PCAT Gen Chem
Card Set Information
PCAT Gen Chem
PCAT Gen Chem
PCAT Gen Chem
to go from g/cm
you need to..
multiply by 1000
to go from kg/m
you need to..
divide by 1000
= 1 ___ = 1m
how many mls are in a m
1.00 x 10
how many liters are in a m
the angstrom is equal to _____m
to do mole to grams you need to...
multiply moles by the molecular weight
to do grams to moles you need to
divide the grams by the molecular weight
avogadro's number is =
6.02 x 10
mass in grams / molecular weight
all group IA elements have an oxidation number of..
all group IIA elements have an oxidation number of..
all group IIIB elements have an oxidation number of..
Fluorine always has an oxidation number of...
Oxygen almost always has an oxidation number of
oxygen has a -1 oxidation state in ...
hydrogen has an oxidation number of ____ when bonded to nonmetals
hydrogen has an oxidation number of ____ when bonded to metals
You can figure out the oxidation number of certain elements in a molecule by...
summing the oxidation for all elements to zero then doing the math and dividing by the number of stoms to get the number
in terms of their electron configuration F- and Ne are considered to be...
transition metals are metals in the ___ block.
the elements in the last column of the table are called ....
The aufbau principle is when electrons occupy..
the lowest energy orbitals available
Hund's rule states that electrons in the same subshell occupy...
available orbitals singly, before pairing up
the pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons...
in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
energy of a photon equation
E=h x f (h= plancks constant & f= frequency)
E=h x (c/wavelentgh) (h= planck's constant & c= speed of light)
the first quantum number is the _____ number
the second quantum number is the _____ number
the third quantum number is the _______ number
the fourth quantum number is the _____ number
the atomic number is the number of.....
the mass number is the number of....
protons + neutrons
the mass number of an element can be written as...
element - (mass#)
mass number goes on what side of the element?
atomic number goes on what side of the element?
Protons minus electrons =
charge goes on what side of the element?
absorption is when you have a ___ energy change
emission is when you have a ___ energy change
value of planck's constant
6.63 x 10^-34 J x s
value of the speed of light
3.0 x 10^8
for electron configurations, use the boxes to count how high a level goes.
s block goes to ___
p block goes to ___
d block goes to ___
when doing arrows for the electron configuartions, put in __ arrow(s) at a time
when putting in arrows for electron configuration the first arrow is always point in the ___ direction.
when putting in arrows for electron configuration the second arrow is always point in the ___ direction.
Empirical formula uses the samllest number that gives the same ______ of atoms as in its corresponding molecular formula.
to reduce a molecular formula, to an empirical formula...
divide all the subscripts by their greatest common factor
How do you find the percent composition by mass?
1) find the molecular weight of the compound
2)divide each elements mass multiplied by the numbers of atoms of that element by the compound mass
3) multiply to get denominator to equal 100
4) multiply by the same number on top
5) convert to percent
how do you get the empirical formula using moles?
1) first get the moles of each element (in fractions)
2) multiply moles together then simplify answer to lowest fraction
3) those numbers are the subscripts
the limiting reagent is...
the reactive that we run out of first, limits how the reaction produces the product
the stoichiometric number is..
the subscript from molecular formulas
the stoichiometric number gives what info?
the ratios between constiuent atoms, NOT the bonding info
in a stochiometric sense, what does the following equation "say"
2Al + 6HCl -> 2AlCl
2 moles of Al react with 6 moles of HCl to form 2 moles of AlCl
and 3 moles of H
periodic trends that begin with the letter "e" increase from...
(electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity)
left to right and bottom to top
periodic trends that DO NOT begin with the letter "e" increase from....
(metallic character, atomic radius, acidity)
Right to left and top to bottom
the chemical property describing an atom's ability to attract and bind to electrons.
The atomic radius is...
is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms.
Ionization energy is...
the amount of energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its gaseous phase (opposite of electronegativity)
electron affinity is...
ability of an atom to accept an electron
metallic character is...
how readily an atom can lose an electron
acidity is ...
a measure of how well a compound donates protons, accepts electrons or lowers the pH in a
Formal charge formula:
FC= (Column #)-(# of bonds connected to atom) -(# of lone paired electrons)
A bond is polar if...
the electron density between the two nuclei is uneven
A molecule that DONATES a pair of electrons is considered to be a lewis...
A molecule that ACCEPTS a pair of electrons is considered to be a lewis...
what are the three types of van der Waals interactions?
