Ap United States Vocab.

Card Set Information

Ap United States Vocab.
2012-07-24 01:15:02

Vocabulary over all the textbook.
Show Answers:

  1. Fundamental Orders
    In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.
  2. Mayflower Compact
    1620.  A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.
  3. Navigation Laws
    In the 1660's England restricted the colonies; They couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.
  4. The Puritans
    They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  5. General Court
    a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's
  6. Separatists
    Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
  7. Quakers
    Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the Quakers. They believe in equality of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence.) Settled in Pennsylvania.
  8. Pilgrims
    Separatists; worried by "Dutchification" of their children they left Holland on the Mayflower in 1620; they landed in Massachusetts; they proved that people could live in the new world
  9. New England Confederation
    New England Confederation was a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.
  10. Calvinism
    Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.
  11. Massachusetts Bay Colony
    One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
  12. Dominion of New England
    In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority -- James II. Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne.
  13. Freemen
    colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.
  14. visible saints
    A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to heaven by God. This belief in the elect, or "visible saints," figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600's.
  15. covenant
    A binding agreement made by the Puritans whose doctrine said the whole purpose of the government was to enforce God's laws. This applied to believers and non-believers.
  16. Protestant Reformation
    The Protestant Revolution was a religious revolution, during the 16th century. It ended the supremacy of the Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Churches. Martin Luther and John Calvin were influential in the Protestant Revolution.
  17. Predestination
    Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.
  18. King Philip II
    He was king of Spain during 1588. During this year he sent out his Spanish Armada against England. He lost the invasion of England. Philip II was also the leader against the Protestant Reformation.
  19. John Cotton
    John Cotton, a puritan who was a fiery early clergy educated at Cambridge University, emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution by the church of England. He defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules. He preached and prayed up to six hours in a single day.
  20. Sir Edmond Andros
    Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England
  21. The "elect"
    John Calvin and the Puritans souls who have been destined for eternal bliss or eternal torment; since the beginning of time ; it was discussed by John Calvin in "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
  22. Patroonship
    Patroonship was vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in the early 1600's. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them.
  23. Henry Hudson
    Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
  24. William Bradford
    A pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
  25. Peter Stuyvesant
    A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands
  26. Thomas Hooker
    1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Connecticut.
  27. William Penn
    English Quaker;" Holy Experiment"; persecuted because he was a Quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; area was Pennsylvania; "first American advertising man"; freedom of worship there
  28. John Winthrop
    John Winthrop immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
  29. John Calvin
    John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
  30. Anne Hutchinson
    A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset ( now Portsmouth, R.I.)
  31. Virginia Company
    A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
  32. Iroquois Confederacy
    The Iroquois Confederacy was nearly a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas.IT was founded in the late 1500s.The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in log houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person's background was determined by the women's family. Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders and fur suppliers. Other groups joined; they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage.
  33. Squatter
    A person who settles on land without title or right: Early settlers in North Carolina became squatters when they put their small farms on the new land. They raised tobacco on the land that they claimed, and tobacco later became a major cash crop for North Carolina.
  34. Primogeniture
    A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
  35. Indentured Servitude
    Indentured servants were Englishmen who were outcasts of their country, would work in the Americas for a certain amount of time as servants.
  36. starving time
    The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
  37. Act of Toleration
    A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
  38. Royal Charter
    A document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special privileges and establishes a general relationship of one of three types: (1) Royal- direct rule of colony by monarch, (2) Corporate- Colony is run by a joint-stock company, (3) Proprietary- colony is under rule of someone chosen by the monarch. Royal Charters guaranteed that colonists would have "rights as all Englishmen".
  39. Slave Codes
    In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
  40. Yeoman
    An owner and cultivator of a small farm.
  41. Proprietor
    a person who was granted charters of ownership by the king: proprietary colonies were Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware: proprietors founded colonies from 1634 until 1681:a famous proprietor is William Penn.
  42. Longhouse
    The chief dwelling place of the Iroquois Indians; c. 1500s-1600s; longhouses served as a meeting place as well as the homes for many of the Native Americans. They also provided unity between tribes of Iroquois Confederacy.
  43. Slavery
    the process of buying people (generally Africans) who come under the complete authority of their owners for life, and intended to be worked heavily; became prominent in Colonial times around the mid to late 1600's ( but also to a lesser degree, concerning natives during the early 1500's) because of the labor intensive nature of the crops being grown, and the desire for a profit; mainly used on southern plantations, but also a little bit in the north; brought Africans to America, who have now become an integral part of our culture.
  44. Enclosure Act
    caused by the desire of land-owning lords to raise sheep instead of crops, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor former-farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500's forcing many farmers out and into the cities, leading many of them to hire themselves as indentured servants for payment of passage into the New World, and therefore supporting many of the needs of the labor-thirsty plantation owners of the New World.
  45. House of Burgeses
    The House of Burgeses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgeses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.
  46. James Oglethorpe
    founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
  47. John Smith
    John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.
  48. nation-state
    A unified country under a ruler which share common goals and pride in a nation. The rise of the nation-state began after England's defeat of the Spanish Armada. This event sparked nationalistic goals in exploration which were not thought possible with the commanding influence of the Spanish who may have crushed their chances of building new colonies.
  49. Powhatan
    Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan's death.
  50. John Rolfe
    Rolfe was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England. Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tobacco industry in North America. Rolfe died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.
  51. Lord Baltimore - 1694
    He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
  52. Raleigh, Sir Walter
    An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
  53. Oliver Cromwell
