, the beginning and end of glycolysis, lack phosphates. True or false : All of the intermediate structures between glucose and pyruvate have at least 1 phosphate group.
  53. The primary "purpose" of phosphorylating F6P to make 1,6FBP is to make FBP into a product which is
    more symmetric
  54. The final step in glycolysis includes tautomerization. This favorable isomerization converts the pyruvate form from ___ . The released energy is stored up in ___ .
    enol -> keto ; ATP
  55. In step 4 where glucose is divided into two 3-carbon fragments, those fragments are....
    constitutional isomers
  56. The phase of glycolysis given by the reaction (hexose + 2 ATP -> 2 triose-phosphate + 2 ADP) is called the ___ phase.
  57. many lipids are constructed by polymerizing ____ as a first step.
  58. each isoprene unit contributes _____ carbons to the polymer.
  59. Isoprene and its polymer-like derivatives is characterized by the presence of...
    double bonds in the backbone and the presence of methyl groups extending from the backbone chain
  60. derivatives (8) of  isoprene include...
    • cholesterol
    • steroid hormones
    • bile salts
    • rubber
    • vitamin A
    • dolichol
    • farnesyl anchor
    • coenzyme Q
  61. three isoprene units combine to give...
    the farnesyl chain containing 15 carbons
  62. Two farnese units combine to give the ...
    squalene chain containing 30 carbons
  63. the squalene chain may be converted to a molecule containing four...
    fused rings
  64. the squalene chain may be converted to a molecule that is the root structure found in....
    steroid hormones, cholesterol and bile salts
  65. examples of steroid hormones include the male and female hormones.....
    testosterone and estradiol
  66. homrmone groups that end in "-ol" have what functional groups
    2 OH groups (diol)
  67. hormone groups that end in "one" have what functional groups?
    a ketone group
  68. The enzyme responsible for turning testosterone into estradiol in women is called...
  69. the 15 carbon chain farnesyl chain may be covalently attached to _______ to provide a nonpolar tail on the outside surface of a protein.
  70. the beta carotene molecule is made from ___ isoprene units
  71. beta carotene is made up of ___ carbons
  72. vitamin A is also called...
  73. In cells, vitamin A is oxidized to....
  74. retinol is the ____ form of vitamin A
  75. retinal is the ____ form of vitamin A
  76. retinal combines with the protein opsin to make ....
  77. the light absorbing complex in vision is...
  78. dolichol is a lipid found in...
    the membrane of the ER
  79. what is the role of dolichol in glycoprotein synthesis?
    to act as an anchor and flipflop the oligosaccharide
  80. ubiquinone is a lipid found in...
    the inner mitochondrial membrane
  81. ubiquinone's two forms are often abbreviated as...
    Q and QH2 or as UQ and UQH2
  82. the role of coenzyme Q in electron transport....
    transfer electrons between membranes
  83. the lipid bilayer exists in a ____ state.
  84. inetgral membranes proteins ______ the membrane
  85. periphela membrane proteins ______ the membrane
    lay on/have weak interactions with
  86. integral membrane proteins are called...
    transmembrane proteins
  87. in cases where short oligosaccharides are attached to membrane lipids or membrane proteins in the cell's plasma membrane, those carbohydrates are facing...
    the outside of the cell.
  88. the composition of lipids fround in membranes varies according to...
    the type of membrane
  89. glycosylated lipids are only found...
    on the outside of cells
  90. glycolipids are only present in _____ cells
    mature red blood (erythrocytes)
  91. besides the rbc glycoplipds are also found,,...
    in the myelin sheath surrounding nerve cell axons
  92. cholesterol is synthesized by ______ and represents ____% of the plasma membrane of human erythrocytes
    • animals
    • 25%
  93. cardiolipin is found in....
    heart cells
  94. the mitochondrial inner membrane is the site of....
    electron transport and ATP sythesis
  95. the surface of peripheal proteins are predominantly....
  96. the surface of an intergral membrane protein is...
