Chapter 18 - Stress

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Chapter 18 - Stress
2012-07-25 16:09:27
Chapter 18 Stress

Chapter 18 - Stress
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  1. originate outside the organization
    external forces for change
  2. organizations need to effectively manage diversity if they are to receive maximum contribution and commitment from employees
  3. using it as means to improve productivity, competitiveness, and customer service at lower costs
    technological advancements
  4. shareholders more involved due to ethical lapses. Customers are demanding more quality. Global competition is intense and requiring more from companies
    shareholder, customer, and market changes
  5. created by social and political events
    social and political pressures
  6. come from inside the organization
    internal forces for change
  7. stem from employee perceptions about how they are treated at work and the match between individual and organization needs and desires
    human resource problems/prospects
  8. excessive interpersonal conflict between managers and their subordinates is a sign that change is needed
    managerial behavior/decisions
  9. lowest in complexity, cost, and uncertainty. Involves reimplementation of a change in the same org unit at a later time or copies a change by a different unit
    adaptive change
  10. mid complexity, cost, and uncertainty. introducing a new practice to the organization - fear of change can be a problem
    innovative change
  11. high complexity, cost, and uncertainty. Most difficult to implement and tend to be most threatening. Potentially realize the greatest benefits
    radically innovative change
  12. lewin's change model - three stages
    unfreezing, changing, refreezing
  13. to create motivation to change
  14. three stage model of planned change that explained how to initiate, manage, and stabilize the change process
    lewin's change model
  15. process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations
  16. organizational change takes place to improve some process, procedure, product, service, or outcome of interest to management
  17. support and reinforce the change by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things
  18. a big picture perspective or organizational change. Any change no matter how large or small has a cascading effect throughout an organization
    a system's model of change
  19. changes should be consistent with an organizations mission, vision, and resulting strategic plan
  20. represents the reason an organization exists
    mission statement
  21. a long term goal that describes what an organization wants to become
    strategic plan
  22. the components of an organization tht may be changed
    target elements for change
  23. the desired end reslts of a change
  24. a set of techniques or tools used to implement planned organizational change
    organization development
  25. individuals who are a catalyst in helping organizations to implement change
    change agent
  26. an emotional/behavioral response to real or imagined work changes
    resistance to change
  27. composite personal characteristic reflecting high self-esteem, optimism and an internal locus of control
    resilience to change
  28. behavioral, physical, or psychological response to stressors
  29. stress that is good or produces a postive outcome
  30. a variable that causes the relationship between two variables to be stronger for some and weaker for others
  31. environmental factors that produce stress
  32. individuals overall evaluation or a situation
    cognitive apprasial of stressors
  33. results in categorizing a situation or stressor as irrelevant, positive, or stressful
    primary appraisal
  34. assissing what might and can be done to reduce stress
    secondary appraisal
  35. specific behaviors and cognitions used to cope with a situation
    coping strategies
  36. directly confronts or solves problems
    control strategy
  37. avoiding the problem
    escape strategy
  38. focuses on reducing the symptoms of stress
    symptom management strategy
  39. amount of helpfulness derived from social relationships
    social support
  40. providing information that a person is accepted and respected despite problems or inadequacies
    esteem support
  41. help in defining, understanding, and coping with problems
    informational support
  42. spending time with others in leisure
    social companionship
  43. providing financial aid, material resources, or needed services
    instrumental support
  44. ability to neutralize stress
  45. aggressively involved in a chronic determined struggle to accomplish morei n less time
    type a behavior pattern
  46. help employees to reslove personal problems that affect their productivity
    employee assistance programs
  47. advocates personal responsibility for healthy living
    holistic wellness approach
  48. a set of tools or techniques that are used to implement organizational change
    organizational development
  49. the negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed one's capacity or resources
  50. job demands that tend to not be appraised as stressful
    benign job demands
  51. stressful demands that are perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment
    hindrance stressors
  52. stressful demands that are perceived as opportunities for learning, growth, and achievement
    challenge stressors
  53. conflicting expectations that other people may have of us
    role conflict
  54. refers to the lack of information regarding what needs to be done in a role
    role ambiguity
  55. occurs when the number of demanding roles a person holds is so high that the person simply cannot perform some or all fo the roles very effictively
    role overload
  56. reflects the relatively minor day to day demands that get in the way of accomplishing the things that we really want to accomplish
    daily hassles
  57. refers to a strong sense that the amount of time you have to do a task isn't enough
    time pressure
  58. refers to the degree to which the requirements of the work, in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities, tax or exceed the capabilities of the person who is responsible for performing the work
    work complexity
  59. refers to the nature of the obligations that person has to others
    work responsibility
  60. special form of role conflict in which the demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands in a family role
    work-family conflict
  61. they hinder the ability to avhieve life goals and are associated with negative emotions
    negative life events
  62. refers to conditions that create unvertainties with regard to the loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay expenses
    financial uncertainty
  63. reflect the time that a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and responsibilities
    family time demands
  64. participation in formal education programs, music lessons
    personal development
  65. marriage, pregnancy
    positive life events
  66. the behaviors and thoughts people use to manage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated with those demands
  67. involves the set of physical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situation
    behavioral coping
  68. refers to the thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with a stressful situation
    cognitive coping
  69. the behaviors and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation itself
    problem focused coping
  70. refers to the various ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands
    emotion focused coping