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What are the hallmarks of caner cells?
- Self-sufficiency in growth signals or response
- Insensitivity to growth inhibitory (antigrowth) signals
- Evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis)
- Limitless replicative potential
- Sustained angiogenesis (stimulation of blood vessel growth)
- Tissue invasion and metastasis
What are the roles of Lab testing?
- Classification and staging
What is needed for confirmation?
- Confirmatory lab results should have 100% diagnostic specificity
- No false + results
- bone marrow examination for leukemia
- urinary alpha-fetoprotein for testicular cancer
What is needed for classification and staging?
- Classification describes the degree of tumor differentiation.
- Well differentiated
- Moderately well differentiated
- Poorly differentiated (are more aggressive and have poor prognosis)
What are the tumor marker characteristics?
- They should predict a higher or lower risk for eventual development of recurrence.
- They should change as the current status of the tumor changes over time
- They should precede and predict recurrences before they are clinically detectable.
What are the tumor markers for oncofetal proteins?
- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
- Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
- SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen
What are the tumor markers for Mucin Glycoproteins (carbohydrate antigen)?
What are the tumor markers for Enzymes?
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
What are the tumor markers for Hormones or hormone receptors?
- ACTH and all other endocrine hormones
- Breast estrogen and progesterone receptors
What are the tumor markers for cell surface protiens?
What are the tumor markers for cellular markers?
- Oncogenesm such as N-ras
- Suppressor genes, such as p53
- BRCA1 and BRCA2
- c-erB-3 (HER-2)/neu
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