  97. usually a ____ is required to purify an intergral membrane protein
  98. glycophorin is a _______ protein
    intergral transmembrane
  99. glycophorin only incudes one polar group, a
    OH group on a theronine (thr)
  100. carbohydrates are attached to the amino-terminal ____ numbered segment on the outside of the cell
  101. the ser, thr and asn residues exposed on the inside of the cell do not have........
    carbohydrates attached
  102. glycophorin is isolated from the outer membrane of the...
    mature red blood cell
  103. it is easy to purify the mature red blood cell because...
    it contains no other cellular membranes
  104. cytochrome b5 is a heme-containing protein that is ____ residues long
  105. the nonpolar segment of cytochrome b5 functions as...
    a hydrophobic anchor which buries itself in lipid membrane bilayers
  106. bacteriorhodopsin is a _______ protein
  107. a protein found in some photosynthetic bacteria is...
  108. bacteriorhodopsin appears to form seven _________.
    transmembrane helices.
  109. porins are _____ proteins
  110. porin exterior includes, ______ and the interior includes_______.
    • an antiparallel beta barrel
    • water filled channel
  111. glucose permease helps ____ pass through membranes by _________
    • glucose
    • facilitated diffusion
  112. glucose permease acts as an _____ for transport
  113. catabolsim is...
    the breakdown of large food molecules into small pieces such as CO2 and water, storing up energy in the form of "high-energy" compounds such as ATP and NADH
  114. Anabolism involves the.....
    consumption of ATP as a source of energy for the synthesis of large macromolecules from small precursor building blocks
  115. pyruvate contains ___ carbons and is half the size of ______.
    • 3
    • glucose
  116. The first phase of the breakdown of glucose is called...
  117. glycolysis consists of...
    conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
  118. each of the major metabolic intermediates contains an....
    adenosine handle for enxymes to hold onto.
  119. CoA-SH is...
    just coenzyme A - CoA
  120. NADH and FADH2 are _______ carriers
  121. Overall major pathway
    C6H12O6 -> 6 O2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi  ->    6  CO2   +   6  H2O   +    38  ATP
  122. after glycolysis in the pathway, the next step involves...
    the pyruvic acid molecule (pyruvate) undergoes a dehyrdogentaion and decarboxylation (loss of Co2)
  123. the pyruvic acid molecule (pyruvate) undergoes a dehyrdogentaion and decarboxylation (loss of Co2) in a series of reaction catalyzed by a ......
    protein oligomer.
  124. the oligomer that catalyzes the breakdown of pyruvate is called....
    The PDH multi-enzyme
  125. Pyruvate loses a _________ in the form of ______, becoming an acetyl group which is then attached to coenzyme A (CoA)
    • Carbon
    • CO2
  126. In the third section of the pathway, acetyl-CoA is processed by ______________.
    the krebs cycle
  127. Two other names for the krebs cycle are...
    tricarboxylic Acid or citric acid
  128. the basic function of the krebs cycle is...
    to convert the two carbon acetyl group into two molecules of CO2,
  129. the basic function of the krebs cycle is to convert the two carbon acetyl group into two molecules of CO2,storing up energy in the form of ______
    NADH and FADH2
  130. In the 4th section of the map the NADH and FADH2 interact with...
    proteins embedded into the mitochondiral inner membrane
  131. the process of electron transport involves
    electrons being removed from NADH and FADH2 are transported thru a series of moleclues, eventually joining up with gaseous oxygen to make water.
  132. a side effect of electron transport is...
    protons are pumped out of the interior (matrix) of the mitochondrion and across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion into the space between the two membranes of the organelle, establishing a gradient in H+ concentration across the inner membrane.
  133. what happens in the final fifth step of the pathway?
    the proton gradient is dissipated. Protons re-enter the inside of the mitochondrion, (releases energy which is used to synthesize ATP)
  134. Glycogen and starch are processed by route # ___ which link up with glycolysis.
  135. glucose can undergo what type of catabolism?
    aerobic or anaerobic
  136. the branch point for the aerobic  vs. anerobic decision occurs at ......