Dipole forces, hydrogen bonding, and london forces
Hydrogen can create hydrogen bonds with which atoms?
N, O or F
A + B --> AB
AB -> A + B
AB -> AX + B
AX + BY -> AY + BX
an oxidizing agent is...
An agent that oxidizes and is reduced
a reducing agent is...
an agent that reduces and is oxidized
a reducing agent, gives up electrons to be...
an oxidizing agent accepts electrons to be...
The higher the kinetic energy of molecules, the ______ it's entropy.
direct conversion from solid to gas is...
direct conversion from gas to solid is..
conversion from liquid to gas
conversion from gas to liquid
conversion from liquid to solid is..
conversion from solid to liquid is...
the phase changes that go from a lower energy to a higher energy state are...
melting, vaporization, sublimation
the phase changes that go from a higher energy to a lower energy state are...
deposition, condensation and freezing
exothermic phase changes are...
deposition, freezing and condensation
endothermic phase changes are...
melting, vaporization, sublimation
heat added or released (heat capacity) equation:
Triple point is...
the temperature and pressur at which all the phases exist simultaneously
supercritical fluid is...
substance in which, liquid and gas phases are no longer distinct
the critical point is...
the end of the liquid-gas boundary
a function of the average translational kinetic energy of the molecule in a system
absolute zero is...
the lowest possible temperature
how do you convert farenheit to celsius?
C= (F-32) x (5/9)
how do you convert celsius to farenheit?
F= (C x 9/5) + 32
how do you convert celsius to kelvin?
K= C + 273.15
how do you convert Kelvin to celsius?
Pressure formula with force is?
P=F/a (force per unit area)
What is the formula for pascals?
1 atm = ___ mmHg
760mmHg = ___ atm
1 atm= ___torr
760 torr = _____ Pa
1.013 x 105 Pa
1 atm = ___ Pa
1.013 x 105 Pa
1 atm = ___ torr = ___mmHg= ____Pa
1.013 x 105
Standard temperature Pressure
STP is defined as...
Celsius and 760 torr
Kinetic energy of gases formula=
There is no loss of _______during collisions in gases
in the kinetic energy of gases there are no _________ forces between the particles.
the average kinetic energy of the particles is ____________ to the absolute temperature of the particles
As temperature decreases in a gas the kinetic energy ______.
1 atm = ___pa (in sci. notation)
1.01 x 10
Gauge pressure formula...
(Absolute Pressure - Atmospheric Pressure)
The gauge pressure tells you...
how much above the absolute pressure is than the atmosphereic pressure
As pressure goes up in a gas, the volume _______
The actual volume of gas is equal to...
the volume of the container plus the excluded volume
excluded volume is...
The volume occupied by the gas molecules themselves
the actual volume occupied by a gas is always ______ than or equal to the volume calculated by the ideal gas law.
The real pressure is always _____ than the ideal pressure
The real volume is always _____ than the ideal volume
What is the boyle's law ?
under constant temperature and a constnat number of moles of gas, the product of pressure and volume is a constant.
what is boyles law equation?
in boyles law, pressure and volume are ______ proportional
in boyles law, P is proportional to....
in boyles law, V is proportional to....
what is charles' law?
for ideal gases under constant pressure and a constant number of moles of gas V/T is constant
what is the formula for charles law?
In charles law V is directly proportional to ...
In charles' law, T is directly proportional to...
What is the formula for Gay-Lussac's Law?
in Gay-Lussac's law P is directly proportional to...
in Gay-Lussac's law T is directly proportional to...
The combined gas law equation=
Avagadro's hypothesis equation=
The ideal gas law formula=
R, the universal gas constant is...
Graham's law of effusion formula =
(rate of effusion of Gas A/Rate of effuusion of Gas B)=[square root (molar mass of gas B/molar mass of gas A)]
The more stable the carbonium ion, the more easily it is....
the stability of a carbonium ion is greatly increased by ....
a teritary carbonium ion is more stable than a secondary or primary carbonium ion because it has...
three alkyl groups
Which type of reaction is occurring when a metal undergoes corrosion?
How many milliosmols of particles does 1 mole of sodium chloride present?
2 mOsm (1 mOsm of Na and 1 mOsm of Cl)
What statement best describes how a salt bridge maintains electrical neutrality in the half cells of an electrochemical cell?
It permits the migration of ions
A salt bridge between half cells prevents...
the solutions from mixing but allows the ions to move (migrate) from one half cell to the other..
Molarity (M) is the number of
moles of solute per liter of solution
Heat flow is always from _____ temperature to ____ temperature.