    Englishman; led the army to overthrow King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell ruled England in an almost democratic style until his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies.
  54. Lord De la War
    An Englishman who came to America in 1610. He brought the Indians in the Jamestown area a declaration of war from the Virginia Company. This began the four year Anglo-Powhatan War. De la War brought in "Irish tactics" to use in battle with the Indians.
  55. Pocahontas
    A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
  56. Aztecs
    The Azetcs were a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
  57. Pueblo Indians
    The Pueblo Indians lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe.
  58. Joint Stock Companies
    These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.
  59. Spanish Armada
    "Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.
  60. black legend
    The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.
  61. Conquistadores
    Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for it's riches during the 1500's. In doing so they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually they intermarried these tribes.
  62. Renaissance
    After the Middle Ages there was a rebirth of culture in Europe where art and science were developed. It was during this time of enrichment that America was discovered.
  63. Canadian Shield
    geological shape of North America; 10 million years ago; held the northeast corner of North America in place; the first part of North America to come above sea level.
  64. Montezuma
    Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Soanush were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
  65. Christopher Columbus
    An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
  66. Hernan Cortes
    He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
  67. Francisco Coronado
    A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
  68. Treaty of Tordesillas
    In 1494 Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the new world, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east.
  69. Mestizos
    race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Indians in Mexico.
  70. Marco Polo
    Italian explorer; spent many years in China or near it; his return to Europe in 1295 sparked a European interest in finding a quicker route to Asia.
  71. Francisco Pizarro
    New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
  72. Juan Ponce de Leon
    Spanish Explorer; in 1513 and in 1521, he explored Florida, thinking it was an island. Looking for gold and the "fountain of youth", he failed in his search for the fountain of youth but established Florida as territory for the Spanish, before being killed by a Native American arrow.
  73. Hernando de Soto
    Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.
  74. Jeremiads
    In the 1600's, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers. To combat this decreasing piety, they preached a type of sermon called the jeremiad. The jeremiads focused on the teachings of Jeremiah, a Biblical prophet who warned of doom.
  75. Middle Passage
    middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey.
    In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians.
  77. LEISLER'S REBELLION - 1689-1691
    an ill- starred bloody insurgency in New York City took place between landholders and merchants.
  78. Halfway Covenant
    A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
  79. William Berkeley
    He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676 ,which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.
  80. Headright system
    way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrants way; mainly a system in the southern colonies.
  81. Regulator Movement
    It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
  82. Old and New Lights
    In the early 1700's, old lights were simply orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary. New lights were the more modern- thinking members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening. These conflicting opinions changed certain denominations, helped popularize missionary work and assisted in the founding educational centers now known as Ivy League schools.
  83. triangular trade
    Triangular trade was a small, profitable trading route started by people in New England who would barter a product to get slaves in Africa, and then sell them to the West Indies in order to get the same cargo of goods that would help in repeating this process. This form of trading was used by New Englanders in conjunction with other countries in the 1750's.
  84. Molasses Act
    A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
  85. Scots-Irish
    A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
  86. Paxton Boys
    They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
  87. Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a religious revival held in the 1730's and 1740's to motivate the colonial America. Motivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together.
  88. Catawba Nation
    A group of the remains of several different Indian tribes that joined together in the late 1700's. The Catawba Nation was in the Southern Piedmont region. Forced migration made the Indians join in this group.
  89. Phillis Wheatley
    Born around 1753, Wheatley was a slave girl who became a poet. At age eight, she was brought to Boston. Although she had no formal education, Wheatley was taken to England at age twenty and published a book of poetry. Wheatley died in 1784.
  90. John S. Copley - 1738-1815
    a famous Revolutionary era painter, Copley had to travel to England to finish his study of the arts. Only in the Old World could Copley find subjects with the leisure time required to be painted, and the money needed to pay him for it. Although he was an American citizen, he was loyal to England during The Revolution.
  91. Edwards, Johnathan
    Johnathan Edwards, an American theologian and Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is known for his " Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God " sermon.
  92. Benjamin Franklin
    He was born January 17, 1706 in Boston Massachusetts. Franklin taught himself math, history, science, English, and five other languages. He owned a successful printing and publishing company in Philadelphia. He conducted studies of electricity, invented bifocal glasses, the lighting rod, and the stove. He was a important diplomat and statesman and eventually signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.
  93. Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour
    French settler on America in the 1770's; he posed the question of what "American" is after seeing people in America like he had never seen before. American really became a mixture of many nationalities.
  94. George Whitefield
    Whitefield came into the picture in 1738 during the Great Awakening, which was a religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.
  95. Huguenots
    The Huguenots were a groups of French Protestants that lived from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and the principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group was royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted. Nevertheless, they continued to grow.
  96. French and Indian War
    Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
  97. Albany Congress
    A conference in the United States Colonial history form June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
  98. Proclamation of 1763
    The Proclamation of 1763 was an English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The Colonists were no longer proud to be British citizens after the enactment. The Proclamation of 1763 caused the first major revolt against the British.
  99. William Pitt
    William Pitt was a British leader from 1757-1758. He was a leader in the London government, and earned himself the name, "Organizer of Victory". He led and won a war against Quebec. Pittsburgh was named after him.
  100. Robert de La Salle
    Robert de La Salle was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the beautiful river valley named Louisiana after his king Louis XIV in 1682.
  101. James Wolfe
    Wolfe was the British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, Wolfe was killed in the line of duty. This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War.
  102. Edward Braddock
    Edward Braddock was a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.
  103. Pontiac
    Indian Chief; led post war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763; his actions led to the Proclamation of 1763; the Proclamation angered the colonists.
  104. Samuel de Champlain
    Samuel de Champlain was a French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his latter settlement of Quebec.