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can't produce/comprehend language
inability to carry out learned motor tasks
What are the categories tested in a neurological exam?
- mental status: memory, consciousness, orientation, attention, language
- cranial nerves
- motor: bulk, tone(rigidity, spasticity, cogwheeling, paratonia), power
How do you differentiate between bells palsy and stroke?
- bells is ENTIRE VII
- stroke is usually localized
Which side does the uvula and tongue deviate when there is nerve damage?
- uvula: away
- tongue: toward
What types of pain are conveyed by the Anterolateral system? Where does it decussate?
- pinprick and temperature
- decuss at spinal cord
What is the romberg test?
gait test: stand w feet together & eyes closed, if sway or fall sign of DCML dysfunction
What are symptoms of cortex damage?
- aphasia: produce/comprehend language
- apraxia: learned motor task
- hemianopia/visual field
- neglect: inattention to one side
What are symptoms of sub-cortex damage?
- sub-cortex: basal ganglia, internal capsule, thalamus
- purely motor, sensory or tremor
What are symptoms of brainstem damage?
cranial nerve deficits or crossed/contralateral signs
What is brown sequard syndrome?
- spinal cord injury
- ipsilateral: loss of motor, vibration, fine touch
- contralateral: loss of pinprick and temperature
How does plexus/peripheral nerve damage pan out?
What is myasthenia gravis?
- ptosis: eyelid weakness
- fatiguable eye movement, repiratory, swallowing/speaking difficulty
What are the meningeal red flag tests?
- Kernig's sign: painful resisting hamstring test
- Brudzinski's sign: flexion of neck leads to flexion of hips or knees
What is vertical nystagmus?
vertically bouncing eye movement, not normal
What is pulsatile tinnitus?
swooshing sound w pulse
What are the features of alzheimers?
- Slowly evolving dementia
- A4-Beta: plaques & amyloid angiopathey
- plaques: brown circles around vessels
- neurofibriallary tangles: phosphorylated tau protein correlated with DZ
- congophilic/cerebral amyloid angiopathy
- granulovacuolar degeneration of simchowicz
- death from pneumonia/sepsis
What are the features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
- affect motor neurons->muscle related symtoms
- SOD1: antioxidant functions in familial forms
- TDP43: sporadic
- Elevated glutamate (NT toxicity) may mediate