  137. In aerobic catabolism for glucose (O2 present) molecules will travel from...
    pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for entry into krebs cycle (route #2)
  138. in anaerobic catabolism for glucose (O2 absent) moleclues will travel from ...
    pyruvate to lactate (route #7)
  139. in yeast cells, anerobic catabolism procduces.....
    ethanol and CO2 instead of lactate
  140. glycolysis is common in _______ and _________ metabolism
    aerobic and anaerobic
  141. ________ is the most fundamental metabolic roadway
  142. the two versions of anaerobic processing of pyruvate are...
    lactate fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
  143. aerobic catabolism of 1 molecule of glucose produces....
    38 ATPs
  144. anaerobic catabolism of glucose produces only _____
    2 ATPs
  145. an example of an anabolic pathway is...
  146. in gluconeogenesis, 2 pyruvates are converted into ...
  147. metabolism of fatty acids links up with the carbohydrate roads at...
  148. The breakdown of fatty acids (route #6) is called...
    beta oxidation
  149. fragments of amino acids and nucleic acids generally link up with intermediates which are part of ....
    the krebs cycle
  150. in humans, the urea cycle (route #9) manufactures .....
    waste product for execretion in urine
  151. most fatty acids contain an ______ number of carbon atoms
  152. Beta oxidation involves...
    a carboxyl group of the fatty acid is linked to the sulfur of coenzyme A in a condensation reaction, then a carbonyl group is grown at the carbon position two atoms away from the original carboxylic acid group. next, the two carbons at the end are cut off to make acetyl-CoA
  153. beta oxidation anaolgy ?
    meat and cheese slicer
  154. C-C-C-C-C-C-C -> _________, not 3 C-C
    2 C-C-C
  155. glucose catabolism produces....
    2 pyruvates
  156. each pyruvate can only produce...
    1 acetyl Coa
  157. each glucose indirectly produces ___ acetyl-CoA
  158. pyruvate is the sum of the three species....
    acetyl, hydride and CO2
  159. The CoA molecule is the sum of ...
    H+ and the negatively charged deprotonated  S- form CoA
  160. The dissection of HS-CoA into H+ and -SCoA is useful because it generates....
    the H+ that is needed to balance the overall reaction.
  161. One molecule of pyruvate, one of NAD+ and one coenzyme A produce....
    acetyl-CoA, NADH, CO2 and an H+
  162. the reaction of the krebs cycle begins by...
    joining the 2-carbon acetyl group of acetyl-CoA to the 4 carbon skeleton of oxaloacetate, producing 6-carbon citrate (citric acid)
  163. citric acid has ___ carboxyl groups
  164. ____ CO2 molecules are produced during the krebs cycle.
  165. the krebs cycle ultimately converts the 6-carbon skeleton of citrate back into the 4-carbon skeleton of......
  166. each pyruvate produced during glycolysis ultimately is converted into three _____ molecules. (one during the PDH reaction series and two during the krebs cycle)
  167. most of the CO2 in glycolysis is produced during....
    the krebs cycle
  168. additional products of the krebs cycle include...
    3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1 GTP
  169. The GTP in the krebs cycle eventually loses its third phosphate to synthesize...
    ATP by the reaction (GTP + ADP --> ADP  +  ATP)
  170. the central hub in amino acid metabolism is...
    the krebs cycle
  171. most of the enzymes of the krebs cycle are dissolved in the
    aqueous solution in the matrix.
  172. NADH is produced in the matrix by the...
    krebs cycle enzymes
  173. NADH binds to _____ in the inner mitochondiral membrane to tranfer electron to it.
    protein complex I
  174. The electrons in the protein complex I get transported to complex ___ then to complex ___ and finally to H+ to make ____.
    • III
    • IV
    • Water
  175. FAD and its reduced from FADH2 is part of ______ of the electron transport chain.
    complex II
  176. the 4 high-energy compunds are...
    • ATP
    • acetyl-coenzyme A
    • NADH
    • and
    • FADH2
  177. each of the high energy componds contain...
    an adenosine component
  178. a reaction which converts the higher energy structure to the lower energy stucture has a ____ delta G, a large release of free energy.