STP a mole of gas occupies ______ liters...
When the external pressure is 101.3 kPa torr, water will boil at what temperature?
When the vapor pressure of water is 101.3 kPa, the temperature is .....
When the atmospheric pressure above a liquid equals its vapor pressure, the liquid will...
If the vapor pressure was 50 kPa, water would boil at about...
(moles of solute / liter of solution)
what alkaline-earth metal is found in gypsum?
What causes energy to be released in a nuclear reaction?
fusion and fission
Atomic fusion is the process of...
combining atoms to form elements of higher atomic weight
atomic fission is the process of...
splitting an atomic nucleus
Whats the formula for baking soda?
When a substance is oxidized, it acts as...
a reducing agent
A particle accelerator can increase the kinetic energy of...
an alpha particle and a beta particle
What is the electronic distribution in the orbitals of an oxygen atom?
chlorine and fluorine are _____ at STP.
Iodine is a _____ at STP.
Bromine is a _______ at STP
As the pressure of a gas at 2 atm is changed to 1 atm at constant temperature, the volume of the gas...
what is a property of a reaction that has reached equilibrium?
The rate of the forward reaction is equal to than the rate of the reverse reaction.
Equilibrium means ......
equal reaction rates
If HgO is mercuric oxide, what is the symbol of mercurous oxide?
A battery consists of which type of cells
What substance is made up of monomers joined together in long chains?
An electron has the same mass as a ....
An alpha particle has a mass of...
4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons)
A proton has the same mass as a...
An atom of which of the following elements has the greatest ability to attract electrons?
At STP, which substance is the best conductor of electricity?
The best conductors of electricity are...
Elements that lose electrons form positive ions that are _______ than atoms of the same element.
What statement explains why the speed of some chemical reactions is increased when the surface area of the reactant is increased?
This change exposes more reactant particles to a possible collision.
What particle cannot be accelerated in a magnetic field?
Only _______ particles can be accelerated in a magnetic field
thermodynamics ________ the rate of reaction
do not affect
the arrhenius equation is...
The value of k is unique to each reaction at a given....
The value of k will change if _________ is changed
The value of k _________ change with time
the value of k in not dependent on the concentrations of either _________ or _________.
reactants or products
the value of k must be determined ____________.
the units of k depend on the overall _________________.
order of reaction
catalysts operate by altering....
the activation energy of a reaction
a catalyst can ________ or ______ a reaction
speed up or slow down
a catalyst that is used to slow down a reaction is called....
an inhibitory catalyst or an inhibitor
a catalyst is niether consumed nor _________ during the course of a reaction.
a homogenous catalyst is...
a catalyst that exists in the same phase as the reactants
a hetereogenous catalyst can also be called a...
a heterogenous catalyst is..
a catalyst that exists in a different phase than the reactants
proteins that act as homogenous catalysts for specific biochemical reactions
The reaction quotient gives...
the ratio of products to reactants at equilibrium. (gives the same ratio at all times other than equilibrium)
if Keq >> 1....
products are favored over reactants
if Keq ≈ 1....
neither reactants nor products or favored
if Keq << 1.....
reactants are favored over products
Products in excess
reactants in excess
Le Chatelier's principle is....
when a system at equilibrium is subjected to a stress, the equilibirum will shift in a direction that tends to alleviate the effect of that stress
for a gaseous mixture at equilibrium, the overall pressure within a container can be changed either by __________ or by __________.
adding more gas to the container or
decreasing the volume of the container
in gas, if volume is decreased the pressure is ________. The reaction will be pushed in the direction resulting in ______ moles of gas.
in gas, if volume is increased the pressure is ________. The reaction will be pushed in the direction resulting in ______ moles of gas.
if both sides contain an equal number of gaseous moles, there is no change in equilibirum when ________ is changed
an endothermic reaction requires heat as a _______.
an exothermic reaction requires heat as a ________.
A soultion is...
a homogenous mixture of two or more chemical compounds
a solvent is..
a substance into which other chemical are dissolved
a solute is..
the compound that is dissolved in the solvent
when a solute is added to a solvent
the solvation process when the solvent is water
endothermic solvation = ________ of solution
positive heat of solution
exdothermic solvation = ________ of solution
negative heat of solution
the solubility of solids in liquids tends to increase with _______ tempertaure
the solubility of gases in liquids tends to decrease with __________ temperature
the solubility of gases in liquids tends to increase with ________ pressure
a colligative property is...
a property that depends only on the number of particles present in solution and
on the identity of those particles
Strong electrolytes _____________ completely, or nearly completely
weak electrolytes __________ only slightly
A Hoff Factor is....
the number of species which a substance dissociates into when solvated
The Hoff factor is signified by the letter ...
