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Describe the Stabilator:
Variable angle of incidence airfoil that enhances the handling qualities of the helicopter.
Functions of the Stabilator:
- STREAMLINES with rotor downwash below 30 kts preventing nose up attitude.
- Collective to pitch coupling to minimize pitch excursions due to collective inputs. (Collective Position Transducers begin at 30KIAS)
- Angle of incidence decreases above 30 kts to improve static stability. (ADC, FCC)
- Lateral sideslip to pitch coupling to reduce susceptibility to gusts. Stab up for nose right, down for nose left. (Lat. accelerometers)
- Pitch rate feedback to improve dynamic stability. Dampens pitch excursions due to turbulence or "G" forces. (EGI, FCC)
Describe the DEC:
Controls the electrical functions of the engines and transmits operation information to the cockpit.
Functions of the DEC
IN FLT HHOT
- Isochronous Np governing.
- Np reference set by the pilot (96-100%- INCR/DECR)
- Fault Indication. DEC Codes sent above the TQ indicator and on the FMS DEC status page.
- Load sharing/TQ matching within 3%.
- Transient Droop Compensation 4-1 improvement to compensate for transient droop. Uses the collective position transducer signal.
- History Counter.
- Hot Start Preventer, tells the ODV to shutoff fuel when 900*C is reached, NG <60, NP<50.
- Overspeed protection at 120+/-1 Np.
- TGT Limiting. Limits Fuel Flow when reaching approximately 879 Dual ENG, 903 (2.5 Min) when opp TQ is <50%.
- Three windings for 3 functions:
- Ng signal to the cockpit (green cable)
- Ignition power to the exciters,
- (Yellow Cable)
- DEC Power, (Yellow Cable)
Describe the path of Fuel Flow:
Path Finders Hate Lousy Operators.
- Pump (Eng Driven Section)
- Fuel Filter
- Liquid to Liquid Cooler
What are the functions of the Drag Beam Switch (WOW)
CHAFF AIM TUBE
- CVR/FDR: IBIT, erase on ground.
- Hydraulic Leak test disabled in flight.
- Audio for low rotor disabled on the ground.
- Flight Director Modes Enabled in flight.
- FMS-Model Aircraft, EGI, GC, or GPS alignment IBIT on ground/EGI air alignment in flight.
- AFCS Pitch, Roll, Att hold/ Hdg Hold/ Maneuvering Stab/ Rad Alt Hold/ Airspeed hold - Enabled in flight.
- IFF Mode 4 Auto Zeroize enabled in flight.
- MFD Status Page Activation on Ground.
- Thermal protection for B/U Pump disabled in flight.
- B/U Pump in auto mode regardless of switch position enabled in flight. Disabled on ground unless Acc low.
- ESSS jettison disabled on ground. (right switch)
- It is the basic auto pilot.
- It enhances static stability through long term rate dampening in pitch, roll, and yaw. Proper Operation requires that SAS/Boost, trim, and SAS 1 and/or SAS 2 functions be selected on the control panel.
FPS Functions in the PITCH and Roll axis above and below 50 kts.
- Below 50 knots:
- Attitude hold.
- Above 50 knots:
- Attitude hold.
FPS Functions in the YAW axis above and below 50 kts.
- Below 50 knots:
- Heading Hold
- Above 50 Knots:
- Heading Hold and Turn Coordination.
What must be on for FPS to work properly?
- SAS 1 and/or SAS 2
- STABILATOR (helps but isn't required)
Define SAS1 & 2.
Provides short term rate dampening in pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Enhances turn coordination >50kts. 5% Control Authority Each. Controlled by its respective FCC.
Pitch, Roll, and Yaw signals from reps. EGIs (NOSE).
Airspeed- Air Data Computer.
Malfunction indicated by erratic movement, reset CPTR1/2, or turn off that SAS.
Anti Vibration Control System (AVCS)
Reduces cockpit and cabin vibrations by mechanically generating additional vibrations that are out of phase with the main rotor. Uses 3 force generators (90-105 NR).
Name the 4 MMU mixes and what each compensates for:
- Collective to Pitch - Compensates for rotor downwash on the stabilator.
- Collective to Roll - Compensates for Translating Tendency.
- Collective to Yaw- Compensates for Torque Effect.
- Yaw to pitch- Compensates for the lift component of the tail rotor.