  179. ATP and acetyl-CoA are eters which undergo favorable _______ reactions
  180. NADH and FADH2 are two molecules which release close to ____kcal/mole of energy when they are oxidized by oxygen.
  181. NADH provides _______ energy than FADH2
  182. The mitochondrion produces approximately 3 ATP per _______ and 2 ATP per _______.
    • NADH
    • FADH2
  183. What are the two factors that make ATP hydrolysis favorable?
    the decrease in repulsion between the three negatively charged phosphate groups.

    increased resonance stabilization
  184. increased solvation is ________ (favorable/unfavorable)
  185. ATP is a high energy compound and a  _____ compound
  186. ATP is regulated, in order to create ADP and pi, enzymes are needed to...
    lower the transition state barrier to a point where the thermodynamically "favorable" reactions can happen on a biological timescale.
  187. NAD+ or NADH is aromatic?
  188. NAD+ and benzene have true ______ geometries
  189. aromatic compounds like benzene and NAD+ are considered to be stable because....
    they are able to spread their electron density over a large space instead of concetratin repelling electrons in specific ionized C=C bonds.
  190. to notice that NADH is not aromatic is to realize its
    tetrahedral shape
  191. Acetyl-CoA is a _______.
  192. acetyl-CoA can be hydrolyzed by  addition of water to produce...
    a carboxylic acid and a thiol (molecule ending in "SH")
  193. an oxygen ester is not considerd to be a _____compound, but a thioester is a _______ compound
    • high energy
    • high energy
  194. an increase in electron delocalization causes a favorable ......
    delta G
  195. in the oxidation of methane you go from ....
    nonpolar bonds to polar bonds
  196. polar product of methane oxidation are more ______
  197. conversion of nonpolar bonds to polar bonds releases.....
  198. the keto form is more _______ than the corresponding enol form
  199. thermogenin (smokey the bear) causes a favorable loss of
    free energy
  200. pyrophosphate (PPi) is the name given to..
    two inorganic phophates linked to each other.
  201. what cleaves pyrophosphate to two phosphates?
    inorganic pyrophosphatase
  202. the cleavage of pyrophosphate and the release of CO2 are _______________ reactions
  203. glycolysis is..
    the conversion of 1 molecule of glucose iinto 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
  204. glycolysis takes place in....
    all living organisms
  205. the first group of glycolysis is called the...
    prepatory phase
  206. in the prepatory phase,  one 6-carbon chain (glucose) is converted into..
    two identical copies of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a 3 carbon chain
  207. the prepatory phase is characterized by the consumption of _________.
    2 ATP molecules
  208. the second group in glycolysis is the ________.
    payoff phase
  209. in the payoff phase, two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules are converted into....
    two molecule of pyruvate.
  210. along the glycolysis pathway ____ NADH and ____ ATP are produced.
    • 2
    • 4
  211. glycolysis gives a net payoff of... ___NADH and ___ ATP
    • 2
    • 2
  212. P stands for..
  213. BP stands for
    biphosphates (two phosphates)
  214. BPG stands for
  215. G3P is...
    the aldehyde of glycerol with a phosphate on carbon 3
  216. 3PG is...
    carboxlyci acid of glycerol with a phosphate on carbon 3
  217. phosphorylated glyceric acid comes in two forms called....
    2PG and 3PG
  218. some relatives of DHAP and GAP are...
    acetone, glycerol and glyceraldehyde
  219. glyceric acid may also be called...
  220. glycerate has one or more _____ groups attached to it in the glycolysis pathway intermediates.
  221. the numberinf of glyceraldehyde or glyceric acid derivatives uses the aldehyde carbon or carboxylic acid carbon as...
  222. there are ____ kinases in glycolysis.
