BIO Exam 3.txt

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BIO Exam 3.txt
2012-07-23 13:17:27
psu biol110

Biol 110 test 3 summer 2012
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  1. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetaase is a molecule that catalyzes the binding of an amino acid to the correct tRNA molecule. To which group of macromolecules does aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase belong?
  2. The position of carbons in the pentose sugar, deosyribose, is what makes DNA strands ___________.
  3. True or False: An RNA molecule is produced in the nucleus.
  4. What would be the sequence of nucleotides in the newly synthesized RNA strand given this DNA strand template: 3' ACGCATGCGTACCAT 5'
  5. True or False: Temporal isolation is considered a postzygotic barrier.
  6. How are nucleotides added to a new strand of RNA?
    An RNA polymerase
  7. An anabolic pathway would result in the synthesis of a _____________.
  8. What is the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide encoded by this gene: 3' TAC ATA GGA CTG CCG 5'
  9. In a species of yeast, the tRNA population does not contain any tRNAS with the anticodon 3'ACC 5'. During translation, these yeasts could not produce any polypeptides that contain the amino acid:
  10. The reduction of _______________ has a positive delta G.
    carbon dioxide
  11. The walls of gram-negative bacteria have relatively small amounts of _____________.
  12. What type of organism would obtain energy from inorganic molecules and carbon from carbon dioxide?
    Chemoautotrophic organism
  13. ______________ is the exchange of genetic material through infection by a phage.
  14. True or False: A spontaneous reaction is a reaction that is exergonic.
  15. Refers to that which can or does move matter.
  16. Energy that is associated with moving matter.
    Kinetic energy
  17. Energy that is stored.
    Potential energy
  18. All of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism.
  19. _______________ is the physics of energy transofrmation that occur in a collection of matter.
  20. The _________ law of Thermodynamics states that energy is neither created nor destroyed.
    The First Law of Thermodynamics
  21. The ___________ law of Thermodynamics deals with the ordering of matter and states that all energy-affected matter in the universe is becoming random.
    The second law of thermodynamics
  22. ____________ is the disorder of matter in the universe.
    Entropy (s)
  23. The energy available (or required) to do work in a given system.
    free energy (G)
  24. The change in free energy (delta G) is ______________ if energy enters the system, and _____________ if it leaves the system.
    endergonic, exergonic
  25. An exergonic reaction is unstable, has a negative delta G, and is therefore a ___________________.
    spontaneous reaction
  26. The total energy is a system is known as _______________.
    Enthalpy (H)
  27. An ______________ reaction has a negative delta H and will release heat, whereas an ____________ reaction has a positive delta H and whill absorb heat.
    exothermic, endothermic
  28. A cell does three types of work: _____________ (contracting muscle cells), _________________ (moving substances across the cell membrane), and ___________ (non-spoontaneous reactions between molecules).
    mechanical, transport, chemical
  29. A major source of chemical energy for non-spontaneous reactions between molecules is _____________.
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  30. The use of an exergonic (energy-releasing) process to drivve an endergonic (energy-requiring) process is called _____________.
    energy coupling
  31. A ____________________ reaction is energetically unfavorable (ex. glutamic acid to glutamine).
  32. For each piece of DNA, replication begins at numerous ____________________ which are composed by a team of enzume proteins that are involved in DNA replication.
    origins of replication
  33. _________ unwinds the DNA helix during DNA replication.
  34. ______________________ keep the DNA strands separate during DNA replication.
    single-strand binding proteins
  35. __________ initiates DNA replication.
  36. _________________ adds nucleotides to the unwound parent molecule during DNA replication.
    DNA polymerase
  37. The arrangement of DNA strands is ________________, with one strand designated the 3'to 5' strand and the other the 5' to 3' strand.
  38. Nucleotide addition is a continuous process along the ____________ strand of DNA.
    leading strand
  39. The ___________ strand of DNA has a discontinuous mode of replication.
    lagging strand
  40. The point at which DNA polymerase can work on the lagging strand during replication.
    replication fork (where DNA is unwinding and progressing outward until it runs into a previously synthesized fragment.)
  41. During DNA replication, the lagging strand is started with the help of ____________ which is made of a few nucleotides of RNA and is synthesized by primase.
  42. Short stretches of DNA that are added to the primer sequence.
    Okazaki fragments
  43. This enzyme seals the DNA fragments into a continuous strand of DNA (on the lagging strand during DNA replication).
  44. DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA, and messenger RnA is translated into proteins. This is accomplished via two processes: ___________ and ____________.
    transcription and translation
  45. The _________ code was "cracked" by Marshal Nirenberg.
    genetic code
  46. A ________ is a sequnce of bases that make up the genetic code of a molecule.
  47. During the first phase of transcriptions, one of the two strands of DNA is transcribed into a single strand of copmlementary RNA termed ________________.
    messenger RNA (mRNA)
  48. The DNA strand that is copied is known as the ______________ strand.
  49. This enzyme separates the DNA strands and joins the RNA nucleotides along the exposed DNA template.
    RNA polymerase
  50. The RNA polymerase starts its process of separating the DNA strands and joining the RNA nucleotides along the exposed DNA template when certain proteins,_________________, bind to a cepcific starting point, the ____________.
    transcription factors, promoter
  51. An RNA sequence that signals the end of RNA synthesis.
    terminator sequence
  52. There are two other types of RNA needed for protein synthesis: ______________(combines with proteins to form ribosomes) and _______________ (transport amino acids to the prowing polypeptidde chain).
    ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA)
  53. ____________ are cellular structures where polypeptides form.
  54. A sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a sequence of bases in the mRNA strand and is found in every tRNA molecule.
  55. This enzyme insures that a given tRNA molecule picks up only its particular amino acid.
    aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
  56. To insure high fidelity of protein translation, each tRNA has a corresponding _____________.
  57. A ___________ signals the end of translation. These include UAA, UAG, and UGA, and they do not code for any amino acids.
  58. At the end of translation, a ________________ binds to the stop codon and the newly synthesized polypeptide is liberated from the ribosome.
    release factor protein
  59. ______________ describes how genes can be "turned on" to synthesize a needed protein, or "turned off" to stop synthesis of a protein that is no longer needed.
    gene regulation
  60. Occurs when each new molecule of DNA is comprised of one parental strand and one newly synthesized strand.
    Semiconservative DNA replication
  61. ____________ have a lack of a membrane-bound nucleus, have less subcellular speicialization, and are very small (often described as single-celled organisms). Shapes can be either spherical, rod-shaped, or helical.
  62. The individual cells whose shapes are used to classify prokaryotes are: _________ (spherical), __________ (rod-shaped), __________ (helical/spirally).
    coccus, bacillus, spirillum
  63. Prokaryotic organisms can belong to the domain ___________ or the domain ___________, while those organisms that have a nucleus comprise the third domain _______________ (Eukaryotes).
    Achaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
  64. Archaea are sometimes referred to as ______________ because these organisms would inabhit extreme environments (i.e. hot springs, salt ponds, arctic ice, etc).
  65. Prokaryotes replicate via __________. Cell division in which a prokaryotic chromosome replicates and the mother cell pinches in half to form two new daughter cells.
    binary fission
  66. The DNA is prokaryotes is concentrated in the _____________.
  67. Prokaryotes often have smaller rings of extrachromosomal DNA termed ___________. Most of these consist only of a few genes and are not required for survival in most environments becaue the prokaryotic chromosome programs all of the cell's essential functions.
  68. _____________ occurs when prokaryotes acquire genes from their surrounding environment.
  69. Harmful strains of bacteria are known as __________ bacteria.
  70. Genetic material between prokaryotes can be exchanged through ______________. Theis requires that two living prokaryotic cells physically join with one another.
  71. During conjugating, DNA transfer is done when the "male" uses an appendage calld a ___________ to transfer the DNA to a "female."
  72. The __ factor, fertility factor plasmid, is a plasmid that is used to produce a pilus which is used during conjugation.
    F factor
  73. __________________ is the exchange of DNA between prokaryotes which is made possible by phages.
  74. A __________ is a virus that infects bacteria.
  75. _______________________ is when the phage DNA inserts somewhat benignly into the bacterial host chromosome. It can lay dormant for many generations until it is under certain conditions when it will excise itself from the bacterial chromosome, then replicate and form new phages that burst out of the cell.
    specialized transduction
  76. These organisms obtain their energy from light and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source.
  77. These organisms obtain their energy from a high-energy molecule and use a complex form of carbon as a carbon source.
  78. THese organisms obtain their energy from light and use a complex form of carbon as a carbon source.
  79. These organisms obtain their energy from a high-energy molecule and use a carbon dioxide as a carbon source.
  80. These organisms have membrane bound nuclei.
  81. The cells of all organisms are encased in a _______________, which consists of a phospholipid bilayer that is selectively permeable.
    plasma membrane
  82. Bacterial cell walls contain some amount of _____________, which is a polymer consisting of sugar and polypeptides.
  83. ____________ is a technique used to analyze the amount of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of an unknown organism.
    Gram's stain
  84. If an organism tests ______________ (purple) on a Gram's stain test then the organism has a lot of peptidoglycan in its cell wall.
  85. If an organism tests _______________ (pink) on a Gram's stain test, then the organism has an additional outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides and less peptidoglycan.
  86. Gram-negative bacteria have an additional outer membrane with attached _______________, making the cell's wall more complex overall.
  87. Gram-negative bacteria, having an additional membrane can make them more resistant to _______________ (antibacterial medications).
  88. In addition to cell walls and cell membranes, many bacteria have an additional layer outside the cell wall termed the __________.
  89. A __________ is a long appendage specialized for locomotion.
  90. Bacteria with flagella alternate between tumbling and directional movement. In some cases the movement is random, but in other cases there is a net oriented movement, or __________, toward or away from a stimulus.
  91. The state of any two species having an extended and intimate assocation is termed __________.
  92. ____________ (interacting organisms) have varying relationships with one another.
