b2 lab t2

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XQWCat
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164112
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b2 lab t2
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2012-07-26 23:44:48
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bio
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bio 2 lab test 2: Prokaryotes, Protista, Eumetazoa, Invertebrates
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  1. Oscillatoria
    cyanobacteria (photoautotrophs) that exist in long chained colonies. 
  2. cyanobacteria
    photoautotrophs including Oscillatoria, Anabanea, Gleocapsa.
  3. Anabaenea
    cyanobacteria (photoautotrophs) that create heterocysts that fix nitrogen into ammonia. 
  4. gloeocapsa
    cyanobacteria (photoautotroph) tetrad with glycocalyx halo--learning to work together and rely on each other. 
  5. five categories of protista
    Excavates, Chromoalveolates, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, Unikonts
  6. Excavates
    carved-out protista that include Parabasalids (trichomonas), Euglenazoans (Euglena gracilis) and Kinetoplastids (Trypanasoma)
  7. Trichomonas vaginalis
    one-haired parabasalid (protist, Excavate) that attacks the vaginal wall.  Sexually transmitted.  Most common protozoan infection. 
  8. Euglena gracilis
    Mixotrophic Euglenid (Protist, Excavate) that is less dependant on environment.  Tumbles, moving toward flagella.  2 or 3 red "eye spots" that block the photosensitive tissue behind, to guess direction. 
  9. Trypanasoma cruzi
    parasitic Kinetoplastid (Protist, Excavate) that causes African Sleeping Sickness (super-anemia).  Uses your RBCs to reproduce.  Floaty worm in blood smear. Endoflagellum causes sidewinder movement. 
  10. Chromoalveolates
    cyanobacteria with colored air sacs under shell.  Includes dinoflagellates, ciliaphora, phaeophyta, bacillariophyta. 
  11. Dinoflagellates
    chromoalveolates that cause red tides.  Shellfish eat them, we eat shellfish and causes paralytic shellfish disease.  Move with a twirling motion.  One example is peridinium. 
  12. Peridinium
    a dinoflagellate (chromoalveolates) that is rust-colored and tiny. 
  13. 3 types of ciliaphora
    • (chromoalveolate).  Paramecium bursari
    • Blepharisma
    • Stentor
  14. Paramecium bursari
    ciliaphora (chromoalveolate) that has a symbiotic relationship with chlorella
  15. Blephorisma
    ciliaphora (chromoalveolate) heterotroph that looks like paramecium bursari but doesn't have any chlorella
  16. Stentor
    ciliaphora (chromoalveolate) with modified cilia that creates a whirlpool to suck in food
  17. Phaeophyta
    Brown algae/seaweed with bubbles full of salt water.  (Chromoalveolate)
  18. Rhizaria
    "root-bearing" protist that uses pseudopods and cytoplasmic streaming for locomotion.  Includes Radiolaria and Foramenifera
  19. Radiolaria
    Amoeba stuck into a silica shell (Rhizaria protist) that looks like a christmas ornament.  Uses pseudopod/amoeboid movement and cytoplasmic streaming.  Shoots stringy projections out of pores of shell  to grab things. 
  20. Foramenifera
    amoeba stuck into a calcium (carbonate) shell (Rhizaria protist) that makes up the white cliffs of dover.  Shoots stringy projections out of pores of shell (spiderman), using amoeboid movement/cytoplasmic streaming. 
  21. Archaeplastida
    • Rhodophyta
    • chlorophyta
  22. Rhodophyta
    red algae/seaweed.  Archaeplastid.  Sushi seaweed. 
  23. Chlorophyta
    gave rise to land plants (differentiation).  Archaeplastid.  Multicellular green algae/seaweed. 
  24. Volvox
    Chlorophyta, Archaeplastida, Protista.  Single-celled flagellates that all swim towards each other, making a ball that rolls.  Spit gametes in center to form daughter-balls that escape when the big colony dies.  Rolls. 
  25. Spirogyra
    Chlorophyta, Archaeplastida, Protista.  Spiral roads of chloroplasts constantly moving in double helix pattern with cytoplasmic streaming--first to use it for organization of organelles. 
  26. Unikonts
    closest to humans.  Protist.  Consists of Amoebazoans (Amoeba proteus)
  27. Amoeba proteus
    Pseudopod, Amoebazoan, Unikont, Protist.  Eats by moving around things to create a vacuole.  Pseudopod movement (cytoplasmic streaming)
  28. Closest to humans:
    Choanoflagellate.  Deviation from Unikonts. 
  29. Parazoans
    "beside animals".  Sponges (Porifera).  different cell types working in true multicellular fashion. 
  30. Porifera
    "pore-bearing".  The sponges.  Parazoan. 
  31. Sponges
    Consist of different cell types working together.  Choanocytes make a current for food to get stuck and amoebacytes digest the food.  Snapshot between single and multicellular organisms.  Have spicules. 
  32. Spicules
    Sponge skeletal pieces--like jacks, shaped like snowflakes.  Not-alive protein deposits jammed in randomly. 
  33. Eumetazoa
    True animals that change.  Have radial symmetry and go through metamorphosis.  Include Diploblastic Cnidarians (Hydrozoans, Scyphozoans, Anthozoans).  2 morphologies (sessile polyp and medusa)
  34. Diploblastic
    having "double" embryonic tissues: endoderm and ectoderm.  Also have mesoglea (not a tissue, more of a place-holder). 
