Exam 8

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  1. Moist areas
     increased numbers of bacteria than dry areas
  2. Defensins
    antibiotics produced by human skin
  3. Secretions:
    sebum and perspiration
  4. Normal Microbiota
    • gram + cocci and coagulase -
    • staph epidermididis (main organism surrounding skin)
    • propion bacteria (metabolizes oily secretions)
    • malascezia furfur (grow on oils-may be cause of dandruff)
  5. S. Aureus
    • Coagulase +
    • 20% of people always have S. aureus in their nasal cavities
    • 60% sometimes have it

    MRSA
  6. Impetiga
    • highly contagious in children 2-5 years old
    • caused by s. aureus
  7. Folliculitis
    • inflammation of hair follicle
    • caused by s. aureus
    • if on eyelash called sty
  8. Furnicle
    • boil
    • type of absess caused by s. aureus
  9. Toxic Shock Syndrome
    • caused by s. aureus
    • potentially life threatening
  10. Streptococcal Skin Infections Classifications
    classified by hemolytic enzymes, alpha, beta, gamma or cell wall antigens
  11. S. pyogenes
    • main pathogen
    • beta hemolytic
    • completely lyses RBCs
    • caused by strep
  12. Group A Beta Hemolytic
    • virulence factors
    • strep
  13. M Protein, erythrogenic toxin, deoxyribonuclease, streptokinase, hyaluronidase
    • severe and rapid tissue destruction
    • necrotizing faciitis
    • 15,000 cases per year
    • 40% mortalitiy
    • caused by strep
  14. Spyogenes
    • serious if it gets into dermis
    • caused by strep
  15. Pseudomonads
    Gram - rods found in soil and water
  16. Pseudomonads dermatitis
    • 2 weeks self limiting rash
    • bacterial
  17. Pseudomonads aeruginoa
    • produces endo and exotoxins
    • causes otis externa, respiratiory infections, burn infections and dermatitis (blue/green pus)
    • bacteria
  18. Buruli Ulcer
    • bacterial
    • found in west and central Africa and Mexico, S. America and Austraila
    • very deep ulcer thats very damaging
  19. Acne
    • 85% of teenagers (17 million in US)
    • propion bacterium acnes (oils/hormones)
    • bacterial
  20. Warts
    • papillomavirus
    • direct contact 
    • can be removed chemically or physically
    • virus
  21. Small Pox
    • In middle ages 80% of Europe contracted small pox
    • 20% mortality rate
    • Transmitted by respiratory droplets
    • Vaccination has erradicated this disease
  22. Chicken Pox and Shingles
    • varicella and herpes zoster
    • vesicular rash
    • can remain latent for life
  23. Herpes Simplex
    • cold sores, occassionaly encephilitis
    • lysogenic (remains dormant)
    • transmitted orally or respiratiory
  24. Measles
    • Respiratory transmission
    • Spots
    • Very dangerous to infants and old people
    • vaccination works 95% and gives long term immunity
    • virus
  25. Rubeola
    • severe measles
    • virus
  26. Rubella
    • german measles
    • much milder
    • can be asymptomatic
    • virus
  27. Cutaneous Mycoses
    • can grow on keratin containing surfaces (skin, hair nails)
    • ringworm
    • athletes foot
    • fungi
  28. Subcutaneous Mycoses
    • through wound (below epidermidis)
    • soil fungus: sporotrichosis
  29. Candidiases
    • Candida albicans (thrush, vaginitis)
    • oppurtunistic
    • fungal
  30. Scabies
    • Mites
    • 500,000 people per year in US
    • treated with permethrin
  31. Pediculosis
    • Lice
    • different areas of body are different strains
  32. Conjunctivitis
    • Red eye
    • haemophilus influenza or adenovirus
    • causes can also include allergies or improperlly disinfected contact lenses
  33. Ophthalmia Neonatorum
    • neisseria gonorrhoea given to infant from mother during childbirth
    • big cause of blindness
    • silver nitrate replaced by antibiotics at birth
  34. Inclusion Conjnctiviits
    chlamydia trachomatis
  35. Trachoma
    • scar tissue
    • c. trachamati
    • transmission by hands, fomites and maybe flies
  36. Bacterial Meningitis
    over 50 species of opportunistic bacteria 
  37. Types of Bacterial Meningitis
    • 1) Haemophilus Influenza
    • 2) Neisseira meningitis
    • 3) Streptococcs pneumonia
  38. Haemophilus Influenza
    • bacterial meningitis
    • part of normal throat microbiota but causes disease if it enters blood stream
    • Mortality rate: 6%
    • causes 45% of meningitis cases
    • gram negative
  39. Neisseria Meningitis
    • bacterial meningitis
    • found in throats of healthy carriers but causes disease when gets into blood
    • often affects college students
    • Mortality rate: 9-12% with treatment, 80% without
    • gram negative
  40. Streptococcus pneumonia
    • bacterial meningitis
    • most commonly found in nasopharynx
    • Mortality rate: 30% in children, 80% in elderly
    • gram positive
  41. Meningitis diagnostic tests
    • Gram stain
    • cultures
    • serological tests
  42. Listeriosis
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • causes meningitis in newborns, pregnant women and cancer patients
    • ingestion of contaminated food (deli meats)
    • can cross placenta and cause still births
    • 50% overall
    • 60% infant rate
  43. Tetanus
    • Clostridium tetanii
    • produces neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) which casues spasms of muscles
    • Immunization/booster available every 10 years
  44. Botulism
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • difficulty speaking/blurred vision
    • death in 1-10 days
  45. Infant botulism
    • from babies being fed honey or canned foods too early
    • causes SIDS
  46. Wound Botulism
    • rare
    • if spores get deep into wound where little O2 is found it can cause tissue death
  47. Leprosy
    • Mycobacterium Leprae
    • Tuberculoid form: loss of sensation in skin nodules
    • Lepromatous form: many diisseminated nodules and tissue death occurs
    • leads to death from secondary bacterial infections