- Enhances static stability and handling qualities of the helicopter; Autopilot. Through:
- and the Coupled Flight Director
Define Electronic Coupling:
- Collective to Airspeed to YAW Coupling - Compensates for torque effect in addition to Collective to YAW mixing based on collective position and airspeed.
- FCC#2 commands the yaw trim actuator 100% below 40 knots, tapering to 0% input at 100 knots.
Provides a gradient force, and detent holding force for pitch, roll, collective, and yaw.
What comprises the trim system?
- Consists of 3 electro mechanical actuators and one electrohydromechanical actuator (pitch).
- SAS/Boost required for operation. Slip Clutches req. 80lbs for yaw, 13lbs roll, 22 lbs max collective during an actuator Jam. FCC Monitors continuously, and will turn off the driving trim actuator.
HMU is the basic fuel control: Includes high pressure fuel pumping & variable geometry servo actuator.
What are the functions of the HMU? PMCANVDTO
- Pumps fuel at high pressure.
- Meters fuel to ODV in response to PAS, LDS, Torque Motor from DEC.
- Collective Pitch Compensation thru the LDS.
- Accel/Decel flow limiting prevents flameout, comp. stall, and eng damage.
- Ng Limiting- Limits MTA under low temp conditions.
- Variable Geometry Positioning of the inlet guide vanes.
- DEC Lockout.
- Torque motor to trim Ng output.
- Opens vapor vents for manual HMU priming to remove air from the HMU.
What are the functions of the ODV? HOPS
- Hot Start Prevention shuts fuel flow at 900*C.
- Overspeed protection (Np) from DEC at 120+/-1%.
- Purges main fuel manifold and allows back flow of high-pressure air for purging.
- Sends fuel through manifold to injectors for starting and engine operation.
Causes of retreating blade stall:
- High gross weight
- Low rotor RPM
- High DA
- High G Maneuvers
- Turbulent Air
- High Airspeed
Conditions conducive to settling with power are:
- Vertical or near vertical descent greater than 300FPM
- Low Forward Airspeed
- Rotor using some or all of available engine power
- Insufficient power to stop the sink rate.
Define Translating tendency:
The tendency of the Aircraft to drift to the right due to tail rotor compensation for the M/R TQ effect.
Occurs at approximately 16-24 knots. As the Aircraft gains forward airspeed it begins to outrun its rotor vortices and enters a more horizontal flow of undisturbed air. This means less induced flow and induced drag, increasing the angle of attack.
Describe the UH-60 Main Rotor system:
The UH-60 has a fully articulated main rotor system that moves in 3 axes. Flapping, lead/lag, and feathering.
What are the components of the UH-60 power train system?
The power train consists of 2 engines, a main transmission, an intermediate gear box, a tail gear box, and connecting drive shafts. Power from the engines is transmitted to the main transmission module through the the input modules.
What are the modules of the UH-60 transmission?
2 input modules, the main module, and 2 accessory modules.
What must weather minimums be and through what period of time for a VFR flight?
Destination wx must be forecast equal to or greater than VFR minimums at ETA plus one hour. Predominant wx applies.
What is collective to pitch mixing?
- Collective to pitch mixing compensates for the effects of rotor downwash on the stabilator caused by pitch changes.
- The MMU provides forward input to the main rotor system as collective is increased, and aft as collective is decreased, keeping the nose level.
What is collective to roll mixing?
Collective to roll compensates for translating tendency. As the collective is increased, the main rotor disk is tilted to the left, as collective is increased the main rotor disk is tilted back towards the right.
What is collective to yaw mixing?
Collective to YAW mixing compensates for the changes in torque effect caused by changes in collective position. The MMU increases tail rotor pitch as collective is increased and decreases tail rotor pitch as collective is decreased.
What is YAW to Pitch mixing?
Compensates for changes in the vertical thrust component of the canted tail rotor as the tail rotor pitch is changed. The MMU provides aft input to the main rotor system, as tail rotor pitch is increased and forward input as the T/R pitch is decreased.
What conditions during start require an EMER ENG Shutdown?
- No TGT rise in 45 seconds
- No engine oil pressure w/in 45 seconds.
- No % Np within 45 seconds
- Engine starter drops out prior to 52-65% Ng.
- TGT temp reaches 851*C before idle is attained (63% Ng speed).
Flight Controls Hold:
- Warning: If inadvertent rotor brake movement should occur due to rotor brake slippage, immediately shut down the engine(s) or release the brake.