  93. The __________ is the larger of the two interacting organisms and the ____________ is the smaller of the two interacting organisms during a symbiotic relationship.
    host, microsymbiont
  94. If two organisims derive mutual benefit from association, they are experiencing ___________ (+,+).
  95. If one organism derives benefit from assocation, but the other is harmed they are experiencing _____________ (-,+).
  96. If one organism derives benefit from association and the other organism is not affected, or neither organism derives benefit nor harm, they are experiencing ______________ (+,0) or (0,0).
  97. __________ are proteins secreted by prokaryotes, whereas ___________ are protein components of the outer cell membrane in some gram-negative bacteria.
    exotoxins, endotoxins
  98. Many bacteria form _____________ (thickly coated, resistant cells) that allow them to survive extreme conditions.
  99. The formation of endospores is called _______________. This process is triggered by a decline in key nutrients in the environment surround the bacteria.
  100. An ____________________ may occur when bacteria is present in an environment and then the environment changes to provide an opportunity for the present bacteria to cause infection.
    opportunistic infection
  101. The utilization of various bacteria for the cleansing of toxins in the environment is known as __________.
  102. ______________ is the process that nitrogen is transformed into a biologically usable state by certain nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
    nitrogen fixation
  103. Organisms that live on dead and decaying matter are known as _________.
  104. The ________ cycle is the process by which nitrogen is made usable by nitrogen-fixing bacteria and is then reconverted by soil bacteria back into atmospheric nitrogen.
  105. Plants such as peas, alfalfa, and soybeans are capable of housing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These plants are known as ________.
  106. The term __________ is applied to serveral species of bacteria that participate in plant-prokaryote mutualism.
  107. Rhizobia, bacteria thta participate in plant-prokaryote mutualism, migrate to the plants roots an d form ___________ in the plant's roots which are favaorable for the fixation of nitrogen by the bacteria that live inside.
  108. _____________(blue-green algae) are capable of nitrogen fixation.
  109. ______________ is a general term that refers to any organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks or does not require oxygen, and can even be poisoned by oxygen.
  110. Organisms have various metabolic relationships with oxygen. ______________ require oxygen, ____________ have no need for oxygen, and ________________ can alternate their oxygen requirement.
    obligate aerobes, obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes
  111. The net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane, from lower solute concentrations to higher solute concentrations is known as _____________.
  112. ______________ is a catabolic pathway comprised of a series of steps that convert the chemical energy in glucose into the energy contained in ATP.
    cellular respiration
  113. ____________ is short for theh chemical process known as "reduction-oxidation." It refers to the transfer of electrons that occurs during many chemical reactions.
  114. A molecule that gains an electron is reduced, meaning that there has been a "reduction" in its positive charge. This is called ________.
  115. A molecule that loses an electron is oxidized, and this loss of electrons is termed ____________.
  116. Some molecules have a very high afinity for electons, therefore, they are more likely to oxidize other molecules. The affinity for electron sis termed_________.
  117. The most prevalent electron carrier is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This electron carrier can exist in its reduced form _________ or as an oxidized positive ion ___________.
    NADH, NAD+
  118. ______________ is an enzyme that in conjunction with hydrogen can make NAD+ become reduced to NADH.
  119. The protein rich, semi-fluid part of the cell in which the cell's organelles are immersed is called ___________.
  120. The first step in cellular respiration is called __________ which involves the initial breakdown of glucose, pyruvic acid, water, and reduced electron carriers.
  121. _________ is also known as pyruvic acid and is part of the breakdown process of glycolysis.
  122. During the second step of the ten step process of glycolysis, ____________________ involves a phosphorylated molecule transferring a phosphate group to ADP. This is the general way in which ATP is produced during glycolysis.
    substrate-level phosphorylation
  123. The process by which glucose is partially broken down and NAD+ is regenerated is ______________.
  124. Two common types of fermentation are _____________ and ______________.
    alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation
  125. During this cycle, electrons are removed from acetyl CoA and these electrons reduce more NAD+, along with another electron carrier, FAD.
    Krebs cycle
  126. ____________ known as the powerhouses of a cell, house the phase of cellular respiration in which high energy electrons, NADH and FADH2, provide energy to do work.
  127. A set of membrane-bound enzymes in the mitochondrion are collectively referred to as the ____________.
    electron transport chain
  128. Positively charged hydrogen atoms are also known as ___________.
  129. The movement of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane creates a ____________ that will be used to synthesize ATP.
    charge differential (voltage)
  130. When oxygen acts as a __________ acceptor, there is a maximal amount of free energy released meaning more protons can be transported, thus a greater charge buildup occurs accross the inner mitochondria membrane.
    terminal electron acceptor
  131. The ______________ matrix is the part of the mitochondrion enclosed within the inner membrane, which houses the enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
    Mitochondrial matrix
  132. _____________ occurs when ADP is phsphoylated to make ATP.
  133. Chemiosmosis is accomplished in the presence of the protein complex ________ synthase, which is also located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
    ATP synthase
  134. The generation of ATP from chemiosmosis is referred to as _____________ phosphorylation because oxygen's oxidative proprty allows a large amount of free energy to be made available for ATP synthesis.
    oxidative phsophorylation
  135. ___ and _________ are electron carriers involved in the Krebs cycle.
    FAD, FADH2