Protozoan Diseases

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Protozoan Diseases
2012-07-23 02:12:01

unit 3
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  1. 6 Protozoan diseases
    • Trichmonaisis
    • Cryptosporidiosis
    • Giardiasis
    • Leishmaniasis
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • African Sleeping sickness
  2. Trichomoniasis agent
    Trichomonas vaginalis (STD)
  3. Trichomoniasis characteristics
    • single-celled protists
    • flagellate (4 anterior, 1 posterior)
    • does not survive long in external environments
    • Humans are only known reservoir
  4. Trichomonaisis transmission
    Direct sexual
  5. Trichomonaisis symptoms
    • intense itching
    • copious green/yellow discharge
    • discomfort w/ urination and sex
  6. Trichomonaisis incidences
    • about 7.4 million each year of new cases
    • Highest prevalence among those with multiple sex partners or other venereal diseases
  7. Trichomonaisis treatment
    • ANtiprotists (metronizadole Flagyl)
    • self-limiting in men
  8. Trichomoniasis concerns
    contributes to infertility in males, low birth weight/ preterm births, herpes simplex 2, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), HIV
  9. Cryptosporidiosis agent
    Cryptosporidium parvum
  10. Cryptosporidiosis characteristics
    • single-celled obligate intracellular parasites
    • Highly infectious
    • most commin cause of water borne diseases
  11. Cryptosporidiosis life cycle
    • Cyst- resistant to most 'normal' water disinfection system (eg. chlorine)
    • Sporozites- directly invade human intestinal epithelium and cause disease( millions released with bowl movements, weight loss due to frequent bowl movement)
  12. Cryptosporidiosis symptoms
    range from mild diarrhea to copious, watery diarrhea with abdominal cramps, fltulence and weight loss- severity is related to immune competence
  13. Cryptosporidiosis treatment
    • usually self limiting
    • supportive therapy
  14. Cryptosporidiosis concerns
    • common- source outbreaks
    • can be deadly for immunocompromised indeviduals (AIDS)

    Prevention: survrilance, portable H2O
  15. Giardiasis(bever fever) agent
    Giardia lamblia
  16. Giardiasis characteristics
    • single-celled protists
    • flagellate (8)
    • ubiquitous( found everywhere worldwide)
    • found in GI of infected animals
  17. Giardiasis life cycle
    • Cyst- tough outer shell permits persistence in the environment
    • Active Trophozite- colonize upper small intestine
  18. Giardiasis transmission
    • vehicle- contaminated H2O, reservoirs include beavers, pigs, monkeys
    • Direct Contact-infected person fecal-oral
  19. Giardiasis symptoms
    • similar to cryptosporidiosis
    • stool contains excessive Lipids(looks greasy, oily)
    • Chronic ilness may result in malnourishment
  20. Giardiasis treatment
    • Metronizadole (cause cancer in rats)
    • cause vitamine B-12 malnutrition
  21. Leishmaniasis agent and characteristics
    • Leishmania tropica or braziliensis
    • obligate intracellular parasite
  22. Leishmaniasis transmission
    • vector- sandfly
    • direct- blood transfusions, vertical
  23. Leishmaniasis sandfly vector
    • 2-3 mm
    • 30+ species known to transmit leishmania parasites
  24. leishmaniasis sandfly life stages
    • 1. Promastigotes- infective flagellate stages, transmit via vector
    • 2.Amastigotes- non-flagellate stage( lose flagella), multiplies in animal host tissue
  25. Most common forms of Leishmaniasis
    • Cutaneous- one or more skin sores, can lead to partial or total deconstruction of mucous membranes
    • Viceral- may take yrs., high fever, progressive weakness and wasting, protrusion of abdomen due to inflimation, fatal if untreated, up to 100% in poverty stricken countries
  26. Leishmaniasis treatment
    • Cutaneous-self limiting
    • Viceral- Anti-protozoal drugs
  27. Leishmaniasis prevention
    • control vector and reservoir (rodant population)
    • No vaccine available
  28. Leishmaniasis concerns
    • Coinfections wit increase risk of developing viceral disease, accelerate onset of Aids
    • Asymptomatic carriers and intravenous drug users contribute to geographic spread of disease
  29. Toxoplasmosis agent
    Taxoplasma gondii
  30. Taxoplasmosis characteristics
    • Zoonosis(animal are reservoirs that transmit the disease)
    • Primary reservoir- cat
  31. Taxoplasmosis transmission
    • Vehicle(food, H2O)
    • Direct(verticle, fecal-oral)
    • *usually is self limiting but treatment is available
  32. Taxoplasmosis forms
    • Asymptomatic
    • Flu-like illness(healthy non-pregnant pple)
    • Congenital Defects
  33. Taxoplasmosis prevention
    • education hygeine
    • avoid exposure
  34. African Sleeping Sickness agent
    and characteristics
    • Trypanosoma brucci
    • flagellated
    • zoonosis
    • 2-23 days incubation
  35. African Sleeping Sickness transmission
    • vector( Tsetse fly, 1 bite=100's of parasites), wils and domestic animals
    • vertical
  36. African Sleeping sickness symptoms
    Generalized pain, weakness, shortness of breath,swollen lymphnodes, fever, disturbed vision, anemia, severe headache, tremors, neck pains, uncorrdinated gait, paralysis, deep sleep, malnutrition, emaciation, convulsions, coma,death
  37. 2 stages of African Sleeping Sickness
    • 1. parasite found in peripheral circulation
    • 2. parasite crosses BBBinto CNS
    • *progression through stages is dependant
  38. African Sleeping Sickness treatment
    • Antitrypanosomes
    • antimicribials
  39. African Sleepinf Sickness prevention
    • no vaccine
    • Vector and reservoir control