- Caution: If start is attempted with the ignition switch OFF- Do not place on, abort start.
- Note: During Rotor Brake operations there will be no Np 1 or 2 until the rotor brake is released. MAIN XMSN PRESS caution remains and there is no pressure indicated until the brake is released. All corresponding 1 & 2 HYD cautions remain until the rotor brake is released.
- Fuel pressure low cautions may appear during the start but should be extinguished before idle.
- Caution: To avoid damage to the start actuators, we wont move the EPCL to OFF while pushing the start actuators.
- Caution: During engine start and run up, keep the cyclic in neutral and collective no more than one inch above full down, and pedals centered until %RPM R reaches 50% to prevent damage to anti-flap bracket bushings.
- Note: If engine starter disappears when the button is released and the EPCL is OFF, the start may be continued by pressing and holding the starter button until 52-65% NG speed is reached.
- For Starts with the rotor brake off and during rotor engagements cyclic inputs should be minimized to prevent droop stop pounding.
- Note: There is a delay of approximately on second between the time the starter drops out and the ENG STARTER ON caution disappears. Consequently the NG is permitted to indicate above 65% when the starter drop out is indicated on the MFD, but must be out by the time the engine reaches IDLE.
What is the usable capacity of each tank with each refueling method?
- Gravity: 360 lbs
- Pressure: 359lbs
- Closed Circuit: 356lbs
- External: 230 Each Tank
When may aviators file VFR flight plans to a destination within class B,C,D, and E surface areas when forecasted weather is less than 1000' AGL and 3 SM visibility?
When weather conditions are are forecast to be equal to or greater than SVFR minimums for that Airspace at ETA plus 1 hour.
What must WX minimums be and through what period of time for a VFR flight?
Destination weather must be forecast equal to or greater than VFR minimums at ETA plus 1 hour. predominant weather applies.
Inadvertent IMC procedures:
- Announce "IMC" and transfer to instrument flight.
- Attitude- Level the wings.
- Heading- Turn only to Avoid known obstacles.
- Torque- Adjust for climb
- Trim the Aircraft
- Airspeed- Maintain or Adjust as necessary.
- Contact ATC-
- Pilot not on the controls will monitor instruments, set the transponder to EMER, and make Radio Calls.
Forms required in the Aircraft:
- Operator's Checklist
- -10 including changes
- Current 365-4
- Equipment Logbook with:
- HIT LOG
- 2408- Equipmt Log Assmbly
- 2408-12 Flight Record
- 2408-13 Aircraft status Recrd
- 2408-13-1 Maint. Record
- Form 1896
- PM Daily Checklist.
PC's responsibilities for weight and balance:
- Accuracy of the 365-4
- Form On Board the Aircraft
- Weight and CG within limits for the entire flight
- Actual loading is reflected on the forms.
- Checked every 90 days (365 at FT Rucker)
- All weight and balance is reviewed every 90 days.
When is the Aircraft weighed?
- Class 1- Every 36 months
- Class 2- Every 24 months
- After Overhaul or Major Repairs
- After modifications or replacements (IE Paint)
- Whenever CG is suspected to be in error.
What are the four modules of the engine?
- The hot section
- The cold section
- The Accessory Gear Box
- The Power Turbine Section
Class B Requirements:
- ATC Clearance and 2 way comms
- Xponder with Mode C
- 3 SM clear of Clouds
Describe Class "C":
- 2 way radio comm within 20 NM
- 3 SM visibility & 1000 ft above, 500 ft below and 2000 horizontally. (Basic Cloud Clearance)
Describe Class D:
- Surface to 2500 AGL.
- Lateral as depicted.
- 2 way coms and BCC
Describe Class E:
- Any regulatory airspace not A-D.
- Surface based-> Dashed Magenta.
- 700' Fading Magenta.
- 1200' transition (Blue fading or entire map, I.E. VFR sectional)
Describe Class G airspace:
- Non Regulatory Airspace not defined A-E.
- <1200 AGL - 1/2 Mile Vis day and clear of clouds.
- <1200 ft night- 1 mile Vis day and clear of clouds.
Describe prohibited Airspace:
Airspace where flights are prohibited for national security.
Crew Coordination Objectives:
- Establish and maintain team relationships.
- Establish and Maintain Workloads.
- Exchange Mission Information.
- Cross Monitor Performance.
