A+ Messer: Hardware

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Author:
esmenikmati
ID:
163964
Filename:
A+ Messer: Hardware
Updated:
2012-07-27 15:12:22
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Messer Hardware
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Description:
Hardware
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  1. 3.5mm TRS plug
    • Audio jacks
    • TRS = Tip-Ring-Sleeve
    • VGA
    • 15-pin DE connector
    • DE: small size
    • ANALOG
    • DVI
    • Digital and Analog
  2. USB 1.0
    USB 1.1
    • 1.5Mbps
    • 12Mbps
  3. USB 2.0
    USB 3.0
    • 480 Mbps
    • 4.8 Gbps
  4. USB Type B
  5. Mini B USB
    • Serial port
    • DE-9 (9 pin)
    • pins are male on ports
    • rarely 25 pin
  6. Firewire 400
    1/2/400 Mbps half-duplex
  7. Firewire 800
    800 Mbps full-duplex
    • Parallel Port
    • DB-25 connector
    • used for printers usually
    • PS/2 Port
    • 6-pin mini Din
    • Green: Mouse
    • Purple: Keyboard
    • SIMM (Single inline memory module)
    • 30 or 72 pin (pictured)
    • old
    • RIMM
    • 16-bit (184 pins) or 32-bit (232 pins)
    • Contained RDRAM
    • Required you to fill up all your memory slots with RIMM or else use Continnuity RIMM (C-RIMM) in empty slots
    • DIMM
    • Electrical contacts on both sides
    • 64-bit data width (latest technology)
    • Used for SDRAM (168 pins)
    • DDR2 (184 pins)
    • DDR3 (240 pins)
    • SODIMM
    • Mini DIMM
    • 72/100/144/200/204 pins
    • Used in laptops
    • PGA (Pin-Grid Array) CPU
    • No insertion force (keyed with an arrow)
    • Locked in with bars
  8. Socket A (462)
    • AMD Athlon XP
    • AMD Duron
  9. Socket 478
    • Intel Pentium IV
    • Intel Celeron
  10. Socket 423
    Pentium IV
  11. Slot A (242)
    AMD Athlon
  12. Slot 1 (242)
    • Intel Pentium II, III
    • Single Edge Cartridge
  13. Socket 370
    • Intel Pentium III
    • Intel Celeron
  14. Southbridge
    I/O controller hub
  15. Northbridge
    Memory controller
  16. Frontside bus
    CPU <-> Northbridge
  17. PC AT Bus
    • 16-bit width
    • 7 MHz clock rate
    • ~ 14 Mbps
  18. IBM PC XT Bus
    • 8-bit width ISA bus
    • 7 MHz clock rate
    • ~ 7 Mbps
  19. PCI 2.1
    • 32-64-bit bus width
    • 3.3/5v
    • 266/532Mbps
  20. PCI 2.3
    Doesn't support 5V
    • PCI slots
    • 2 spaces: 32-bit
    • 3 spaces: 64-bit
  21. AGP 8x
    • 2.1 Gbps
    • AGP 3.0, .8v
  22. PCIe
    • 1.1: up to 8Gbps
    • 2.0/2.1: 16Gbps
  23. AMR Bus
    • Audio/Modem riser for NICs
    • Looks like AGP
  24. CNR Bus
    • Comm and Network Riser
    • Also little like AGP
    • Used for NICs
  25. Laptop cards
    • PCMCIA (PC Card)
    • CardBus
    • ExpressCard
  26. Single communication path in PCIe
    Lane
    • PATA (IDE)
    • 40-pins
    • 133Mbps
  27. ATAPI
    • ATA Packet Interface
    • for CD-ROMs and other non-hard drive devices
  28. SATA
    • 1.5 - 6.0 Gbps
    • SATA3.0 is current
  29. eSATA
    • external hard drive SATA
    • requires DC external power adapter (unless it's the new kind)
  30. RAID 0
    • Striping
    • Files split between multiple drives
    • Fast but no redundancy; if one drive fails, they both go
  31. RAID 1
    • Mirroring
    • Everything duplicated between discs
    • Required disk space is doubled
  32. RAID 5
    • Striping w/Parity
    • Files split between 3 discs, fourth disc has parity
    • Each disc contains file blocks and parities
    • High redundancy, somewhat slower performance
    • Hot swappable
  33. Software-based RAID
    • Based on Operating System
    • lower performance than hardware RAID
  34. Hardware-based RAID
    • OS sees one disk
    • high performance, high speed
  35. Function of Northbridge
    • Talks to CPU via FSB
    • talks to AGP/PCIe
    • talks to RAM
  36. Examples of interfaces connected to Southbridge
    • USB
    • Ethernet
    • IDE
    • SATA
  37. Northbridge (usually covered by heatsink)
  38. Notice the south bridge sits physically near the I/O devices it controls
