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For children around the world, what factors affect their growth?
Genetic background, nutrition, and health care
By Age 5, the brain has reached about ___ %of its adult weight?
What does Corpus Callosum do?
Corpus Callosum is a long, thick band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them
What is Lateralization?
Lateralization - Literally sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dormant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa
What is the difference between Gross Motor skills and Fine Motor skills?
Gross Motor is walking
Fine Motor is being able to button a coat
What is Child Maltreatment?
Intentional harm, avoidable endangerment, and abuse and neglect
What does the term "child maltreatment" include?
What is Child Abuse?
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical emotional, or sexual well-being
What is Child Neglect?
Failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs.
What is "Shaken Baby Syndrome"?
A life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections
In the United States, foster care families appear to be?
Declining in numbers
A. Using Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, what stage might a child be if the child is between 2 & 6?
B. Be able to list all four stages
List all four stages Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Birth to 2
Preoperational Intelligence 2-6
Concrete Operational 6-11
Formal Operational 12-Adult
What is conservation?
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e. is conserved) when its appearance changes
What is the reason that preschoolers have poor memories?
They lack strategies for storing and retrieving memories.
What is Fast Mapping?
The speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing in mental categories according to their perceived meaning.
What is a common problem with Fast Mapping?
Pg 261 - 262
The child may misuse the word
(may not fully understand its meaning)
What is Overregularization?
The application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, making the language seem more "regular" than it actually is.
What should parents do when children overregularize?
What is Project Head Start?
A preschool education program funded by the US Federal government
Why was the Head Start program designed?
Head Start was designed for low-income or minority children who were thought to need a "head start" on their formal education.
After a year of Headstart, it was discovered that children's IQ scores increased.
What is Self-concept?
Self-concept is a person's understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits.
What is Self-esteem?
Self-esteem - A person's evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness) or overall
What is the difference between Self-concept and Self-esteem?
"Who one is" versus "How one feels about that"
What occurs in "Initiative versus Guilt"?
(Erickson's Third Psychosocial Crisis)
Children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
What must happen during "Initiative versus Guilt" (Erickson's Third Psychosocial Crisis) so the child has a positive resolution in this stage?
- Parents should encourage the 3 to 6 year olds natural enthusiasm, effort, and self-evaluations, which are typical at that age.
- Parents must not dismiss the child's emotional expressions (whether fear or excitement, anger, or joy) or the child may not learn emotional regulation
What is empathy and how is it expressed?
Empathy - The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when the differ from one's own.
It is expressed in "Prosocial Behavior" helpfulness and kindness without any obvious benefit for oneself.
One effect Television watching has on young children is that?
Television watching reduces time for play.
What is Aggression?
- Aggression refers to a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to oneself, other or objects in the environment. The expression of aggression can occur in a number of ways, including verbally, mentally and physically.
What are the four general types of Agression?
Instrumental Agression - Hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has.
Reactive Agression - An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional accidental action, verbal or physical
Relational Agression - Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection aimed a harming the social connections between the victim and others
Bullying Aggression - Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
What is the effect of Television watching on young children?
Children who spend a lot of time watching television and playing video games are likely to develop a visual learning style. They get used to receiving information in the form of vivid images and brief scenes, making it harder for them to concentrate on and comprehend anything that is longer and presented in verbal form.
Young children who watch television violence tend to become more violent, less creative, and lower achieving teenagers
What happens when a child watches violence on TV? Is the child likely to become more aggressive in behavior?
Young children who watch television violence tend to become more violent, less creative, and lower achieving teenagers
Children of all ages who watch violence on television become more violent themselves. They are more likely to get into fights with each other and even to break things and hurt people when they grow up
What is the difference between the Authoritarian, Permissive, and Authoritative parenting styles?
Authoritarian Parenting is an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication
Permissive Parenting is a approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication, but little discipline, guidance or control
Authoritative Parenting is an approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible
How do children learn gender differences?
Pg 299 - 302
Psychoanalytic Theory - Children of both sexes cope with their guilt and fear due to Oedipus & Electra Complexes through "Identification"; that is, they ally themselves with the same-sex parent by taking on that parent's behavior and attitudes. because them cannot actually replace their same-sex parents, young boys copy their father's mannerisms, opinions, actions, and so on, and girls copy their mother's. Both sexes exaggerate the male or female role.
Behaviorism - believe that virtually all roles are learned and therefore result from nurture not nature. To Behaviorists, gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment. Behaviorists believe that children learn about proper behavior not only directly (gender appropriate toys) but also indirectly through Social Learning
Children model their behavior particularly after that of people they perceive to be nurturing, powerful, and yet similar to themselves.
- Cognitive Theory - Children develop concepts about their experiences. (Gender Schema) Young children have many gender related experiences but not much cognitive depth and tend to see the world in simple terms (black & white) and categorize Male and Female as opposite. Their self-concept leads young children to a cognitive need to categorize themselves as male and female and then behave in a way that fits their concept
As far as differences in physical abilities, the average boy is superior to the average girl in what physical capacity?
