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What are the major minerals?
What are the trace minerals?
Functions of Minerals
- Provide rigidity and strength to teeth and bones
- Act as cofactors for enzymes
- Necessary for proper muscle adn nerve function
- Proper acid-base balance
- Bood clotting and tissue repair
What are prime sources of minerals?
- whole grain
- eggs fish
- milk products
What do plants contain that make it harder to get minerals from?
What is the dietary intake of calcium?
- AI = 1000-1300mg
- AI increased to 1200mg after age 50
What are the sources of calcium?
- dairy and milk
- green leafy vegetables
- small fish with bones
- calcium fortified foods
What are the functions of calcium?
- -structure of bones
- -conduction of nerve impluses
- -muscle contraction and relaxation
- -formation of blood clots
- -blood pressure regulation
- -protective for colorectal cancer
What is the normal serum calcium levels?
8.6 - 10.2 mg/dL
How do we increase our serum calcium levels?
- - bone releases calcium
- - intestines absorb more calcium
- - kidneys retain more calcium
What hormone is secreted by the parathyroid gland when calcium levels are low that causes all three actions?
Vitamin D has the same hormone-like effect as _______ that increases blood calcium in how many ways?
Calcitonin is secreated by what? and why?
- in response to high calcium levels and decreases calcium by reducing both calcium and phosphate in the blood
What factors increase absorption of calcium?
- -Acidity of digestive mass: absorbed best as part of a meal
- -body's need for higher amounts (pregnancy)
- -sufficient vitamin D
What decreases the absorption of calcium?
- -dietary fat and fiber
- -drug use
- -excessive phosphorus intake
- -sedentary lifestyle
Sighns and syptoms of hypoglycemia?
- -numbness and tingling of ifngers
- -hyperactive reflexes
- -muscle cramps
- -pathological fractures
What are causes of hypocalcemia?
- -decreased albumin
- -vitamin D deficiency
- -renal failure
- -chronic alcoholism
What are the treatments of hypocalcemia?
- Replace parathyroid hormones
- Calcium infusion
- Vitamin D supplements
What are the risk factors of osteoporosis?
- Non-modifiable: race, gender, age, family history
- Modifiable: calcium intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, caffeine, sedentary lifestyle
What are the treatments for osteoporosis?
- -medications to prevent bone loss
- -calcium and vitamin D supplements
- -weight bearing exercise