  35. Cnidocytes
    "barbed cells".  Diploblastic stinging organisms (toxins).  Polyp or Medusa.  Hydrazoan, Scyphozoan, Anthozoan. Go through a metamorphosis. 
  36. Hydrozoans
    Polyp.  Can be colonial (Obelia--big body always releasing Medusa) or Singular (brown hydra.  Pulls tentacles inside to make a bulb to release medusa gametophytes.  Fertilize, drop, sessile. 
  37. Scyphozoans
    Jellyfish.  Spend most of life as a medusa.  Exchange gametes, fertilized zygote drops, spends a couple days as a polyp and then changes. 
  38. Anthozoans
    flower-animals.  Only exist as polyps--no medusa phase.  Sea Anemone (singular) or coral (colonial). 
  39. difference between pseudocoelomic and coelomic
    pseudo only have mesoderm on one side of the body cavity.  Other side is endo.  In coelomic animals the entire cavity is lined with mesoderm and can differentiate or hold down (mesentaries)
  40. Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worms. Class:
    • Turbelarians (Planarians)
    • Trematoda (Flukes)
    • Cestoda (tapeworms)
  41. Turbeliaran
    • Planarian.  Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worm (Platyhelminthes)
    • cut apart to make more
    • hermaphroditic
    • eyespots (light/dark) and auricles (disturbances).  Sensory organs. 
    • not a parasite.  Free-living. 
  42. Trematoda
    • Flukes.  Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worm (Platyhelmenthes). 
    • single genders
    • no sensory organs.  Parasitic.  Large. 
  43. Cestoda
    • Tapeworms.  Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worm (Platyhelmenthes). 
    • nearly a virus: eat and reproduce. 
    • Scolex (hooky head) grabs on.  Rigid neck to keep hold. 
    • proglottids--sections. 
    • each proglotted is male and female.  Fills with eggs and breaks off.  Release in colon. 
  44. Proglottids
    Cestoda (tapeworm) sections.  Each have a male and female side.  Fill with eggs and break off to deposit elsewhere. 
  45. Phylum Nematoda
    • Pseudocoelomic.  Roundworms. 
    • All parasitic.  Live in 4 places: Intestines (Ascaris), Leg/arm muscles (Trichinella), Anus (Pinworms), Heart (heartworms). 
  46. Ascaris
    Hookworm.  Nematode (Parasitic pseudocoelomic).  Lives in intestines.  Female is bigger, male has hooks.  Thread through the layers of the intestine. 
  47. Trichinella
    curls up like a fetus in muscle.  Pseudocoelomic roundworm (Nematoda). 
  48. Pinworms
    bunch of tiny cords.  Usually on anus.  white.  Nematoda (pseudocoelomic)
  49. Heartworms
    Nematoda.  Pseudocoelomic roundworm that lives in heart. 
  50. Eucoelomic Prostoms
    The Coeloms.  Mollusca (Polyplacophora, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopods).  Have Mesoderm lining entire cavity. 
  51. Polyplacophora
    Chitons.  (Mollusca, Eucoelomic Protostoma).  Have plates made of chiton.  Most primitive.  (Like a splayed snail with a turtle-shell on top, or a pillbug). Open circulatory system. 
  52. Bivalvia
    Clams, oysters, scallups.  2 valves (shells).  Eucoelomic protostome.  Open circulatory system.  Undergo metamorphosis (start as little protista-like.  Swim, sink suddenly and develop). 
  53. Umbo
    earliest part of shell of bivalvia.  Shiny, at the top.  First growth after hinge ligament.  Rings tell you how old (every year is a new layer). 
  54. Gastropoda
    stomach-foot.  Snails and slugs.  Open circulatory systems.  Undergo torsion--twisted body in shell.  Slug un-twists. 
  55. Cephalopods
    • Most recent eucoelomic protostome.  Would take over the earth.  Head-foots. 
    • Squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish. 
    • Closed circulatory system
    • Nerve cord. 
  56. Mantle
    muscles on clam that hold it to the shell.  Secretes the shell. 
  57. Gills
    large striated flaps on a clam.  Most of body-length. 
  58. foot
    wavy part outside visceral mass of a clam
  59. visceral mass
    fat part attached to foot of a clam
  60. labial palps
    control food digestion/sort food.  Little lip-hands on either side of visceral mass.  Tiny. 
  61. Posterior Adductor
    muscle in the back (away from visceral mass) that holds the clam shut
  62. anterior adductor
    muscle in the front (towards the visceral mass) that holds the clam shut
  63. earthworm crop
    breaks up big clods of dirt. Above gizzard, below esophagus
  64. earthworm gizzard
    grinds up food from the crop before passing it to the intestine.  Below crop. 
  65. Earthworm intestines
    chemically break down food.  below gizzard (big cord) housing typholsol. 
  66. typholsol
    increases intestinal surface area for better absorption.  Located inside intestines. 
  67. Seminal vescicles
    large white fatty-looking parts above crop
  68. seminal recepticals
    small white fatty-looking parts (dots) above crop (higher than seminal vessicles?)
  69. Clitellum
    swollem part of outside anatomy that secretes coccoon
  70. Earthworm nephridia
    every segment has it's own--cleans the blood to secrete waste from the body
  71. metamer
    each segment of an earthworm
  72. septa
    separations between metamers in an earthworm
  73. where is an earthworm nerve cord
    ventral

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