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Correlational research methods measure what?
relationship between two or more variables
In correlational research methods there is no..?
manipulation of variables
Correlation research has only one BLANK and take at least two BLANK
group of participants; scores from each person to correlate
Correlational research methods do no not what?
What are correlational research methods useful for?
1.Determining consistent relationships used for prediction of future events
2. Providing data that supports or negates current
Differential research methods compares what?
two or more groups defined by pre-existing characteristics on at least one DV
What kind of variables are involved in differential research methods?
non-manipulated IV and DV
With differential research methods one can infer what?
causality but very cautiously because it is very vulnerable to confounding variables
What are two types of research designs?
Cross-sectional and longitudinal
comparing groups at different ages at one time
What is the issue that arises with cross-sectional designs?
cohort effect, a certain age group may have common features that are due to widespread common experiences vs. the variable of age
variations in the characteristics of an area of study (such as the incidence of a characteristic or the age at onset) overtime among individuals who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience
follow the same people overtime
A longitudinal design allows us to observe BLANK and control for BLANK
developmental issues; cohort effect
Confounding variables, define and give example
Variables that systematically vary along with the independent variable. Ex: study if drinking causes early death but may be due to smoking and eating crap at same time
apparent effect of IV that results from another uncontrolled variable