    • Diagnosis: acid fast skin biopsy
    • Treatment: sulfone drugs
  48. Sepsis
    infection of blood
  49. Gram - Sepsis
    • usually endotoxin
    • leads to very low blood pressure
    • bacterial
  50. Gram + Sepsis
    • puperal sepsis: causes disease in unsanitary childbirth conditions
    • Antibody resistant enterococci
    • Group B streptococcus
  51. Diseases that directly damage heart tissue
    • Alphahemolytic strep
    • S. Aureus
    • Enterococci
  52. Rheumatic Fever
    • S. pyogenes
    • immune system produces antibodies agaginst antigens that cause symptoms
    • starts as sore throat and moves to blood stream
  53. Tularemia
    • francisella tularensis
    • rabbits and other mammals
    • pneumonia and septiciemia
    • 30% mortality
  54. Brucellosis
    • B. suis/B. abortus/B. melitensis
    • enters through tiny break in skin and moves rapidly to liver, spleen and mone marrow
    • reproduces in macrophages
    • fever at night
    • most common zoonosis
  55. Anthrax
    • bacillus anthracis
    • kills you when in blood stream
    • Cutaneous: through break in skin 20% MR
    • GI: Least common. 50% MR
    • Inhalation: terrorists 100% MR
  56. Gangrene
    • Clostriduim perfringes
    • soft tissue death from loss of blood supply
    • anaerobic
    • produces CO2
  57. Cat Scratch Disease
    • yersinia
    • pasteruella multocida
    • bartonella henselae

    found in cat saliva
  58. Rat Bite Fever
    Streptobacillus monilliformis
  59. Plague
    • yersinia pestis
    • flea bites
    • killed 2/3 of Europe in middle ages
  60. Lyme Disease
    • Barrelia Burgdorferi
    • ticks
    • field mice are animal resivoir
    • controlled by poison cottonballs
  61. Ehrichiosis
    tickbourne
  62. Typhus
    • Rickettsia
    • Spread by arthropod vectors

    • 1) Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (ticks)
    • 2) Epidemic thypus (louse)
    • 3) Endemic murine thyphus (rodents)
  63. Burkitts Lymphoma
    • Epstein Barr Virus
    • oppurtunsitc
    • oncogenic virus (can cause tumors in jaw or GI)
  64. Cytomegalovirus
    • very large herpes virus
    • transmitted by saliva and other fluids
    • can be asymptomatic, mild or fatal
  65. Chickungunya Fever
    • Viral
    • high fever, extreme joint pain
    • Aegypti mosquito
  66. Yellow Fever
    • yellow fever virus
    • aedes agegypti mosquito
    • fever, chills, headache, nausea, jaundice
    • 20% MR
    • Monkeys natural resiovoir
  67. Dengue Fever
    • Dengue Fever Virus
    • aedes aegypti mosquito
    • endemic in tropical place
    • fever, muscle/joint pain and rash

    can cause death in children in hours (leading cause of child death in SE Asia)
  68. Emerging Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
    • Marburg Virus
    • Lassa Fever
    •  Ebola
    • Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
    • Hanta Virus
  69. Chagas Disease
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
    • transmission from bite of kissing bug
  70. Toxoplasmosis cased by Toxoplasma gondii
    • Definiteve Host: domesticated cat
    • Shed in feces or by undercooked meat
    • dangerous for pregnant women (kitty litter)
Author:
jhondras
ID:
163851
Card Set:
Exam 8
Updated:
2012-07-26 17:48:57
Tags:
microbiology
Folders:

Description:
Chapters 21-23
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