biol110-quiz4. tut24,26,27,28,29.txt

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dmk5154
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164116
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biol110-quiz4. tut24,26,27,28,29.txt
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2012-07-26 22:36:51
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psu biol110
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biol 110 quiz 4 protists etc.
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  1. If NAD+ were to suddenly become unavailable, what would happen to cellular respiration?
    The Krebs cycle AND Glycolysis would stop because NAD is required
  2. This energy is needed to break bonds in the reactant molecules, then even more energy is released in an exergonic reaction when a final product molecule forms
    activation energy
  3. enzymes do not add energy; instead they _____________ by lowering the activation energy necessary
    hasten reactions
  4. _______ fit into the active sites of an enzyme where it is held to promote breaking chemical bonds
    substrates
  5. __________ which are not themselves catalysts but are requred for normal catalytic functioning
    coenzymes
  6. a reaction's end product inhibit the reaction itself by halting it when a certain amount of product has accumulated
    feedback inhibition
  7. The next two questions are based on the following information: A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X-->Y-->Z-->A. Product "A" binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme. In this example, substance "X" is a(n) _______________.
    substrate
  8. an enzyme that changes shape when an inhibitor or an activator binds to an allosteric site that is separate from its active site
    allosteric enzyme
  9. which organelle is rubisco found in the cells of photosynthetic eukaryotes?
    chloroplasts
  10. In which of the environments listed below would a non-photosynthetic facultative anaerobe (an organism that can use either aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration/fermentation) produce the most ATP for one molecule of glucose?
    leaves situatioed close to the top of a leaf pile
  11. Which component of cellular respiration takes place within the inner membrane of the mitochondrion?
    the electron transport chain
  12. What component of cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrial matrix?
    the Krebs cycle
  13. circular DNA and binary fission is characteristic of ___________
    mitochondria
  14. AMP will accumulate, stimulating _______ (an allosteric enzyme),which increases the rate of glycolysis
    PFK
  15. cycle that completes the metabolic break down of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide (mitochondria of eukaryotes, cytosol of prokaryotes)
    Kreb's cycle
  16. serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration, this is the splitting of glucose into pyruvate
    glycolysis
  17. It is thought that _______ evolved from prokaryotes that inhabited the cells of other larger prokaryotes. This scenario likely originated as an endosymbiosis, in which one organism began living within the body of another.
    mitochondria
  18. You look at a cell under the microscope and notice that it has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. It is a ____________
    eukaryote
  19. Which molecule is synthesized in the nucleolus?
    ribosomal RNA
  20. The surface of the rough endoplasmic is studded with _________ for protein synthesis
    ribosomes
  21. within the golgi apparatus, carbohydrates are added to proteins in a process known as ___________
    glycosylation
  22. prokaryotic cells have ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria? T/F
    False
  23. breakdown of dead cell or protein is done by _______________-
    lysosomes (NO synthesis)
  24. the primary storage organelles in the Eukaryotic cell?
    vacuoles
  25. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotic cells
    prokaryotes have simple or nonexistant endomembrane systems and nucleoids
  26. it enters drinking water via the feces of an infected individual, and then enters the gut of another host through the mouth. This is what?
    Giardiasis
  27. tsetse flies are intermediate hosts of _______________
    trypanosomes
  28. The dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates are all considered members of Kingdom _______ because they all have a __________.
    Alveolata, small alveoli cavity
  29. is connected with killing fish and affecting people with neurotoxins. they are called ___________
    Pfisteria
  30. Plasmodium is carried by mosquitos and kills someone every 30 seconds. This disease is commonly called
    malaria
  31. slime mold have a convergent evolution with ______________
    fungi
  32. the term for "having several distinct ancestors"
    polyphyletic
  33. Which group in the kingdom Alveolata is involved in reef building, causes red tide, bioluminesces, and feeds on fish?
    Dinoflagellates
  34. A protist that has an apical cluster of microtubules and organelles, is parasitic, and has a sporozoite stage as a component of its life cycle would likely be
    a slime mold
  35. Giardia is a parasite diplomonad, a ________ is a parabasalid that lives in the guts of termites
    trychonympha
  36. Kingdom Euglenozoa: these are primarily photosynthetic: _________________ and store surplus carbohydrates as paramylum
    euglenoids
  37. African sleeping sickness is caused by
    kinetoplastids
  38. small cavities enclosed in membranes that hug the internal cell surface
    alveoli
  39. phytoplankton are also known under the term D___________ and some other types build corral reefs
    dinoflagellates
  40. malaria is caused by an ________________, that uses its apical complex to destroy host cells
    apicomplexans
  41. Plants can be grown experimentally without light. What key supplemental ingredient is needed for this to occur?
    sugar
  42. What is the source of electrons in the electron transport chains of photosynthesis?
    light
  43. During photosynthesis, the energy used to pump protons comes from _____, whereas in cellular respiration it comes from ______.
    light, NADH/FADH2
  44. oxidizes water and supplies electrons for the primary electron acceptor: photosystem _____
    II
  45. NADPH is produced at the end of the ________
    zscheme electron transport (photosystem I and II)
  46. the process generating ATP from ADP by means of proton motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
    photophosphorylation
  47. Compare the Krebs cycle and the Calvin cycle. Which molecules are common to both cycles?
    carbon dioxide and ATP
  48. The first phase in the Calvin cycle binds one molecule of ______________ to one molecule of ______________.
    CO2 , Ribulose biphosphate
  49. The Calvin cycle can best be described as the ______________ reactions of photosynthesis.
    nonlight dependent because they do not require direct sunlight
  50. The Calvin cycle occurs in chloroplasts because it is interdependent on ___________
    light reactions
  51. the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
    Calvin Cycle!!
  52. In the case of _________, the input molecules are carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH. the output molecules are sugar, ADP and NADP+
    Calvin cycle
  53. most abundant protein on Earth
    rubisco
  54. A three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intcrmediate in glycolysis. it regenerates to RuBP
    G3P
  55. the electron transport drives the pump that pumps protons H across the membrane-- proton H gradient is harnessed by ATP synthase to make ATP
    chemiosmosis
  56. CO2 is ______________ in photosynthesis
    reduced
  57. Light reactions harvest light for energy + ATP, ________ reactions expend energy and fix carbon using ATP and NADH
    • dark
    • in light acidification, (more H protons) in the inner membrane... there is _______ pH in the lumen
    • lower
  58. if its not green, it can NOT CO2 fix anything!!
    ok
  59. pH is higher in the __________ of mitochondria
    matrix -- meaning inner membrane is acidic! low pH

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