Exercise Science Exam II
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Define "response" and "adaptation" as they relate to exercise physiology
Response is the way your body reacts to a specific exercise. Adaption is the way your body gets used to an exercise -- that's why you need to adapt workouts to continue to see results.
Define atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is the build up of cholesterol and other fats and lipids in the blood vessels. Arteriosclerosis is the hardening of blood vessels due to blockage of cholesterol. Both contribute to heart disease.
List the 6 major nutrients our body needs to thrive. Circle the most vital one. *For every pound lost during exercise, how many ounces of water are needed to replace it?
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, water, minerals
16 ozs (water needed)
What does the glycemic index measure?
How fast a food triggers a rise in blood sugar
List 2 ergogenic aids
- -Blood doping
- -Living high, training low (training at high altitudes)
Your total cholesterol should be less than
What are the 2 main types of cholesterol? Circle the "good" one.
- LOL (low density lipoprotein)
- HDL (high density lipoprotein)
What are the main causes for a rise in your "bad" cholesterol?
-eating a diet high in saturated fats and trans fats. These fats come from processed foods and fast foods.
What does the "bad" cholesterol do to earn its "bad" reputation?
LDL is the cholesterol that delivers cholesterol to vessel walls. As it builds up it blocks blood vessels and leads to cardiovascular disease. Less than 100 mg is recommended to prevent this.
What does the "good" cholesterol do to earn its "good" reputation?
HDL picks up triglycerides and bad cholesterol off of cells and takes it away to metobolize it. The more we have of this the better our vessels will be. Greater than 50 mg is recommended.
What are the recommended waistline inch measurements for male and femal adults?
Your triglycerides should be less than
What are the 2 divisions of the nervous system? Circle the one responsible for neural control of movement such as lifting weights
Autonomic nervous system. Voluntary nervous system.
Why is it beneficial for an endurance athlete to live at high altitude?
It is beneficial because at higher altitudes there is less oxygen in the air, so your body will make up for that and make more red blood clells which contain oxygen. This enhances an athlete's performance, allowing them to run faster and longer.
List 3 supplements covered in class and what they claim to do and how they do it (mechanism of action). Have they been proven truly effective?
Creatine Phosphate - prolongs workouts and reduces lactic acid build up. This happens when ATP loses one of its phosphates and turns to AOD. Creatine & phosphate donates its phosphate. Doing this causes muscles to become volumized and they produce more protein and less lactic acid build up. This is very effective.
Pro-Hormone - claims to give strength and power during workouts. This is the precursor to anabolic steriod testosterone and it provides many "benefits" that steriods do as well. Although pro-hormone gives negative side effects that steriods have like breast tissue and reduction in testicles. Its not worth it.
Glusosamine Chrondrotant - this is a supplement that claims to lubricate joints and is helpful for those with arthritis. It helps create synovial fluid that breaks down as a result of wear and tear. This is effective and recommended for those with joint problems.
Why, scientifically and physiologically, does your metabolism plummet after going on a crash diet?
When one goes on a crash diet, he or she is consuming <1000 calories per day. Because of this low caloric amount the body looks to muscle for energy because muscle increases metabolism. People generally see results quickly with these diets because as one loses muscle, water goes with it, but then results plateau because muscle increases metabolism and one's metabolic rates goes down and weight shoots up.
__________________ is a disease that involves disruption of blood glucose regulation due to dysfunction of the body's insulin system
Why would an endurace athlete want to "carb load" before a marathon? How shouled they do it?
An endurance athlete would carb-load before a marathon 2-3 days before the race. When you store carbohydrates in your body it gives the body more energy. On the day of competition carb-loaders will be more efficient because they have more energy.
Recommended protein intake for normal individuals is _____g/pound. Recommended protein intake for strength training individuals is ____g/pound. Recommended protein intake for endurance athletes is ____g/pound.
What is "blood-doping?" How does it work and why can it be dangerous?
Blood doping is taking a few pints of blood out of your body to store for later use. The science behind it is the hematocent value (% of formed elements in blood) that have erthrocytes packed with oxygen. When blood is taken out the body will produce more erythrocytes. But the danger is when the pints of blood are put back in. Too many formed elements can clog vessels and lead to heart failure. If done properly by a professional, more oxygen will be in the blood and performance will increase.
List 4 adverse side effects of Steriod supplementation.
- *decrease in size of testicles
- *deeper voice in females
- *developement of breast tissue
- *high cholesterol levels
Exercise can have a positive or negative effect on immunity?
What are 4 of the 5 main risk factors that make up Metabolic Syndrome? Name all 5 for bonus
- *high blood glucose
- *low HDL
- *high blood triglycerides
- *excess abdominal fat
- *high blood pressure
What does the hormone "cortisol" do? When is it present in high amounts?
The hormone cortisol tells the body to store fat and break down muscle. It is present in high amounts in the morning when body is in a catabolic state.
What does the hormone "glucagon" do? When is it present in high amounts?
Glucagon is the opposite of cortisol and tells the body to break down fats and build muscle it is present when body is in an anabolic state, right after meals.
Saturated Fats - Good or Bad
Monounsaturated Fats - Good or Bad
Polyunsaturated Fats - Good or Bad
What kind of meal/snack do you recommend an "athlete" have around their workout time?
An athlete should have 15-30 g of protein before and electrolyte drink during workout and 15-30 g of protein after workout.
How does Type II diabetes typically develop? ** One out of ____ children born after the year 2000 will develop diabetes. **One out of ____ minority children born after the year 2000 will develop Diabetes.
Type II diabetes develops when a persons blood sugar drops extremely low and then goes extremely high. The body gets used to this eventually and cells become resistant to insulin that controls blood sugar in your body. This happens as a result of a poor diet in processed foods and fast foods.
List 3 of the 10 rules of nutrition listed by Tony Gentilcore in "Nutrition for Newbies."
- 1. Always eat breakfast
- 2. Include protein in every meal!
- 3. Eat every 2-3 hours
What is the best way to make ones diet more alkaline and less acidic? This helps maintain muscles mass, prevent osteoporosis and decrease cortisol levels.
Eat more fruits and vegetables
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