Define Aircrew Coordination:
The interaction between crew members necessary for the safe, efficient, and effective performance of tasks.
Describe Restricted Airspace:
- Airspace with hazards to Aircraft within the area. Examples are gunnery training, and artillery.
- Prior permission is needed prior to entry.
Describe warning areas:
3 NM outward from the coast, with hazards to aircraft over international waters.
What is an MOA?
It is a military operations area and it separates military training activities from IFR traffic. Examples are acrobatic/ abrupt flight maneuvers.
What is an alert area?
An area with a high volume of traffic.
What is a TRSA and what does it provide?
TRSA = Terminal Radar Service Area. Provides vectoring, sequencing, separation, and advisories. Pilot does not have to accept TRSA services.
What are SVFR minimums?
1/2 Mile clear of clouds unless a higher minimum is required at the destination airfield. SVFR is authorized provided minimums are met and ATC clearance is granted.
PER AR 95-1 what items are crews required to wear in flight?
- Leather Boots
- Flight Gloves
- Flight Helmet
- Flight Suit
- Cotton wool or nomex underwear
- ID tags.
- Passengers must have hearing protection.
What are the transponder codes for emergency and two way commo failure?
- 7700- EMER
- 7600- Commo Failure
Where can you file a flight plan and why must the pilot ensure the flight plan is passed to the TIE-IN FSS?
- The nearest FSS. (By phone, by radio, or in person)
- If the take off time isn't passed, the pilot will arrive un-announced.
Describe relative wind:
Air in motion with respect to an airfoil, equal to and opposite the flight path velocity of an airfoil.
Rotational Relative Wind:
Horizontal flow of air over an airflow.
Resultant relative wind:
Relative wind modified by induced flow.
Describe settling with power: AKA Vortex ring state.
- Helicopter settles into its own downwash.
- 300FPM or greater rate of descent.
- Low airspeeds (near zero)
- Power Applied 20-100%.
- Most likely to happen on down wind approaches, steep approaches, in formation flight, NOE flight, masking, unmasking and hover OGE.
Dynamic roll over Definition, physical, and human factors:
- The occurrence of a rolling motion when there is a pivot point present and the aircraft exceeds the critical angle, thereby rolling over.
- Physical factors include: Slopes, CG & Loading, Crosswind, M/R thrust, M/R, design, T/R thrust.
- Human Factors include:
- Inattention, Inexperience
- inappropriate control inputs, loss of visual reference, and failure to take timely action.
Translating Tendency defined:
- During hovering flight, single rotor helicopters tend to drift laterally to the right (direction of T/R thrust).
- This is compensated by the MMU through Collective to Roll and pilot correction to the left with the cyclic.
Describe retreating blade stall:
- A stall that begins at or near the tip of the blade because of the high angles of attack required to compensate for dissymmetey of lift.
- High gross weight
- High density altitude
- Steep turns
- Low rotor RPM
- Forward Airspeed.
- Severe vibrations
- Left roll of the fuselage
- Nose pitches up
- Reduce Power
- Reduce Airspeed
- Reduce the severity of the maneuver
- Increase RPM toward upper limit
- Ensure aircraft is trim.
Three regions of airflow in an auto rotation:
The Driven, the Driving and the Stall region.
Describe effective translational lift:
- At approximately 16-24 kts the rotor completely outruns the recirculation of old vortices and begins to work in relatively undisturbed air.
- Lift becomes more effective.
- Airflow is more horizontal
- Induced Drag is reduced
- Angle of attack is increased.
- The nose pitches up and the helicopter rolls to the right.
Describe the transverse flow effect:
A condition of increased drag and decreased lift in the aft portion of the rotor disk caused by the air having a greater induced flow velocity and angle in the aft portion.
What are the warnings notes and cautions associated with pre flight?
- Warning: Do not preflight until armament systems are safe, switches off, safety pins installed and locking levers in locked position.
- Caution: Do not deflect main rotor blades more than 6 inches below normal droop position when attaching tie downs. Do not tie down below normal droop position.
How long should one wait after shut down before checking engine oil?
How long should you wait before checking transmission oil and what type of dipstick should you you use?
- Single scale for checking cold oil levels. Wait at least two hours for checking oil.
- Dual scale for checking hot or cold oil. Read the hot side of the dipstick from shutdown to 30 minutes after.
- between 30 minutes after and 2 hours, you must interpolate when checking the oil.
