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How should adults treat children?
- in a way that communicates sensitivity, understanding and acceptance
- conveys freedom and responsibility
- as capable, creative, resilient persons
What are some things therapists/specialists should NOT do?
- offer advice of suggestions
- offer explanations
- question or interrupt children
- view the cild's actions as good or bad
What happens when a child's feelings are expressed and accepted?
- they become less intense for him.
- it validates the person of the child instead of the importance of the problem
Should questions be used with young children to understand their play?
no, it implies the child should know what his problems are..and it implies that the therapist doesn't understand.
How do you reply when a child says, "What does this do?"
"It can do whatever you want it to do."
How should you address the child?
- address him, don't talk about him as though he's not present.
- Don't include yourself in the child's actions (we don't do that...")
What is the best way to a child?
What is the most difficult thing for therapist/specialist in therapeutic play?
What are the basic guidelines for limit setting?
- opportunity to learn self control
- opportunity to choose, gives control
- should be kept to a minimum
- total limits
- stated in a calm, patient, matter-of-fact and firm way
- focus and emphasis on the child
- children should be allowed to be separate
When are limits needed and when should they be stated?
They are not needed until they are needed.
Rationales for Limits
- 1. limits provide physical and emotional security and safety for children
- 2. protect the physical well-being of therapist and facilitate acceptance of the child
- 3. facilitate the development of decision making, self-control, and self-responsibility of children
- 4. anchor the session to reality and emphasize the here and now
- 5. promote consistency in the playroom environment
- 6. preserve the professional, ethical, and socially acceptable relationship
- 7. protect the play therapy materials and room
Examples of limit setting statements:
- "You would like to paint on the wall, but the wall is not for painting."
- reflect the child's feeligns
What implications does "okay" have?
it makes the child think that you're unsure or wishy washy, or harsh
What is the ACT method?
Method of communicating a limit
What are the steps to the A.C.T. method?
- 1. acknowledge the child's feelings, wishes and wants
- 2. communicate the limit
- 3. target the limit
What is a final choice and what does it convey?
- Final choice- a choice about what he wants to occur, if he chooses to cross the limit
- >it conveys choice and responsibility...but doesn't imply rejects of the child, rather the behavior
What happens when limits are broken?
- Often a cry for help-they want definite boundaries
- Reflect the child's feelings and desires while maintaing the limits
- Never use limits to punish a child
- You still accept the child even though a limit may have been broken
- Taking toys from the playroom
- Leaving the playroom
- Time limits
- Limiting noise
- Personal items are not for playing
- Limiting water in the sandbox
- Urinating in the playroom
- LOOK OVER SLIDES FOR IN DEPTH STUDY
What are some things to consider if a child is silent?
- acceptance is not conditional
- a responsive attitude is not dependent on the child talking
- respond to what he is doing, but do not give a running commentary, respond to the feelings the child is expressing
What are some things to consider about bringing personal items into the playroom?
- security items can be allowed
- remote-control toys, or other toys that perform, rather than engage should not be allowed
- no books because child may withdraw
- no food, it's distracting
How could you respond to stealing a toy?
- don't ask the question you already know
- don't beat around the bush or pretend you didn't see
- say, "I know you would like to take the car with you, but the car stays here."
How do you respond to a kid sitting on your lap?
- "I know that's fun for you, but I know you like me without your sitting on my lap."
- sexual abuse? trying to please?
- "I know you want to pretend to be a baby, but you can do that in the baby bed over there."
How do you respond to a child refusing to leave?
- he is developing self control and he should be able to leave when it is time eventually
- give him a few minutes to finish up what he is doing
- firmly stat that it is time to leave and he will be back in a week
How do you respond to a child playing a guessing game?
- never try to guess what a child is painting, drawing or acting out
- say "sounds like you have something in mind." or
- "sounds like you have something planned."