  223. A kinase is..
    an enzyme that removes the third phosphate from a nucleoside triphosphate (ATP or GTP) and attaches it to the organic metabolite
  224. the organic metabolite is the...
    metabolic intermediate
  225. Step 7 of glycolysis runs ______ in glycolysis and runs ______ in glucneogensis
    • forawrd
    • reverse
  226. step 10 of glycolysis runs _____ biologically but is named for the _______ direction
    • forward
    • reverse
  227. If a cells needs to break down glucose it can run step 7 in the ______ direction
  228. if a cell needs to make glucose, it can run step 7 in the _________ direction
  229. an isomrase is...
    an enzyme that rearranges the positions of atoms within a molecule
  230. a mutase is..
    a subclass of isomerases, enzymes that move one entire functional group from one location to another within the same molecule
  231. TIM functions by _______ catalysis.
  232. because delta g is close to zero, the rearrangement reactions are easily run...
    in both forard and reverse directions.
  233. steps 2, 5 and 8 are used for
    both glycolysis and gluconeogensis
  234. step 4 of glycolysis is a....
    reverse aldol condensation reaction
  235. step 6 of glycolysis does two jobs, which are...
    removes a hydrogen from GAP and also phosphrylates the product
  236. substrate level phosphorylation is...
    when the phosphate is taken out of the solution and not ATP
  237. the enzyme catalyzing step 9  was historically named...
  238. the forward reaction of step 9 is a _______ reaction
  239. the product of the forward reaction of step 9 is...
    a phophorylated enol
  240. a better name for phosphoenol-pyruvate is...
    2-phosphoglycerate dehydratase
  241. nature first converst DHAP to...
  242. #C species common point is...
  243. glucose can cross the membrane much faster with the help on a transport protein called....
    glucose permease
  244. pyruvate has an ionized carboxyl group which prevents its...
    diffusion acorss membranes.
  245. pyruvate must be carried across membranes  by a specific transporter protein from...
    the cytosol to the inside of the mitochondrion
  246. pyruvate must be carried across membranes  by a specific transporter protein from the cytosol to the inside of the mitochondrion for...
    further processing by PDH and the citric acid cycle.
  247. step 3 of glycolysis spends...
    a second ATP
  248. step 3  (spending the second ATP) is a way of making F6P.....
    more symmetric
  249. _____ ATPs are made in the Payoff phase
  250. after NADH and FADH2 are processed by oxidative phosphorylation there are a total of ___ ATPs produced
  251. each NADH produced by electron transport produces ___ ATP molecules
  252. 2 ATPs and 2 NADH produced during glycolysis ultimately represent ___ ATPs of stored energy.
  253. the ATPs produced in anaerobic metabolism represent only about ___% of what you could get if oxygen were being consumed.
    5% (2/38)
  254. delta G actual =
    delta G nult + R T ln (Products/reactants)
  255. in the cell, three of ten steps of glycolysis are strongly favorable (negative values of ____ or more), and the others are close to delta G= ___.
    • -4
    • 0
  256. steps 1, 3 and 10 in glycolysis are strongly....
  257. the three strongly downhill reactions of glycolysis are not employed in gluconeogensis since they would be....
    strongly disfavored (reverse=uphill )
  258. the other seven reactions that are not strongly downhill are basically ____ and can run in both directions.
  259. the three strongly downhill reactions of glycolysis are sites of...
  260. The regulated steps of glycolysis have a delta-G-actual value which is ___ .
    strongly negative
  261. Of the 10 steps of glycolysis, ___ are also used in gluconeogenesis.
  262. Under cellular conditions, ___ steps of glycolysis have delta-G-actual = 0 (approximately), meaning that they are at equilibrium (approximately).
  263. you can adjust the enzymes at sites of large ______ to regulate the flow of molecules.
    delta G
  264. five example of phosphoester clevage rxns are...
    the removal of one phosphate group from the end of ATP, ADP, AMP, glucose and phosphoenolpyruvate
  265. PEP stands for...
  266. the largest value of delta G occurs in _____, where three factors contribute to favorability.