What is the proper method for checking apu oil level?
When the APU is cool to the touch use the cool side, when APU is hot to the touch use the warm side of the dipstick.
What can the back up pump pressurize:
The #1 & #2 HYD systems, the 2nd stage tail servo, and the accumulator.
What lights turn on the APU?
- #1 RSVR LOW
- #1 HYD PUMP CAUTION
- #1 TAIL ROTOR SERVO CAUTION
- #2 HYD PUMP CAUTION
- APU ACCUM LOW
What does the number two hydraulic pump pressurize?
The 2nd stage primary servos and the components in the pilot assist area. (Pitch, Roll, & Yaw SAS actuators, Pitch Boost Servo, Collective and Yaw Boost, and the pitch trim assembly.
What is the caution associated with the number one generator and the back up pump circuit breaker?
CAUTION: When the #1 AC Generator is failed and the back up pump circuit breaker is out, turn off AC power before reseting the back up pump circuit breaker to avoid damaging the current limiters.
What are the 5 basic subsystems of AFCS?
The five basic subsystems are the Stabilator, SAS, TRIM, FPS and the coupled flight director.
What is the central component of the AFCS?
The central component of AFCS is two redundant FCCs. Each Computer receives signals from the pilots' controls, motion sensors, control panels, avionics systems, embedded GPS/inertial navigation, and air data computers to compute commands which are sent to the cockpit, trim actuators, SAS actuators, and stabilator actuators. The No. 2 FCC is the only FCC that sends signals to the trim actuators for dynamic flight control inputs.
What does the power pod display?
- The power pod displays:
- NR, NP, TQ, NG (Above 100%) and TGT (Above 793*C).
- NG only displays above 100%NG or if a difference is between 1 & 2 is greater than 5% or DCU engine out.
- TGT only displays above 793*C or TGT 1/2 difference >or= 75*C or engine out.
What are the three functions of the Engine Alternator?
The engine alternator supplies power to the ignition exciters, the DEC, as well as provides the NG signal to the cockpit.
When turning on the ENG ANTI ICE below 4 degrees Celsius, what other advisory must appear?
At 4*C and below, failure of the ENG INLET ANTI ICE ON advisory to appear indicates a system malfunction. Do not fly the aircraft into known icing conditions.
How much of the MAX TORQUE AVAILABLE is lost when the ENG ANTI ICE is on?
20% Percent torque is lost from the MTA
Use of a cross bleed start reduces reduces how much torque on the operational engine?
18 % of the MTA
What is ETL and when does it occur?
ETL is when the rotor system (usually between 16 to 24 knots) begins to out run its blade tip vortices and begins to operate in relatively undisturbed air. The aviator corrects for this with forward left cyclic inputs to maintain a constant rotor disk attitude.
Explain how the electrical power priority feature works:
The electrical power priority feature allows either the NO 1 or NO 2 Generators to supersede the APU Generator, which in turn supersedes External Power. A 24VDC battery provides back up dc power.
Explain the driven aerodynamic region during an autorotation:
This region is also called the propellor region and is nearest the blade tip. It approximately 30% of the total disk radius and TAF acts behind the axis of rotation in this region. This region creates lift that slows the rate of descent and drag that slows the rotor blades.
Describe the driving region during and autorotation:
This region extends from about 25 to 75 % of the blade. It lies between the driven and stall regions. This region produces the necessary force to drive the blades during an auto rotation. TAF is forward the axis of rotation in this region providing continual accelerative force.
Describe the stall region in an auto rotation:
This region includes the inboard 25% of the blade radius. It operates above the stall angle of attack and causes drag which tends to slow down the rotor system.
What are the 3 phases of an auto rotation?
- The entry.
- The steady state descent.
- And deceleration and touchdown.
What are the primary and alternate fuels for the UH-60?
- Primary is JP-8 Nato grade F34
- Alternate is JP5 and JP 4 (F44 & F40)
What is the associated settling times for fuel?
JP fuel is 1 hour per foot depth of fuel. 4 Hours is preferable.
What is the max pressure for closed circuit and pressure refueling?
- Pressure refueling: 55PSI at 300GPM
- Closed Circuit refueling: 15PSI at 110 GPM
What does the appearance of the trim fail caution indicate:
Indicates that yaw, roll, or pitch trim actuators are not responding accurately to computer signals.