- "you can tell me"
- gifts from the heart, emotional gifts
- christmas gifts are ok...but be careful
- They think they are "good" if gifts are given
- play should not be rewarded
- if they are rewarded...they are less likely to express aggressive behaviors
- whose needs are being met by giving gifts?
Asking a child to clean up
- should not be asked to clean up because this is how he has expressed himself
- sweeping, or picking up tissues/adult
- toys are children's words, play is their language
- not punishing them
- There is no way to force them if they refuse.
Why is filial therapy and parental involvements sometimes helpful?
- positive effects on language
- symbolic representation
- exploratory behaviors
- social relationships
What are some do's for parents and children?
- set the stage
- let the child lead
- track child's play
- reflect the child's feelings
- set limits
- salute child's power and encourage effort
- join in play
- be verbally active
What are some don'ts for parents and children?
- criticize any behavior
- praise the child
- ask leading questions
- allow interruptions
- initiate new activities
- be passive and quiet
What are some reasons why parents misread their child's play?
child who is chronologically 4 years and yet are cognitively 20 months old
What are the elements needed for therapeutic sand play?
- sand and water- basic elements of the earth
- collection of miniatures- universe of symbols and images
What is the process of sand play?
- child chooses miniatures
- 1 inch thick sand
- wet or dry
- no direction is provided
- some children work silently and some talk
- after child leaves, take picture of tray
- specialist offers no guidance or interpretation
What are the 6 signs/symptoms of possible clinical implications in sand play?
- 1. unpeopled worlds
- 2. empty worlds
- 3. disorganized chaotic worlds
- 4. Rigid worlds/worlds with rows
- 5. fenced/closed worlds
- 6. aggressive worlds
LOOK ON SLIDE
Differences in brain waves and what state healing occurs in music/dance.
- Beta brain waves- 13-25 cycles per second (alert and awake)
- Alpha- 8-12 cycles per second (state of relaxation and tranquility)
- Theta- 4-7 c/s (verge of sleep)
- Delta Brain- 3-5 c/s (deep sleep)
active vs passive listening
- active listening: focusing directly on music being played
- passive listening: background tool to enhance the primary task at hand
Know the differences in breathing (visualization)
- diaphragmatic breathing
- deep breathing
- complete natural breathing
- chest or thoracic
- abdominal diaphragmatic
The phenomenological approach would be in art therapies:
- study of events in their own right rather than from preconceived causes
- open to a variety of meanings, the context in which they were created
- maker's way of viewing the world
Significance of Color choice
- color choices don't typically emerge until age 4
- ages 6-9 children begin to develop rules for color
- unusual use of color may be more easily noticed and have more significance
- older children use color realistically
Significance of color
- unusual use of color
- emphasis of one color in a drawing over others
- cultural/environmental significance (barney)
- medical settings
- red and black: burning sensation, pain, blood
- leukemia: red dots or jabs
- images and color may represent misconceptions
Depression and color choice
- traditional belief that depressed children tend to use black and dark colors has contradicted some studies
- bereavement, isolation, despair and destruction are difficult to separate
- tears, excessive use of black, rain can all be indicators of grief
- isolations may show a character/self separate from group or alone on a page
- destructive images may be ugly or damaged images
differences between art creation and acuity of traumatic experiences
- acute or recent trauma: may express more freely, may feel more secure in setting
- chronic trauma (life long abuse): less secure and more anxious, may be restricted in freedom, may need longer to gain trust
What significance does size play in art?
- size of human is related to self-esteem or adequacy
- also be an indicator of avoidance or lessening the threat (physical abuse)
- unusual size of object conveys significance (coffee pot)
What are ways you can facilitate language during art creation to avoid saying, "What is that?"
- "I see a person looking out of the window of the house and a dog in the yard."
- "I see lots of green today with wavy lines."
- "I wonder what he is thinking when he is looking out the window."
- "What title do you want to give the picture?"
- "Can I ask them a question?"
- "I wonder what would happen if..."