b2 lab t2
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cyanobacteria (photoautotrophs) that exist in long chained colonies.
photoautotrophs including Oscillatoria, Anabanea, Gleocapsa.
cyanobacteria (photoautotrophs) that create heterocysts that fix nitrogen into ammonia.
cyanobacteria (photoautotroph) tetrad with glycocalyx halo--learning to work together and rely on each other.
five categories of protista
Excavates, Chromoalveolates, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, Unikonts
carved-out protista that include Parabasalids (trichomonas), Euglenazoans (Euglena gracilis) and Kinetoplastids (Trypanasoma)
one-haired parabasalid (protist, Excavate) that attacks the vaginal wall. Sexually transmitted. Most common protozoan infection.
Mixotrophic Euglenid (Protist, Excavate) that is less dependant on environment. Tumbles, moving toward flagella. 2 or 3 red "eye spots" that block the photosensitive tissue behind, to guess direction.
parasitic Kinetoplastid (Protist, Excavate) that causes African Sleeping Sickness (super-anemia). Uses your RBCs to reproduce. Floaty worm in blood smear. Endoflagellum causes sidewinder movement.
cyanobacteria with colored air sacs under shell. Includes dinoflagellates, ciliaphora, phaeophyta, bacillariophyta.
chromoalveolates that cause red tides. Shellfish eat them, we eat shellfish and causes paralytic shellfish disease. Move with a twirling motion. One example is peridinium.
a dinoflagellate (chromoalveolates) that is rust-colored and tiny.
3 types of ciliaphora
- (chromoalveolate). Paramecium bursari
ciliaphora (chromoalveolate) that has a symbiotic relationship with chlorella
ciliaphora (chromoalveolate) heterotroph that looks like paramecium bursari but doesn't have any chlorella
ciliaphora (chromoalveolate) with modified cilia that creates a whirlpool to suck in food
Brown algae/seaweed with bubbles full of salt water. (Chromoalveolate)
"root-bearing" protist that uses pseudopods and cytoplasmic streaming for locomotion. Includes Radiolaria and Foramenifera
Amoeba stuck into a silica shell (Rhizaria protist) that looks like a christmas ornament. Uses pseudopod/amoeboid movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Shoots stringy projections out of pores of shell to grab things.
amoeba stuck into a calcium (carbonate) shell (Rhizaria protist) that makes up the white cliffs of dover. Shoots stringy projections out of pores of shell (spiderman), using amoeboid movement/cytoplasmic streaming.
red algae/seaweed. Archaeplastid. Sushi seaweed.
gave rise to land plants (differentiation). Archaeplastid. Multicellular green algae/seaweed.
Chlorophyta, Archaeplastida, Protista. Single-celled flagellates that all swim towards each other, making a ball that rolls. Spit gametes in center to form daughter-balls that escape when the big colony dies. Rolls.
Chlorophyta, Archaeplastida, Protista. Spiral roads of chloroplasts constantly moving in double helix pattern with cytoplasmic streaming--first to use it for organization of organelles.
closest to humans. Protist. Consists of Amoebazoans (Amoeba proteus)
Pseudopod, Amoebazoan, Unikont, Protist. Eats by moving around things to create a vacuole. Pseudopod movement (cytoplasmic streaming)
Closest to humans:
Choanoflagellate. Deviation from Unikonts.
"beside animals". Sponges (Porifera). different cell types working in true multicellular fashion.
"pore-bearing". The sponges. Parazoan.
Consist of different cell types working together. Choanocytes make a current for food to get stuck and amoebacytes digest the food. Snapshot between single and multicellular organisms. Have spicules.
Sponge skeletal pieces--like jacks, shaped like snowflakes. Not-alive protein deposits jammed in randomly.
True animals that change. Have radial symmetry and go through metamorphosis. Include Diploblastic Cnidarians (Hydrozoans, Scyphozoans, Anthozoans). 2 morphologies (sessile polyp and medusa)
having "double" embryonic tissues: endoderm and ectoderm. Also have mesoglea (not a tissue, more of a place-holder).