What does the appearance of the FLT PATH STAB indicate:
Indicates that FPS is inoperative on one or more axis.
What does the appearance of SAS OFF indicate:
Hydraulic pressure applied to the SAS actuators is below minimum.
What does the appearance of the STABILATOR light indicate:
Stabilator system is turned on, but is in manual mode.
What are the no lift and positive lift areas in forward flight?
Reverse Flow, Negative Stall, Positive Stall, Negative Lift, and Positive Lift.
Describe Reverse flow:
An area at the root of the retreating blade where air flows backwards over the rotor system, from the trailing edge to the leading edge. This is due to wind being greater than blade rotational velocity.
Describe Negative stall:
In the negative stall area rotational velocity exceeds forward flight velocity causing relative wind to move toward the leading edge. The resultant relative wind is so far above the chord line, a negative AOA results causing the blade to stall.
Describe Negative Lift:
In the negative lift area, rotational velocity, induced flow, and blade flapping combine to reduce the angle of attack from a negative stall to a negative lift.
Describe Positive lift and positive stall:
The portion of the blade outside of the no lift areas that produce positive lift. In the positive lift area the resultant relative wind produces a positive angle of attack. Under certain conditions it is possible to have a positive stall area near the blade tip. This can be the onset of retreating blade stall.
What must weather minimums be and through what time for a VFR flight?
Destination weather must be forecast equal to or greater than VFR minimums at ETA plus one hour. Predominant weather applies.
When may aviators file a VFR to a destination within class B, C, D, and E, surface areas when forecast weather is less than 1000' and 3 SM visibility?
When weather conditions are forecast to be equal to or greater than known SVFR minimums for that airspace at ETA plus one hour, and you have ATC clearance to do so.
What are Army SVFR Minima, and what must weather be en route?
SVFR minima is 1/2 mile visibility and clear of clouds unless a higher minimum is required at the airfield. Forecast weather en route must permit flight with separation from clouds and flight visibility equal to or greater than class airspace minimums.
What is Stress?
The body's non-specific response to any demand placed on it.
4 types of stressors
Types of psychosocial stress:
- Family issues
Types of environmental stress:
- Altitude (most evident at 5000' and below due to severe atmospheric changes)
- Aircraft Design/Characteristics (vibration levels etc)
- Aircraft Design
Types of physiological stress:
- Hypoglycemia/Poor Nutrition
Physical - Heart Rate, blood pressure, breathing.
Emotional - Anxiety, irritability
Behavioral - work performance, motivation.
Cognitive - Concentration, Judgement.
Types of Fatigue:
Acute - 2-3 sleep periods
Chronic - Inadequate sleep over a period of time.
Motivational Exhaustion - Burnout, where your body begins to shut down and ceases to function normally.
What is Spatial Disorientation:
An individual's ability to determine position, attitude or motion as relative to the earth's surface.
Types of Spatial Disorientation:
- Type 1: Unrecognized *Most Dangerous* Doesn't perceive a problem exists.
- Type 2: Recognized and
- perceives a problem, but may not recognize it as Spatial D. Perceives control malfunction or instrument failure.
- Type 3: Incapacitation: Unable to reorient, I.E. the Coriolis effect.
Body systems that affect Spatial Disorientation:
- Visual (80%)
- Vestibular (15%)
- Proprioceptive (5%)
- FFF CRASH CARS
- False Horizons
- Flicker Vertigo
- Crater Illusion
- Reversible Perspective
- Auto Kinesis
- Size Distance Illusion
- Height Depth Perception
- Structural Illusion
- Confusion with Ground Lights
- Altered planes of reference
- Relative Motion
- Vestibular Illusions pose the greatest problem with Spatial D.
- From the semicircular canals.
- 3 Illusions:
- The Leans
- The Graveyard Spin
- Coriolis Effect
Describe the LEANS:
- The Most Common vestibular illusion.
- Pilot fails to perceive angular motion.
- Occurs when rolling in or out of a bank.
- Pilot feels an unusual attitude coming out of a turn, even in straight and level flight.
Describe Graveyard Spin:
Pilot enters a spin, recovers from the spin, and feels as though they are spinning in the other direction. so he reenters the spin direction.
Describe the Coriolis Effect:
- The most dangerous form of Spatial D.
- Totally Overwhelming Disorientation.
- Aircraft is in a turn when the pilot moves their head in a plane other than that of the turn. This creates new perceptions in pitch roll and yaw axis causing a head over heels tumbling feeling.
