Minerals and beginning of calcium

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scubamy36
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163422
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Minerals and beginning of calcium
Updated:
2012-07-21 16:51:11
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mierals beginning calcium
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minerals and beginning of calcium
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  1. What are the major minerals?
    • Calcium
    • Sulfur
    • Sodium
    • Magnesium
    • Phosphorus
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
  2. What are the trace minerals?
    • Iron
    • Copper
    • Chromium
    • Selenium
    • Zinc
    • Iodine
    • Fouride
    • Manganese
  3. Functions of Minerals
    • Provide rigidity and strength to teeth and bones
    • Act as cofactors for enzymes
    • Necessary for proper muscle adn nerve function
    • Proper acid-base balance
    • Bood clotting and tissue repair
  4. What are prime sources of minerals?
    • Fruits
    • Vegetables
    • legumes
    • whole grain
    • beef
    • chickn 
    • eggs fish
    • milk products
  5. What do plants contain that make it harder to get minerals from?
    binders
  6. What is the dietary intake of calcium?
    • AI = 1000-1300mg
    • AI increased to 1200mg after age 50
  7. What are the sources of calcium?
    • dairy and milk
    • green leafy vegetables
    • small fish with bones
    • legumes
    • calcium fortified foods
  8. What are the functions of calcium?
    • -structure of bones
    • -conduction of nerve impluses
    • -muscle contraction and relaxation
    • -formation of blood clots
    • -blood pressure regulation
    • -protective for colorectal cancer
  9. What is the normal serum calcium levels?
    8.6 - 10.2 mg/dL
  10. How do we increase our serum calcium levels?
    • - bone releases calcium
    • - intestines absorb more calcium
    • - kidneys retain more calcium
  11. What hormone is secreted by the parathyroid gland when calcium levels are low that causes all three actions?
    Parathromone
  12. Vitamin D has the same hormone-like effect as _______ that increases blood calcium in how many ways?
    • Calcitrol
    • all three ways
  13. Calcitonin is secreated by what?  and why?
    • thyroid
    • in response to high calcium levels and decreases calcium by reducing both calcium and phosphate in the blood
  14. What factors increase absorption of calcium?
    • -Acidity of digestive mass:  absorbed best as part of a meal
    • -body's need for higher amounts (pregnancy)
    • -Lactose
    • -sufficient vitamin D
  15. What decreases the absorption of calcium?
    • -aging
    • -binders
    • -dietary fat and fiber
    • -drug use
    • -excessive phosphorus intake
    • -laxatives
    • -sedentary lifestyle
  16. Sighns and syptoms of hypoglycemia?
    • -numbness and tingling of ifngers
    • -hyperactive reflexes
    • -muscle cramps
    • -pathological fractures
  17. What are causes of hypocalcemia?
    • -decreased albumin
    • -hypoparathyroidism
    • -vitamin D deficiency
    • -pancreatitis
    • -alkalosis
    • -renal failure
    • -chronic alcoholism
  18. What are the treatments of hypocalcemia?
    • Replace parathyroid hormones
    • Calcium infusion
    • Vitamin D supplements
  19. What are the risk factors of osteoporosis?
    • Non-modifiable:  race, gender, age, family history
    • Modifiable: calcium intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, caffeine, sedentary lifestyle
  20. What are the treatments for osteoporosis?
    • -medications to prevent bone loss
    • -calcium and vitamin D supplements
    • -weight bearing exercise

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