Gov. Chapter 14

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Gov. Chapter 14
2012-07-23 01:58:35
Gov Chapter 14

Gov. Chapter 14
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  1. risk
    A probability existing somewhere between zero and 100 percent that a harm will occur. 
  2. risk assessment 
    The largely scientific process of discovering and weighing dangers posed by a pollutant. 
  3. risk management 
    The process of deciding which regulatory action to take (or not take) to protectthe public from the risk posed by a pollutant. 
  4. hazard assessment 
    The process of establishing a link between a substance, such as a chemical and human disease, The link is established primarily by animal test and epidemiological studies. 
  5. epidemiological study
    A statistical survey designed to show a relationship between human mortality (death) and morbidity (sickness) and environmental factors such as chemical or radiation. 
  6. dose-response assessment. 
    A quantitative estimate of houw toxic a substance is to humans or animals at varying expsure levels. 
  7. extrapolation
    To infer the value of an unknown state from the value of another state that is known. 
  8. linear dose-response rate
    A relationship in which adverse health affects increase or decrease proportionately with the amount of exposure to a toxic substance. 
  9. threshold
    An exposure point greater than zero at which a substance begins to pose a health risk. Until this point or threshold is reached, expousre to the substance poses no health risk. 
  10. exposure  assessment 
    The study of how much of a substance humans absorb through inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. 
  11. risk characterization
    A written statement about a substance summarizing the evidence from prior stages of the risk assessment process to reach an overall conclusion about its risk. It includes discussion of the strength and weaknesses of data and if the data support it, a quantitative estimate or risk. 
  12. cost benefit analysis 
    The systematic identification, quantification, and monetization of social cost and social benefits so they can be directly compare.
  13. contingent valuation
    A method of assigning monetary worth to ecological goods or services that are not traded in markets. 
  14. value of a statistical life
    The amount that people exposed to pollution are willing to pay to reduce the risk of premature death. 
  15. command-and-control regulation
    The practice of regulating by setting uniform standards, strictly enforcing rules and using penalties to force compliance
  16. market incentive regulation
    The practice of harnessing marketing forces to motivate compliance with regulatory goals.
  17. environmental tax reform 
    The substitution or revenues from taxes on pollution from revenues from taxes on productivity
  18. cap and trade 
    A market based policy of pollutiion abatement in which emissions are capped and sources must hold tradeabale permits equal to the amount of their discharges. 
  19. carbon offsets
    Projects that compensate from all or part of a company's greenhouse gas emissions by elimination the CO2 equivalent of those emissions from another source. 
  20. Clean Development Mechanism
    A carbon offset program set up under the Kyoto set up under the Kyoto Protocol. It allows developed countries to meet greenhouse gas reduction pledges by paying from carabon offest projects in developing nations.
  21. toxics release inventory 
    An EPA porgram that requires facilities handling any of 650 hazardous chemicals to disclose amounts each year that are released or transferred. The information is made public. 
  22. voluntary regulation
    Regulation without statutory madate, complusion, or sanctions
  23. environmental management system
    A set of methods and procedures from algining corporate strategies, policies, and operations with principles that protect ecosystems. 
  24. precautionary principle
    When industrial activity poses a risk to human health or ecosystems, if that risk is poorly understood, then prudence calls from restraint.