What is a Somatogravic illusion, and what are the types?
- Changes in linear acceleration and deceleration.
- Stimulates the otolith organs.
- Oculoagravic and
- Elevator Illusions.
What is an Oculogravic Illusion?
- Felt with acceleration & deceleration.
- Acceleration: Pilot feels nose up and pitches aircraft downward.
- Deceleration: Pilot feels nose low and will pitch the aircraft upward.
What is an oculoagravic illusion?
As the aircraft descends, the pilots eyes track up. The pilot senses nose low/down and pitches the aircraft nose up.
What is the elevator illusion?
- Occurs when the aircraft is going upward.
- The Aircraft goes up, eyes track down, pilot senses nose up and pitches the aircraft nose down.
How can we prevent Spatial D?
- Always trust instruments.
- Never fly VMC and IMC at the same time.
- Never fly without visual references.
- Avoid stressors (Such as fatigue, smoking, hypoglycemia, hypoxia and anxiety)
Treatment for Spatial D:
- Refer to instruments and develop a good cross check.
- Delay intuitive actions.
- Transfer the flight controls.
Flight restrictions due to exogenous factors:
- Anesthesia: Local 12 hrs, General, spinal, or epidural 48 hrs.
- Immunizations: 12 hours.
- Alcohol: 12 hrs + no residual effects.
- CS/Tear gas: No effects
- Blood/Plasma donation (Cannot donate regularly) 200cc+ ->72 hrs; Plasma -> 24 hrs; Bone marrow -> See Flight Surgeon.
- Diving/Hyperbaric Chambers 24 hrs.
- Simulator Sickness: 12hrs after full recovery before real flight.
- Centrifuge runs-> 6 hrs + no residual effects.
What is Hypoxia:
- Lack of oxygen in the body.
- It is associated with Altitude, alcohol abuse, smoking and meeds. All increase susceptibility.
4 types of hypoxia:
What is Hypoxic Hypoxia?
- Not enough oxygen in the air or not enough pressure of oxygen in the air.
- Prevents diffusion of O2 from the lungs to the blood stream. I.E. High Altitudes
What is Hypemic Hypoxia?
- Reduction in oxygen carrying capacity.
- Reduced hemoglobin available to combine with oxygen.
- I.E. SMOKING Carbon Monoxide, Anemia, Blood Loss, etc.
What is Stagnant Hypoxia?
- Hypoxia caused by a lack of circulation.
- Heart Failure, restrictive clothing, high G forces, etc.
What is Histotoxic Hypoxia?
Hypoxia due to interference with the use of oxygen. Examples are ALCOHOL, narcotics, and certain poisons such as Arsenic.
Stages of Hypoxia (ICDC):
- Indifferent: 0'-10,000' - Decrease in night vision at 4000' 90-98% O2 saturation.
- Compensatory: 10,000'-15,000'. Drowsiness, Poor Judgement, Impaired Coordination, Impaired efficiency, 80-89% O2 Sat.
- Disturbance: 15,000'- 20,000'
- Impaired flight control, vision, and coordination. 70-79% O2 saturation.
- Critical: 20,000'-25,000'. Circulatory Failure, CNS failure, Death, 60%-69% O2 Saturation.
Describe Restraint Criteria:
- The amount of restraint that must be used to keep the cargo from moving in any direction.
- FWD: 12G's
- Rear: 3G's
- Lateral: 8G's
- Vertical: 3 G's Up / 3 G's Down.
Cargo Loading Restraint Rings/Tie Downs.
- 17 tie down fittings installed on the cargo floor. They restrain 5000lbs in any direction.
- 8 net restraint rings that prevent cargo from hitting the bulkhead. Each is rated at 3500 lbs in any direction.
Lumber or planking that spreads the weight of heavy concentrated loads over a greater surface area.
Tactical Situation Report
- What action is being taken.
Describe Low Level Flight:
- Enemy Contact is not expected.
- Speed and ease of movement while minimizing detection.
- Constant Airspeed and Altitude.
- 80-200' above highest obstacle.
- Traveling technique of movement.
Describe Contour Flight:
- Enemy Contact is possible.
- Varying altitude and relatively constant airspeed.
- 25-80' Above Highest Obstacle
- Traveling Overwatch.
Describe NOE flight:
- Enemy Contact is likely.