The average girl is superior to the average boy in what physical capacity?
- The average boy is superior in upper arm strength.
- The average girl is superior in flexibility
What does "a child with special needs" mean?
Children who because of a physical or mental disability require extra help in order to learn
How do you diagnose a disability?
Look at symptoms and context
If a child of 10 reads at a first grade level, he probably has a disability in reading.
The "nuances of an individual's cultural frame of reference" must be considered before a diagnosis can be made. DSM-IV-TR
If Austic, what might a child in early childhood have trouble doing?
Communication and Social Understanding
How is Mental Retardation Defined?
Mental Retardation - Literally, slow, or late, thinking. In practice, people are considered mentally retarded if they score below 70 on an IQ test and if they are marked behind their peers in adaptation to daily life.
Chronological Age and ability differ
What does an achievement test measure?
A measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other subject
What is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia - Unusual difficulty with reading thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment
What is the underlying problem for the symptoms associated with ADHD? (Neurological)
Slow developing prefrontal cortex, an overactive limbic system, or an imbalance of neurotransmitters
What stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory might a child be in if they were between ages of 7-11? At this age the child is able to use their brain more efficiently.
Concrete thinkers may ask the question "What if"
Concrete Operational: 6-11 Children understand apply logical operation, or principles to interpret experiences objectively and rationally. Their thinking is limited to what they can personally see, hear, touch and experience
What are the stages of Kohlberg's Reasoning Theory? Kohlberg examined how the person thinks about moral questions.
Chart of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development:
- Level I: Pre-conventional Moral Reasoning
- Stage 1: Might Makes Right (Punishment-Obedience Orientation)
Stage 2: Look Out For Number One
(Insturmental & Relativist Orientation)
Level II: Conventional Moral Reasoning
Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl
- Proper behavior is behavior that pleases other people
Stage 4: Law and Order - Proper behavior means being a dutiful citizen and obeying the law even when no police are nearby.
Level III: Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning
Stage 5: Social Contract
- Obey social rules because they benefit everyon and are established by mutual agreement. If the rules become destructive or if on party doesn't live up to the agreement, the contract is no longer binding. Under some circumstances, disobeying the law is moral
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles
- General universally valid principles, not individual situations (Level I) or community practices (Level II) determine right and wrong. Ethical values (such as "life is scared") are established by individual reflection and may contradict egocentric (level I) or social and community (level II) values
What is Prosocial?
Prosocial - feeling and actions that are helpful and kind but are of on obivious benefit to oneself.
Prosocial refers to acts of sharing and caring performed to benefit someone else rather than the one who performs them
What does Erickson's Stage of Industry vs. Inferiority consist of? (school work success versus school work difficulty)
Children attempt to master many new skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent, or incompetent.
Children judge themselves as either industrious or inferior - that is, competent or incompetent, productive or failing, winners or losers. Being productive is intrinsically joyous and it fosters the self control that is a crucial defense against emotional problems
What is a Peer Group?
A group of people of approximately the same age, status, and interests.
- Getting along with peers is especially important during middle childhood "Central to living a full life and feeling good". Difficulties with peers can cause serious problems, and being liked is protective, especially for children from conflicted, punitive, or otherwise stressful homes
Compared to younger children, older children more often choose friends ______________.
Compared to younger children, older children more often choose friends of the same sex and background as themselves
What is the difference between "Aggressive-Rejected" and "Withdrawn-Rejected"? A victim of bullying may be a child of "Rejected-Withdrawn"
The difference between "Aggressive-Rejected" and "Withdrawn-Rejected" is reason for the rejection.
Aggressive-Rejected: Rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior
Withdrawn-Rejected: Rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior.
What are some functions of family?
Family Function - The way a family works to meet the needs of its members. Children need families to provide material necessities, to encourange learning, to help them develop self-respect, to nuture friendships, and to foster harmony and stability
Why may poverty make parenting harder?
Poverty makes parenting harder as it greatly increases the amount of stress within the family which in turn makes the parents hostile towards their partners and children.
What does "Family Structure" refer to?
Family Structure - The legal and genetic relationships among relativies living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily and so on.
What is usually a financial difference between single parent home and two parent homes?
Two parent homes may have a higher income
What is a Nuclear Family?
A Nuclear Family is a family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18.
What is a Blended Family?
A Blended Family is a stepparent family that included children born to several families, such as the biological children from the spouses' previous marriages and the biological children of the new couple.
What is an Extended Family?
Extended Family - A family of three or more generations living in one household
Many children live a grand parent or other relative as well as with one or both of their parents
What might be some family causes of children experiencing distress?
Immediately following a divorce, a child's school achievement level often______.
Immediately following a divorce, a child's school achievement level often declines.
A. What may help a child experiencing stress within a family?
B. From where does the social support come?
A. Church, library, organizations
B. Pets, grandparents, and religious faith are sources of social support