  267. The three factors that contribute to delta G PEP favorability is...
    they are special processes of enol to keto tautomerization

    seperation of repelling charges

    formation of "happy" Pi group exhibiting increased resonance and solvation
  268. intermediate delta G values are exhibited by those reaction exhibiting two factors, which are...
    decreased repulsion between multiple negative charged groups
  269. smaller values of delta G occur in reactions which retain only one factor, such as...
    the formation of a happy inorganic phosphate ion by its removal froma neutral glucose
  270. it is usually _____ to release a Pi group
  271. Synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose (Pi + Glc -> G6P) with nothing else involved is ___ . It is coupled to the reaction ___ , and the combination is favorable.
    • unfavorable
    • ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi
  272. the very first reaction undergone by glucose after it arrives in your cell is conversion to....
  273. the cell makes desireable unfavorable reaction occur by...
    coupling it to a larger favorable reaction
  274. the physical link for the main overall reaction of the cell is...
  275. the enzyme of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate provides...
    a site for temporarily holding onto a phosphate group.
  276. steps 6 and 7 of glycolysis can be viewed as one....
    overall reaction
  277. Step 6 of glycolysis is G3P(aldehyde) + Pi + (NAD+) -> 1,3BPG(carboylic acid derivative) + NADH. Since NADH has enough energy to make 3 ATP, creation of NADH is highly unfavorable. Synthesis of NADH
    is paid for by...
    oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid (derivative)
  278. oxidize, ionize, delocalize, are the main components of hat two glycolysis steps?
    steps 6 and 7
  279. Step 6 of glycolysis is G3P(aldehyde) + Pi + (NAD+) ->
    1,3BPG(carboxyl derivative) + NADH. The unfavorable factor(s) in this reaction include :
    (1) attachment of "happy" Pi to an organic molecule, and (2) formation of NADH
  280. Step 7 of glycolysis is 1,3BPG(phosphate-COOH acid anhydride) + ADP -> 3PG + ATP. Synthesis of ATP is an unfavorable factor, but this is paid for by ___ .
    creation of a resonance-stabilized ionized COO- group.
  281. Step 10 of glycolysis is PEP + ADP -> ATP + pyr. Synthesis of ATP is an unfavorable factor, but this is paid for by ___ .
    enol -> keto tautomerization
  282. in the final step of glycolysis, the price of ATP synthesis is paid by a...
    rearrangement of bonds from a set that is less stable to a set that is more stable.
  283. stable = high "bond energy" = _____ Gibbs free energy
  284. unstable = low bond energy = _____ gibbs free energy
  285. bond energy and gibbs free energy have _____ low/high trends.
  286. the 10th step in glycolysis couples _____ hydrolysis to ____ synthesis.
    • PEP
    • ATP
  287. In the 10th step in glycolysis the ADP/ATP portion is the "__________" delta G half of the coupled pair of reactions.
    smaller unfavorable
  288. PEP is "peppy" meaning it has more energy than ....
  289. the small molecules achieve their effect by binding to ....
    the regulatory site (R) which is seperate and distinct from the catalytic site (C)
  290. Binding to the regulatory sites causes...
    a conformational change in the protein whih has an effect at the catalytic site a significant distance away.
  291. The allosteric effect is when.....
    Binding to the regulatory sites causes a conformational change in the protein whih has an effect at the catalytic site a significant distance away.
  292. a high concentration of ATP indicates that a cell has...
    a lot of energy stored up
  293. A high concentration of ATP inhibits...
  294. hydrolysis of ATP produces....
    ADP, AMP and PPi as byproducts
  295. High concentrations of ADP, AMP and Pi indicate...
    low cellular energy (Low ATP)
  296. ADP, AMP and Pi are _________ of glycolysis
  297. Which of the following is NOT an activator of steps of glycolysis?
    (AMP, ADP, Pi, Ac-CoA)
  298. Molecules which signal high cellular energy ___ glycolysis, whereas molecules which signal low cellular energy ___ glycolysis.