- Varying Airspeeds and altitudes.
- Less than 25' above highest obstacle.
- Bounding Over watch.
Techniques of movement:
- Traveling: Continuous movement of all elements.
- Traveling Overwatch: Continuous movement of all elements, one element provides security.
- Bounding Overwatch: Elements bound one at a time.
Horizontal and Vertical separation of tactical formations
- Tight: 2 Rotor Disk
- Close: 3-5 separation.
- Loose: 6-10 rotor disks
- Extended: Greater than 10.
- Vertical Separation
- Flat: Same Altitude
- Stepped Up: Wingman 1-10 ft above front aircraft.
- Stepped down: Wingman 1-10 below front aircraft.
What formations are fixed are considered fixed and maneuvering?
- Fixed: Staggered, Echelon, V Formation, and Trail.
- Maneuvering: Combat Cruise, Combat Cruise left or right, Combat Trail, and Combat Spread.
Staggered Trail Formation
What situations favor the use of external loads?
- Cargo compartment is too small.
- A/C CG will be exceeded.
- Loading/Unloading needs to be done very quickly.
- PZ/LZ Conditions don't allow for touchdown of A/C.
- Nature of cargo is such that rapid jettison may be desirable.
During the AASLT planning process, What are the touchdown requirements of the aircraft?
- Touchdown time +/- 30 seconds
- Location +/- 50 meters
- Heading +/- 15 Degrees
What single engine emergency airspeed should be selected if the aircraft does not have single engine capability?
The MAX ENDURANCE IAS or the OPTIMUM A/S at MAX ALLOWABLE GROSS WEIGHT as appropriate should be the EMER SINGLE ENGINE AIRSPEED.
What is a method of calculation maximum range airspeed with a tailwind:
A method of calculating max range airspeed with a tailwind is to decrease the max range airspeed by 2.5 knots for each 10 knots of effective tail wind.
When are passengers in a UH-60 required to use oxygen?
- Aircraft crews:
- On flights above 10,000' PA for more than one hour.
- Above 12,000' PA for more than 30 minutes.
- All Passengers/Aircrews above 14,000' PA for any length of time.
When are life preservers required to be worn?
When there is not single engine capability and you are farther than your max glide distance to land.
What are the 5 aerodynamic emergencies:
- Settling with power
- Dynamic Roll Over
- Retreating Blade Stall
- Ground Resonance
- Compressibility Effects.
What factors determine an individual's susceptibility to hypoxia?
- These factors include:
- Onset time and severity.
- Physiological Altitude
- Individual factors
- Ascent Rate
- Exposure Duration
- Ambient Temperature
Standards for slope brief:
- Select a suitable landing area.
- Set the parking brake before landing.
- Perform a smooth controlled descent and touchdown.
- Heading +/- 5*
- Drift +/- 3 feet until touchdown, then allow no drift.
- Perform a smooth and controlled ascent from the surface.
Passive ASE systems:
- HIRSS: Hover Infrared Suppressive System.
- Flat plate glass and low IR paint lower the helicopter's IR signature.
What does the APR -39A do?
It provides aircrews with a warning of hostile radar detected weapons around the aircraft, and advises the crew on that system's status.
On start up the outboard and inboard MFDs default to:
Outboard: Primary Flight Display.
Inboard: Engine Instrument Caution Advisory System.
What do the cold capsule lights provide:
Status information about emergency cargo release, battery, APU, APU oil temp, and APU Accumulator.
What do IN1, GP1, IG1, IC1 mean?
- IN1: Pure Inertial Nav
- GP1: GPS Solution
- IG1: Blended Solution w/GPS
- IC1: Blended Solution with GPS Aiding.
What performance enhancements does increased blade width/chord provide?
- Increased Maneuverability in hot conditions.
- Increased lift at Sea Level (535lbs)
- Increased flight level performance for GW >19k lb, DA > 8000ft.
What to do if an ICS lockup occurs?
Turn off power, pull both ICS & RESET circuit breakers (#2 DC essential bus & #1 Primary Bus) Both must be out at the same time.
Cockpit/gunner heater on reduces TQ available by:
Anti Ice and cockpit/gunners heater on reduces MTA by?
With Engine anti ice one fuel burn is increased:
About 100lbs an hour.
With Cockpit/gunner heater on how much additional fuel is burned per hour?
About 20lbs an hour.
30 if Auxiliary cabin heater is also on.