  39. COM2
    Serial Controller
  40. Controls the Flash BIOS ROM
    Southbridge
    • CMOS
    • Stores date & time
    • Stores BIOS configs
    • Integrated into Southbridge
  41. BIOS needs to be configured on every boot
    CMOS battery is bad
  42. ATX 12V
    • Original ATX power standard
    • 20-pin
  43. ATX 12V 1.3
    • 20-pin motherboard connector¬†
    • optional 4-pin (additional power) connector
    • optinal 6-pin auxilary connector (pentium IV only)
    • not standardized
  44. ATX12V 2.0
    • 20-pin connector
    • always extra 4-pin motherboard connector
    • SATA connector
  45. ATX 12V 2.2 & 2.3
    • 24-pin main connector
    • PCIe connector
    • no auxilary connectors
    • energystar compliant (2.3)
  46. Hyperthreading
    • CPU acts as 2 CPU's
    • 15-30% increased performance
  47. CPU Cache
    • really fast memory
    • holds instructions
  48. Bus Size always matches CPU architecture
    • False
    • 64-bit bus can accomodate 32-bit processor
  49. Paging Systems/ Virtual Memory
    Hard Drive temporarily allocating information from the RAM
  50. SDRAM
    • Synchronous DRAM
    • Synchronized to bus
  51. PC1600
    PC2-3200
    • RAM throughput:
    • PC1600 = 1600 Mb/s
  52. CAS Latency (CL)
    Clock cycle between memory request sent and received
  53. Parity memory
    • Parity bit checks for errors
    • can't correct them
  54. ECC Memory
    Corrects errors
  55. PROM
    • Programmable ROM
    • Write once
  56. EPROM
    • Erasable PROM
    • Read/Write
  57. SRAM
    • Static RAM (Non volatile)
    • Fast
    • Low power requirement
    • Kind of bulky in size
    • often used in processor L1/L2/L3 Cache
  58. DRAM
    • The RAM you think about first
    • Needs to be refreshed constantly
  59. SDRAM
    • Synchronous DRAM
    • Synchronized with system clock
  60. DDR SDRAM
    • Double Data Rate
    • Twice the rate of SDRAM
    • PC-1600: 1600Mbps data rate
  61. How to calculate peak data rate of memory
    • (Clock rate x bus clock multiplier x # bits transferred) / 8
    • eg: 100 MHz x 1 (DDR) x 2 (dual data rate) x 64 = 12800
    • eg: 100MHz x 2 (DDR2) x 2 (dual dara rate) x 64¬†
    • eg: 100MHz x 4 (DDR3) x 2 (dual data rate) x 64
    • 12800/2 = 1600 Mbps aka PC-1600
  62. PC2-3200
    • PC2 = DDR2 memory
    • 3200 = 3200 Mbps
    • PC3 = DDR3
  63. This kind of RAM is expensive and takes up lots of space
    SRAM
  64. XGA
    1024 x 768
  65. SXGA
    1280 x 1024
  66. UXGA
    1600 x 1200
  67. Unit for measuring screen brightness
    • candela per square meter
    • cd/m2
  68. Latest laptop expansion card; comes in 34/54mm
    ExpressCard
  69. NiCd Nickel Cadmium battery
    • Deep discharge
    • Expensive
    • Stopped being used
  70. NiMH Nickel Metal Hydride
    • Can be overcharged
    • high self-discharge rate (it loses power even when not in use)
  71. Li-On Lithium Ion battery
    • Limited charge cycles
    • capacity decreases over time
    • Doesn't handle deep discharge well
  72. Best way to determine battery capacity
    Watt-Hours (WH)
  73. Process of laser printing
    • A drum spins and directly contacts the paper.
    • The drum is cleaned and then charged (ions)
    • A laser writes to the drum using mirrors (adjusts ions)
    • Developer sticks toner to areas designated by laser
    • Drum spins and writes image to paper
  74. Pros of Inkjet printers
    • Inexpensive
    • Quiet
    • High-res
  75. Cons of Inkjet printers
    • Expensive, proprietary ink
    • ink fades
    • nozzles clog easily
  76. Pros of dot matrix printer
    • Good for carbon copies (uses pins)
    • Cheap
  77. Cons of dot matrix printer
    • Noisy
    • Shitty graphics (used only for text)
  78. Thermal Printers
    • White paper heated to turn different colors
    • Quiet
    • Used for receipts
    • Sensitive to heat/light/tape
  79. Which part of the laser printing process attaches the ink to the paper?
    Fuse

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