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Rose believes that she is more likely to die from a tornado than from heart disease because tornados make big news. Which of the following errors has Rose made?
a. confirmation bias
b. hindsight bias
c. functional fixedness
d. availability heuristic
After an event has occurred, people often wrongly believe that they "knew all along" what the outcome would be. This error is known as the
a. hindsight bias.
b. confirmation bias.
c. base-rate fallacy.
d. representativeness heuristic.
A single general ability that influences all areas of intellectual functioning is called the
a. Central domain.
b. Multimodal approach.
d. Primary factor.
Research on the personality trait of extraversion has shown that its heritability is approximately 50 percent. What does this mean?
a. 50 percent of the population is extraverted.
b. For any given person, extraversion is determined half by genetics and half by environment.
c. Genetics can explain 50 percent of the differences in extraversion among the population at large.
d. For 50 percent of the population, extraversion is determined by genetics, while for the other 50 percent it is determined by environment.
Which of the following supports Noam Chomsky's assertion that humans are designed for language acquisition?
a. All humans speak.
b. Language rules are similar from culture to culture.
c. Children from different cultures develop language at about the same age and in the same order.
d. Parents from all cultures speak to their infants.
a. cannot see anything.
b. can see objects only a few inches away.
c. can see objects about one foot away.
d. can see objects several feet away.
In which of Piaget's stages does object permanence happen?
c. concrete operational
d. formal operational
Which of the following theorists is most closely associated with a theory of cognitive development?
Nathan is a happy and healthy 3-month-old baby. Based on preferential looking and habituation research, what can you predict about Nathan's perceptual abilities?
a. Nathan will prefer scrambled faces to real faces.
b. Nathan will prefer real faces to scrambled faces and he will also prefer his mother's face to a stranger's face.
c. Nathan will prefer a stranger's face to his mother's face.
d. Nathan will prefer real to scrambled faces but will not be able to distinguish his mother's face from a stranger's face.
According to Piaget, accommodation occurs when individuals _____.
a. are deprived of parental warmth and sensitivity
b. adjust their schemas to new information
c. are insecurely attached to their caregivers
d. incorporate new information into existing schemas
Which of the following needs must be met first, according to Maslow?
Sharon has received a gift from her friend Mei. Even though Sharon is disappointed with the gift, she feels as though she ought to smile and look happy. What concept does this illustrate?
a. display rules
b. facial feedback hypothesis
c. James-Lange theory
d. broaden-and-build model