    • (high energy) inhibit
    • (low energy) activate
  299. The carbohydrates sucrose, lactose, mannose, glucose, and fructose all feed into reaction #2 or #3 of glycolysis because they all consist of
  300. Many carbohydrates feed into one of the components of the glycolysis series, which is ___ .
  301. In the list below, the phosphate releasing reaction with the least favorable delta-G-nult is ___ .

    (glucose-6-phosphate -> Glc + Pi
    ATP -> ADP + Pi
    PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) -> pyruvate + Pi0
    glucose-6-phosphate -> Glc + Pi
  302. Which of the following is NOT an inhibitor of steps of glycolysis?

  303. In the list below, the phosphate releasing reaction with the most favorable delta-G-nult is ___ .

    (ATP -> ADP + Pi
    glucose-6-phosphate -> glucose + Pi
    PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) -> pyruvate + Pi)
    PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) -> pyruvate + Pi
  304. The most highly regulated step of glycolysis is step 3, since many hexoses feed into ___, which is the reactant of step 3.
  305. ATP is an immediate substrate in step 3 of glycolysis : F6P + ATP -> 1,6FBP + ADP. It also is a "long-range" ___ of that step.
    product (and therefore feedback inhibitor)
  306. In phosphofructokinase, ATP binds ___ .
    strongly to a catalytic site and weakly to a regulatory site
  307. The enzyme kinetics curve for phosphofructokinase shows a peak at intermediate [ATP]. ATP binds as a substrate to a catalytic site and as an inhibitor to a regulatory site. The tighter binding is to the ___ site.
  308. Phosphofructokinase catalyzes step 3 of glycolysis : F6P + ATP -> 1,6F6P + ADP. A plot of V-init vs [ATP] shows a velocity which ___ as [ATP] increases.
    increases at first and then decreases
  309. Some substrates will bind to a seperate regulatory site and make the enzyme...
    more active
  310. Some products will bind to a seperate regulatory site and make the enzyme...
    shut down
  311. In step 1 G6P is both a ______ and a _______.
    • product
    • inhibitor
  312. in step 3, the F6P is a _______ and a ________.
    substrate and a activator
  313. in step 10, the PEP is a _______ and a ________.
    substrate and a activator
  314. step 10 is activated by _______, the product of step 3.
  315. inhibition of phosphofructokinase, catalyzes step ___.
  316. ATP is both a direct co-______ of step 3 and a long range ______ of glycolysis
    • reactant
    • product
  317. hexose catabolism converges at step ___.
  318. step 3 is a key site for regulation of...
    carbohydrate catabolism
  319. phophofructokinase has two substrates called...
    F6P and cosubstrate ATP
  320. Bypass I (the sum of all three steps) ___ .
    spends 2 ATP
  321. Acetyl-CoA is an ___ of gluconeogenesis bypass I.
  322. Molecules which are activators of glycolysis generally ___ gluconeogenesis.
    are inhibitors
  323. Steps of glycolysis which need to be bypassed are steps 1, 3 and 10. Thus there are 3 bypasses in gluconeogenesis. Bypass I matches glycolysis step ___ .
  324. The enzymes which catalyze steps A and B of bypass I of gluconeogenesis are both named "carboxylases". The enzyme which is named for the reverse direction is ___ .
    bypass I step B
  325. An enzyme which catalyzes the reaction ATP + GDP -> ADP + GTP would be expected to have a delta-G-nult value which is ___ .
    approximately zero
  326. Considering steps 1, 3, and 10 of glycolysis, plus bypasses I, II and III of gluconeogenesis, ___ of these are downhill.
  327. The first half of bypass I spends an ATP and "energizes" pyruvate by adding ___ to it.
    an extra carbon in the form of COOH
  328. he reaction G6P -> Glc + Pi is catalyzed by a ___ .
  329. Step A of bypass I is catalyzed by ___ .
    pyruvate carboxylase
  330. Bypass II of gluconeogenesis is catalyzed by ___ .
  331. Hibernating bears and bumble bees use ___ and ___ respectively to generate heat.
    • thermogenin (bears)
    • a futile cycle (bees)
  332. The enzyme which catalyzes the reaction GDP + ATP <==> GTP + ADP is ___ .
    nucleoside diphosphate kinase
  333. Gluconeogenesis consumes ___ .
    2 NADH and 6 ATP (or GTP)
  334. In order to bypass step 10, which is PEP + ADP -> pyr + ATP , you need to spend ___ total ATP (or GTP), and employ ___ total steps.