"barbed cells". Diploblastic stinging organisms (toxins). Polyp or Medusa. Hydrazoan, Scyphozoan, Anthozoan. Go through a metamorphosis.
Polyp. Can be colonial (Obelia--big body always releasing Medusa) or Singular (brown hydra. Pulls tentacles inside to make a bulb to release medusa gametophytes. Fertilize, drop, sessile.
Jellyfish. Spend most of life as a medusa. Exchange gametes, fertilized zygote drops, spends a couple days as a polyp and then changes.
flower-animals. Only exist as polyps--no medusa phase. Sea Anemone (singular) or coral (colonial).
difference between pseudocoelomic and coelomic
pseudo only have mesoderm on one side of the body cavity. Other side is endo. In coelomic animals the entire cavity is lined with mesoderm and can differentiate or hold down (mesentaries)
- Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worms. Class:
- Turbelarians (Planarians)
- Trematoda (Flukes)
- Cestoda (tapeworms)
- Planarian. Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worm (Platyhelminthes)
- cut apart to make more
- eyespots (light/dark) and auricles (disturbances). Sensory organs.
- not a parasite. Free-living.
- Flukes. Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worm (Platyhelmenthes).
- single genders
- no sensory organs. Parasitic. Large.
- Tapeworms. Acoelomic, dorsoventrally flattened worm (Platyhelmenthes).
- nearly a virus: eat and reproduce.
- Scolex (hooky head) grabs on. Rigid neck to keep hold.
- each proglotted is male and female. Fills with eggs and breaks off. Release in colon.
Cestoda (tapeworm) sections. Each have a male and female side. Fill with eggs and break off to deposit elsewhere.
- Pseudocoelomic. Roundworms.
- All parasitic. Live in 4 places: Intestines (Ascaris), Leg/arm muscles (Trichinella), Anus (Pinworms), Heart (heartworms).
Hookworm. Nematode (Parasitic pseudocoelomic). Lives in intestines. Female is bigger, male has hooks. Thread through the layers of the intestine.
curls up like a fetus in muscle. Pseudocoelomic roundworm (Nematoda).
bunch of tiny cords. Usually on anus. white. Nematoda (pseudocoelomic)
Nematoda. Pseudocoelomic roundworm that lives in heart.
The Coeloms. Mollusca (Polyplacophora, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopods). Have Mesoderm lining entire cavity.
Chitons. (Mollusca, Eucoelomic Protostoma). Have plates made of chiton. Most primitive. (Like a splayed snail with a turtle-shell on top, or a pillbug). Open circulatory system.
Clams, oysters, scallups. 2 valves (shells). Eucoelomic protostome. Open circulatory system. Undergo metamorphosis (start as little protista-like. Swim, sink suddenly and develop).
earliest part of shell of bivalvia. Shiny, at the top. First growth after hinge ligament. Rings tell you how old (every year is a new layer).
stomach-foot. Snails and slugs. Open circulatory systems. Undergo torsion--twisted body in shell. Slug un-twists.
- Most recent eucoelomic protostome. Would take over the earth. Head-foots.
- Squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish.
- Closed circulatory system
- Nerve cord.
muscles on clam that hold it to the shell. Secretes the shell.
large striated flaps on a clam. Most of body-length.
wavy part outside visceral mass of a clam
fat part attached to foot of a clam
control food digestion/sort food. Little lip-hands on either side of visceral mass. Tiny.
muscle in the back (away from visceral mass) that holds the clam shut
muscle in the front (towards the visceral mass) that holds the clam shut
breaks up big clods of dirt. Above gizzard, below esophagus
grinds up food from the crop before passing it to the intestine. Below crop.
chemically break down food. below gizzard (big cord) housing typholsol.
increases intestinal surface area for better absorption. Located inside intestines.
large white fatty-looking parts above crop
small white fatty-looking parts (dots) above crop (higher than seminal vessicles?)
swollem part of outside anatomy that secretes coccoon
every segment has it's own--cleans the blood to secrete waste from the body
each segment of an earthworm
separations between metamers in an earthworm
where is an earthworm nerve cord
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