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  1. epidem transtion
    infectious to chronic
  2. non commuicable diseases should be involved with 5
    • screening
    • interventions
    • cost effective tx
    • counsel
    • research
  3. screening for non commuicable purpose 3
    • test for ppl who dont show symptoms
    • early dections
    • to reduce death
  4. screening qualifications
    • disease will cause death
    • early detection will improve outcome aka LEAD TIME BIAS
    • strategies are possible
    • acceptable 
  5. multiple risk factor
    look at lots of risk facts to reduce outcome. DUH
  6. cost/net effective
    benefits must be greater than harms
  7. counsel 5 types 
    • like tay sachs-jews
    • sickle cell-blacks
    • down synd
    • pku
    • cystic fibrosis-whites
  8. outbreaks are recognized by....
    clinicians, patients, data, media
  9. why to recognize outbreaks
    • prevent more cases
    • prevent more outbreaks
    • describe/learn/teach the new disease
    • evaluate prevention
    • talk to the public 
  10. to investigate 
    • epidemiological
    • environmental
    • media and legal side
  11. was grilled above hurricane Isabel, West Nile, and measles 
    Dr. Gerberding
  12. note when investigating outbreak
    • find source
    • quickly tell public
    • limit case 
    • the well publicized outbreaks can be bias
    • pressure to investigate > errors
    • delays > no samples
  13. 5.A goals of outbreak investigations
    • define
    • are they real
    • whats hte rate
    • case finding
    • descriptive in epi way
  14. 5. B goals of outbreak investigations
    • make hypo
    • test hypo
    • test samples
    • implement control measures
    • tell public 
  15. case definitions
    • lab confirmed 
    • clinical
    • definitive vs probable
    • outbreak associated vs. nonoutbreak
    • primary vs. secondary
  16. case def drives>>>
  17. lab confirmed case

    note: did he even go to the restaurant? 
  18. definitive vs. probable
    probable: once confirmed, not needed both
  19. outbreak associated vs nonoutbreak
    outside of school vs. school 
  20. primary vs. secondary
    1st wave children vs. teacher
  21. case confirmation
    • some asymptomatic ones have positive tests b/c of lab errors
    • deals with emerging disease like legionnaires, aids, SARS
    • ex.) vault blood 
  22. case confirmation are based upon
    • direct observation
    • med records
    • provides
    • lab results 
  23. background disease rate
    • scope of outbreak geographically and temporally 
    • compare current outbreak vs. current backdrop
    • see for additional cases

    note: important when Hep C shows in one hospital!!!! 
  24. affect rates
    • under/over sampling
    • un/over reported 
    • financial 
    • media 
  25. endemic
    background/expected cases like mosquito in tx
  26. epidemic
    EXCEEDS expect disease in defined area like anthrax
  27. pandemic
  28. describe outbreak
    person, place, time 
  29. epi curve
    graph shows the number of cases by illness by the date
  30. cardio disease affects 
    heart, brain, kidney, extremities>ulcers, eyes
  31. where of us
    more in SE states
  32. cost of cvd
    475 billion
  33. race is most affected
  34. health systems level factors***
    • financing
    • structure of care
    • culture barriers
  35. patient level factors***
    • patient preferences
    • refusal of tx
    • poor adherence
    • bio diff
  36. non modifiable risk
    age, gender, heredity 
  37. modifiable risk 
    smoke, chol, BP, inactivity, obesity, diabetes, stress, alcohol
  38. how many with HBP 
    50 mil 
  39. there is a relationship with cvd
    Blood pressure
  40. cvd prevention
    • cut down salt in communities
    • manage hypertension 
  41. challenges
    obesity, lazy, stress, diet, genes
  42. overcome challenges
    improve access to care, healthy foods, healthy environments, note disparities, focus preventing 
  43. resources
    • centers for disease control and prevention
    • american heart association
    • american diabetes association 
  44. passive immunity
    injections of antibodies>>>short term
  45. herd immunity
Card Set:
2012-07-26 14:34:34

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