    • 2 (ATP) 
    • 2 (steps)
  335. Which step in bypass I has two favorable processes?
    step B
  336. The steps of glycolysis that are reused in gluconeogenesis are steps ___ .
    2 and 4-9
  337. The two bypasses that are very similar are bypasses ____ . Each of these is catalyzed by a ___ .
    • II and III
    • phosphatase
  338. If step 1 of glycolysis (Glc + ATP -> G6P + ADP) and bypass III of gluconeogenesis (G6P -> Glc + Pi) both occur simultaneously, the net
    result is (ATP -> ADP + Pi + heat). Moving glucose to pyruvate and back again is called a ___ cycle.
  339. several different hexoses and disaccharides or hexoses all are processed by the ______phase
  340. Ac-CoA is an eventual long-range downstream _______ of glycolysis.
  341. pyruvate is converted into Ac-CoA by...
    pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
  342. Ac-Coa is acting in a feddback _______ role when it inhibits step 10.
  343. the plot of phosphofructokinase velocity versus concetration of ATP exhibits a complicated shape, having V-max at ______ concentrations of the substrate ATP.
  344. the ATP substrate consumed by step 3 in the _______ phase of glycolysis ultimately is recovered as a product in step ___ of the payoff phase
    • prepatory
    • 10
  345. what are the three fates for the G6P
    • isomerized into F6P
    • Converted into glycogen
    • converted into ribose
  346. the pathway of converting G6P into ribose is called...
    pentose phosphate shunt
  347. the first phase of pentose phosphate shunt involves...
    converting glucose from a six carbon aldose chain ending in aldehyde into a six carbon chain ending in a carboxylinc acid group
  348. oxidation of glucose is balanced by reduction of...
  349. in the second phase of pentose phosphate shunt you..
    convert the 6C chain into CO2 and a 5C chain (oxidative decarboxylation
  350. subsequent energy production or resynthesis of glucose does not happen by.... but instead
    • recarboxylating the pentose
    • 3 riboses are arranged into 2 F6P
  351. 7C isomerization name=
  352. stacking rules (3)
    1) reactions transfer 2 or 3 dominoes (carbons) from the top of one stack to the top of another stack

    2) no stack is ever shorter than 3 dominoes or ever taller than 7 dominoes (3,4,5,6,7 - allowed)

    3) the bottom of each stack, which includes the D-carbon found in glyceraldehyde, is not altered.
  353. the brain consumes glucose but will not import...
  354. we have a constant blood glucose level of...
  355. the liver is the principal organ in....
    buffering the glucose levels
  356. muscele cells are different from brain cells because...
    • muscle cells will take sugar and fats
    • muscle cells do store some glucose and glycogen
  357. the net removal of phosphates from UTP and G6P to provide two Pi's provides the energy for...
    anabolic biosynthesis of the glycogen polymer
  358. a synthase is..
    an enzyme which has two substrates, namely the 2 molecules which join to make a larger product)
  359. the two classes of lipids are
    • lipid-soluble
    • water-soluble
  360. water-soluble hormones/lipids, cannot...
    enter the cell they are affecting
  361. examples of lipid soluble hormones are...
    • steroid hormones
    • thyroid hormones
  362. examples of water-soluble hormones are...
    epinephrine, small proteins - glucagon and insulin
  363. Adrenalin is the  ________ message
  364. cAMP is the _______ message
  365. epinephrine is also called....
  366. there are _____ aimno acids in the final structure of insulin
  367. glucagon has ____ amino acids in its structure
  368. epinephrine is a substituted amine which is derived from ....
  369. adrenalin in synthsiezed...
    in the adrenal glands above the kidneys
  370. 95 % of the pancreas makes up an ________ system
  371. 5% of the pancreas makes up an _______ system
  372. glucagon acts oppositely to...