If NAD+ were to suddenly become unavailable, what would happen to cellular respiration?
The Krebs cycle AND Glycolysis would stop because NAD is required
This energy is needed to break bonds in the reactant molecules, then even more energy is released in an exergonic reaction when a final product molecule forms
enzymes do not add energy; instead they _____________ by lowering the activation energy necessary
_______ fit into the active sites of an enzyme where it is held to promote breaking chemical bonds
__________ which are not themselves catalysts but are requred for normal catalytic functioning
a reaction's end product inhibit the reaction itself by halting it when a certain amount of product has accumulated
The next two questions are based on the following information: A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X-->Y-->Z-->A. Product "A" binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme. In this example, substance "X" is a(n) _______________.
an enzyme that changes shape when an inhibitor or an activator binds to an allosteric site that is separate from its active site
which organelle is rubisco found in the cells of photosynthetic eukaryotes?
In which of the environments listed below would a non-photosynthetic facultative anaerobe (an organism that can use either aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration/fermentation) produce the most ATP for one molecule of glucose?
leaves situatioed close to the top of a leaf pile
Which component of cellular respiration takes place within the inner membrane of the mitochondrion?
the electron transport chain
What component of cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrial matrix?
the Krebs cycle
circular DNA and binary fission is characteristic of ___________
AMP will accumulate, stimulating _______ (an allosteric enzyme),which increases the rate of glycolysis
cycle that completes the metabolic break down of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide (mitochondria of eukaryotes, cytosol of prokaryotes)
serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration, this is the splitting of glucose into pyruvate
It is thought that _______ evolved from prokaryotes that inhabited the cells of other larger prokaryotes. This scenario likely originated as an endosymbiosis, in which one organism began living within the body of another.
You look at a cell under the microscope and notice that it has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. It is a ____________
Which molecule is synthesized in the nucleolus?
The surface of the rough endoplasmic is studded with _________ for protein synthesis
within the golgi apparatus, carbohydrates are added to proteins in a process known as ___________
prokaryotic cells have ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria? T/F
breakdown of dead cell or protein is done by _______________-
lysosomes (NO synthesis)
the primary storage organelles in the Eukaryotic cell?
How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotic cells
prokaryotes have simple or nonexistant endomembrane systems and nucleoids
it enters drinking water via the feces of an infected individual, and then enters the gut of another host through the mouth. This is what?
tsetse flies are intermediate hosts of _______________
The dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates are all considered members of Kingdom _______ because they all have a __________.
Alveolata, small alveoli cavity
is connected with killing fish and affecting people with neurotoxins. they are called ___________
Plasmodium is carried by mosquitos and kills someone every 30 seconds. This disease is commonly called
slime mold have a convergent evolution with ______________
the term for "having several distinct ancestors"
Which group in the kingdom Alveolata is involved in reef building, causes red tide, bioluminesces, and feeds on fish?
A protist that has an apical cluster of microtubules and organelles, is parasitic, and has a sporozoite stage as a component of its life cycle would likely be
a slime mold
Giardia is a parasite diplomonad, a ________ is a parabasalid that lives in the guts of termites
Kingdom Euglenozoa: these are primarily photosynthetic: _________________ and store surplus carbohydrates as paramylum
African sleeping sickness is caused by
small cavities enclosed in membranes that hug the internal cell surface
phytoplankton are also known under the term D___________ and some other types build corral reefs
malaria is caused by an ________________, that uses its apical complex to destroy host cells
Plants can be grown experimentally without light. What key supplemental ingredient is needed for this to occur?
What is the source of electrons in the electron transport chains of photosynthesis?
During photosynthesis, the energy used to pump protons comes from _____, whereas in cellular respiration it comes from ______.
oxidizes water and supplies electrons for the primary electron acceptor: photosystem _____
NADPH is produced at the end of the ________
zscheme electron transport (photosystem I and II)
the process generating ATP from ADP by means of proton motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
Compare the Krebs cycle and the Calvin cycle. Which molecules are common to both cycles?
carbon dioxide and ATP
The first phase in the Calvin cycle binds one molecule of ______________ to one molecule of ______________.
CO2 , Ribulose biphosphate
The Calvin cycle can best be described as the ______________ reactions of photosynthesis.
nonlight dependent because they do not require direct sunlight
The Calvin cycle occurs in chloroplasts because it is interdependent on ___________
the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
In the case of _________, the input molecules are carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH. the output molecules are sugar, ADP and NADP+
most abundant protein on Earth
A three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intcrmediate in glycolysis. it regenerates to RuBP
the electron transport drives the pump that pumps protons H across the membrane-- proton H gradient is harnessed by ATP synthase to make ATP
CO2 is ______________ in photosynthesis
Light reactions harvest light for energy + ATP, ________ reactions expend energy and fix carbon using ATP and NADH
in light acidification, (more H protons) in the inner membrane... there is _______ pH in the lumen
if its not green, it can NOT CO2 fix anything!!
pH is higher in the __________ of mitochondria
matrix -- meaning inner membrane is acidic! low pH