Card Set Information
psu chem110 test2
psu chem110 test 2. liquids gases oraganic geometry
Ease with which electron clouds become distorted
Which one of these elements is the most polarizable;N, P, As, or Sb?
Sb:becuase its valence electrons are farthest from the nucleus.
In this is phase, kenetic energy is greater than inter-molecular forces.
In this phase, kenetic energy is about equal to inter-molecular forces.
Kenetic energy is less than inter-molecular forces in this phase.
London Dispersion Forces (LDF) are related to _____________ and _____________ of molecules.
size (primary factor) and shape
Volume increases as pressure decreases and vice versa.
As temperature increases, volume increases.
As the number of moles (n) increases, volume also increases.
Ideal Gas Law
Pressure a gas would have if it was the only gas in a container. (P1+P2=Ptotal)
Partial Pressure (Dalton's Law)
Bonding that results from intermolecular attractions between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to an electro negative element. (The most important being OH, NH, and HF.)
The molecule with one end having a partial negative charge and the other end having a partial positive charge. (A polar molecule)
The force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles on polar molecules (in close contact).
How can mass percentage be found from the molecular formula (C22,H14)?
Molar mass (C) X the number of an atom (C22) / the sum molar mass of the entire molecular formula (C+H)
All bonds in alkanes are ___________ bonds.
This type of hydrocarbon is saturated.
Alkanes (free rotation)
____________ isomers have the same molecular formula, but different structural connectivity (C8H18 = C8H18). No matter how squiggly.;)
___________ are unsaturated. They contain one or more double bonds.
Alkenes (restricted doublebond rotation)
____________ isomers have the same molecular formula and the same connectivity, but they have different geometric arrangements (around C=C bonds)
This unsaturated hydrocarbon contains one or more triple bonds.
Alkynes (no rotation)?
______________ hydrocarbons contain rings with alternating single and double carbon-carbon bonds (benzene).
This functional class is R-OH.
This functional class is NH2-R.
This functional class is O=C(R)-H.
This functional class is O=C(R2).
This functional class is O=C(R)-OH.
A reaction in which a reacting chemical adds to the two carbon atoms of a carbon-carbon multiple bond.
The model accounting for geometric arrangements (such as in NH3).
VSEPER (Valence Shell electron pair repulsion) model
In the VSEPER model, a region about a central atom in which an electron pair is concentrated.
The bond angle for a linear (2) EDG is _____________.
The bond angle for the triganal planar (3) EDG is ____________.
The bond angle for the tetrahedral (4) EDG is ______________.
The bond angle for the triganal bi pyramidal (5) EDG is _____________ equitorial and ______________ axial.
120 degrees; 90 degrees
The bond angle for the octahedral (6) EDG is ____________.
The bond angle ___________ as the number of lone paires increases.
Bond angles involving multiple bonds (double or triple) are ___________ while angles on the other side of the molecule are smaller.
The four possible molecular geometries for triganalbipyramidal are:
triganalbipyramidal, seesaw, t-shaped, linear
Three possible molecular geometries for octahedral are:
octahedral, square pyramidal, square planar
The three tetrahedral molecular geometries are:
tetrahedral, triganalpyramidal, bent
The two triganal planar molecular geometries ar:
triganal planar and bent
If VSEPER structures have unbonded pairs, they are usually __________.
This bond results from head on overlap of orbitals. Electron density is centered about the internuclear axis (strong overlap).
This bond results from side ways overlap of orbitals. Electron density is above and below the internuclear axis (weak overlap).
Going from the atomic ground state to the atomic excited state is called _________.
sp equals __ ED.
sp2 equals __ ED.
sp3 equals __ ED.
sp3d equals __ ED.
sp3d2 equals __ ED.
One double bond equals _______ sigma bonds and ______ pi bonds.
One triple bond is _________ sigma bonds and ____ pi bonds.
Molecules with resonance structures always have _________ bonding.
Attractive interactions that hold covalent molecules together in groups (HCl-HCl).
As temperature increases, kinetic energy _________.
Intermolecular forces only depend on _________.
Kinetic energy (not temperature)
Dipole-dipole interactions only include __________ molecules.
A stronger intermolecular force ___________ the melting point and boiling point.
Electrons are in constant motion. Instantaneous dipole moments form when there are more electrons on one side of the molecule (temporary). This is ______.
London Dispersion Forces (LDF) (Does not exist in ionic compounds ex. cation = anion)
Who is the smartest (and handsomest) guy in the world?
Derek Kohler ;)
There are no ions involved, and there are no polar molecules involved (non-polar). This means the IMF is_______ only.
London Dispersion Forces (LDF) (Hydrocarbons are always LDF, ex. CH)
There are no ions involved and there are polar molecules involved, but there are no hydrogen bonds (2NO or F). This means the IMF is _________ and _______.
London Dispersion Forces and dipole-dipole.
There are no ions involved and there are polar molecules and there are hydrogen bonds to N,O, orF. Then the IMF present are:
London Dispersion Forces, Dipole-dipole, and hydrogen bonding
The height of the column of mercury (Hg) in the open ended manometer shown is found to be 65 mm. If the external pressure is 1.06 atm. What is the gas pressure inside the bulb?
It is 65 mm/760 mm = Xatm. Subtract Xatm from 1.06 atm. That is equal to the pressure inside the bulb.
For changes in P, V, & T. The formula is the initial conditions of PVT set to the final conditions of PVT.
P1 X V1/ T1 = P2 X V2/ T2
At a given temperature, the lighter a gas is, the ________ its average molecular speed will be. (H>N)
At the same temperature, different gasses have __________ average kinetic energy while at the same time they have ______ average speeds.
the same, different
An unknown gas effuses at a rate of 0.112 X H2 gas at 25C. What is the molar mass of the gas?
H2= 2.016 g/mol / (0.112^2) = Molar mass of the gas
As density and pressure decrease, distance betweeen molecule collisions ___________.
increases (mean free path)
Van der waals real gass equation: (P + n^2/V^2Xa)X(V-nb) = nRT. The a stands for ______________ and b stands for _________.
a = correction for intermolecular forces, b = corrections for excluded volume/size
Ideal gas behavior occurs at ________ pressure and __________ temperature.
The needed in liquid phase to increase surface area is called __________.
surface tension (water beads)
Resistance to flow is called ___________. (The higher "it" is, the slower flowing is.) (olive oil < honey)
viscosity (higher viscosity = higher intermolecular forces)
Pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase (liquid moving to gas phase).
The temperature at which vapor pressure is equal to 1 atm.
Normal boiling point
The pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state (the point at which no phase boundaries exist beyond).
Amount of heat required to raise an object's temperature by 1 kelvin or Celcius.
heat capacity (C)