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What are the hallmarks of caner cells?
Self-sufficiency in growth signals or response
Insensitivity to growth inhibitory (antigrowth) signals
Evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis)
Limitless replicative potential
Sustained angiogenesis (stimulation of blood vessel growth)
Tissue invasion and metastasis
What are the roles of Lab testing?
Classification and staging
What is needed for confirmation?
Confirmatory lab results should have 100% diagnostic specificity
No false + results
bone marrow examination for leukemia
urinary alpha-fetoprotein for testicular cancer
What is needed for classification and staging?
Classification describes the degree of tumor differentiation.
Moderately well differentiated
Poorly differentiated (are more aggressive and have poor prognosis)
What are the tumor marker characteristics?
They should predict a higher or lower risk for eventual development of recurrence.
They should change as the current status of the tumor changes over time
They should precede and predict recurrences before they are clinically detectable.
What are the tumor markers for oncofetal proteins?
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen
What are the tumor markers for Mucin Glycoproteins (carbohydrate antigen)?
What are the tumor markers for Enzymes?
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
What are the tumor markers for Hormones or hormone receptors?
ACTH and all other endocrine hormones
Breast estrogen and progesterone receptors
What are the tumor markers for cell surface protiens?
What are the tumor markers for cellular markers?
Oncogenesm such as N-ras
Suppressor genes, such as p53
BRCA1 and BRCA2