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2012-07-25 12:32:04
Perception Individual Decision Making

Chapter 6
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  1. A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
  2. An attempt to determine whether an individual’s behavior is internally or externally caused.
    Attribution Theory
  3. The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
    Fundamental Attribution Error
  4. The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors.
    Self Serving Bias
  5. The tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
    Selective Perception
  6. The tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.
    Halo Effect
  7. Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
    Contrast Effect
  8. Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
  9. A situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception.
    Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  10. Choices made from among two or more alternatives.
  11. A discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state.
  12. Characterized by making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints.
  13. A decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome.
    Rational Decison-Making Model
  14. What are the six steps of the Rational Decison-Making Model?
    • 1. Define the problem.
    • 2. Identify the decision criteria.
    • 3. Allocate weights to the criteria.
    • 4. Develop the alternatives.
    • 5. Evaluate the alternatives.
    • 6. Select the best alternative.
  15. A process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.
    Bounded Rationality
  16. An unconscious process created out of distilled experience.
    Intuitive Decison Making
  17. A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
    Anchoring Bias
  18. The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments.
    Confirmation Bias
  19. The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them.
    Availablity Bias
  20. An increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information.
    Escalation of Committment 
  21. The tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events.
    Randomness Error
  22. The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff.
    Risk Aversion
  23. The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome.
    Hindsight Bias
  24. A system in which decisions are made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number.
  25. Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders.
  26. The ability to produce novel and useful ideas.
  27. The proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation.
    Three Component Model of Creativity
  28. What are the 3 components comprising the Three Component Model of Creativity?
    • 1. Expertise
    • 2. Creative Thinking Skills
    • 3. Intrinsic Task Motivation
  29. What is perception, and what factors influence our perception?
  30. What is attribution theory? What are the three determinants of attribution? What are its implications for explaining organizational behavior?
  31. What shortcuts do people frequently use in making judgments about others?
  32. What is the link between perception and decision making? How does one affect the other?
  33. What is the rational model of decision making? How is it different from bounded rationality and intuition?
  34. What are some of the common decision biases or errors that people make?
  35. What are the influences of individual differences, organizational constraints, and culture on decision making?
  36. Are unethical decisions more a function of an individual decision maker or the decision maker’s work environment? Explain.
  37. What is creativity, and what is the three-component model of creativity?