=3 (1 Ca + 2 Cl)
osmotic pressure formula...
∏ = (Molarity)(hoff factor) (R=.0821)(temperature in K)
Freezing point depression formula=
Boiling-Point elevation formula=
Questions about equimolar solutions are asking for...
the comparison of Hoff factors
the solute with the largest
will produce the largest...
questions in which equal masses of solute are utilized are often more concerned with the calculation of ....
small, low MW salts will have the most moles in a given mass, hence give a larger ___ and a larger ________ change.
when equal masses of solute are added to a solution, the _________ one gives the larget colligative change
An open system is...
a system that allows for the exchange of matter and energy between only the surroundings and the system
a closed system is...
a system that allowas for the exchange of energy only, the mass in conserved in the system
an isolated system is...
a system that does not allow for the exchange of anything (matter or energy) between the system and the surroundings
in order for a system to be considered isolated it needs....
to be a closed system that is in neither mechanical nor themral contact with the surroundings
a state function is determined...
only by the current state of the system
a nonstate function is ______-dependent.
the common thermodynamic state functions are...(7)
a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system
the thermodynamic property toward equilibrium/average/homogenization/dissipation
Work equation in term or pressure and volume=
entroyp increases as temperature _______.
Entropy increases in a reaction if that reaction produces more _______ molecules that is contained ______ molecules.
Entropy increases when pure liquids and/or pure solids form....
the entropy if the universe always ....
a reaction is _____ when the enthalpy is positive
a reaction is _______ when the enthalpy is negative
the standard thermodynamic conditions are...
298.15 Kelvin (25
C) at 1 atm
when summing up energies in a reactions always use the basic formula...
(heat of formation of products) - (heat of formation of reactants)
ΔG = ?
ΔH - TΔS
When ΔG of a reaction is negative, the reaction is ________ in the ________ driection
When ΔG of a reaction is positive, the reaction is ________ in the ________ driection
When ΔG of a reaction is equal to zero, the reaction is ....
a reaction with positive ΔG is called
a reaction with negative ΔG is called
ΔG = ΔG
in an elecrolytic cell, the redox reaction is...
in an elecrolytic cell, the cell requires an ______ flow
in an elecrolytic cell, the anode is the _______ electrode
in an elecrolytic cell, the cathode is the _____ electrode
electrons flow from the ______ to the _______ (cathode, anode)
anode to cathode
current flows from the _______ to the ______ (cathose, anode)
cathode to the anode
oxidation occurs at the (anode, cathode)
reduction occurs at eh (anode, cathode)
in galvanic cells, the redox reaction is...
in galvanic cells, the electron flow is ...
in galvanic cells, the positive electrode is the..(anode,cathode)
in galvanic cells, the negative electrode is the..
in electolytic cells, the electron flow is..
concentration cells are..
galvanic cells, in which the cathodic half and anodic half are in opposite directions
according the the bronsted lowry definiton...
acids are proton ______
bases are proton ______
congjugate bases deals with the _______ definition
according to the lewis defintion
acids are electron-pair _______
bases are electron-pair _______
according to the arrhenius definition
acids produce ______ ions
bases produce ______ ions
large values of Ka and Kb imply...
strong bases and acids
small values of Ka and Kb imply...
weak acids and bases
strong acids and bases have ___ pKa and pKb values
weak acids and weak bases have ____ pKa and pKb values
pKa + pKb = ?
an acid or base with a large pKa will have a congjugate acid or base with a ____ pKa
1 x 10
] = 1 x 10
what is the pH?
pH + pOH = ?
pOH = ?
OH = ?
pKa = ?
pKa = ?
the more concentrated the buffer....
the more effective it will be
the pKa of the buffers should be chosen to match...
the pH that is to be buffered
a buffer is composed of a weak acid and its______ or a weak base and its ________
conjugate base salt
conjugate acide salt
the section of a titration curve where the pH changes very gradually is called the....
buffering domain (or buffering region)
the point at which the pH is neutralize is called the...
acid-base equivalence point
for a weak acid titrated with a strong base, the equivalence point will occur at...
pH > 7
for a weak base titrated with a strong acid, the equivalence point will occur at...
pH < 7
for a strong acid titrated with a strong base, or vice versa, the equivalence point will occur at...
pH = 7
the pH at half equivalence is equal to...