Exam 9

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jhondras
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164192
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Exam 9
Updated:
2012-08-01 12:36:12
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microbiology
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Chapters 24-26
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  1. Strep Throat
    • Upper Respiratory Bacterial
    • streptococcus pyogenes
    • inflammation of throat, enlarged lymph nodes, fever, tosilitis, earache
    • ELISA
  2. Scarlet Fever
    • Upper Respiratory Bacterial
    • advanced strep throat (erythrogenic strains)
    • red rash, high fever, enlarged tounge
  3. Erythrogenic strains
    strains of Strep that are lysogenized by phage
  4. Diptheria
    • Upper Respiratory Bacterial
    • Corynebacterium diptheriae
    • exotoxin is produced when bacteria is lysogenized by phage
  5. Otis Media
    • Earache
    • Upper Respiratory Bacterial
    • strep pyogenes, s. aureus, strep pneumonia, haemophilus influenzea, moraxella catarrhalis
  6. The Common Cold
    • Upper Respiratory Viral
    • Usually Rhinovirus, over 200 others
    • sneezing, nasal secretions, congestions
    • usually in winter because of more indoor contact and dry air
  7. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
    • Lower Respiratory Bacterial
    • Bordella pertussis
    • cold-like but with deep cough
    • can last for months
  8. Tuberculosis
    • Lower Respiratory Bacterial
    • Mycoacterium Tuberculosis
    • Acid-Fast (resistant to drying and disinfectants)

    • Lesions formed by dead machrophages and m. tuberculosis. apperas Ghons complex in x-rays.
    • Explodes and new infection goes through blood and lymph
  9. Bacterial Pneumonias
    • Lower Respiratory Bacterial
    • usually caused by streptococcus pneumonia but can be others
  10. Melioidosis
    • Lower Respiratory Bacterial
    • Burkholderia pseudomallei
    • transmitted by inhalation, injestion or puncture wound
    • leads to pneumonia, spesis  and encephalitis
  11. Viral Pneumonia
    • Lower Respiratory Viral
    • usually influenza
  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
    • Lower Respiratory Viral
    • most common cause of pneumonia in infants
  13. Influenza
    • Lower Respiratory Viral
    • Caused by A, B, or C
    • and characterized by H or N spikes embedded in lipid bilayer
  14. H1N1
    sever strain called Spanish Flu that killed 50 million people in 1908
  15. H2N2
    Asian Flu in 1957
  16. H3N2
    • Hong Kong in 1968
    • moderate
    • First modern pandemic originating in China in 1889
  17. Drugs effective against influenza A
    • Amantadine
    • Rimantadine
  18. Antifungal drug
    Amphotericin B
  19. Histoplasmosis
    • Lower Respiratory Fungal
    • Histoplasma capsulatum
    • sub-clinical, mild, occansionally severe
  20. Coccidiomycosis
    • Lower Respiratory Fungal
    • coccidiodes immitis
    • usually subclinical
    • in immunocomprimised patients may look like TB
  21. Pneumocystis Pneumonia
    • Lower Respiratory Fungal
    • pneumocytis jirovecii (normal flora of lungs)
    • in immunocompromised people only
  22. Blastomycosis
    • Lower Respiratory Fungal
    • Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • begins in lungs and can spread to cause extensive absesses
  23. Oppurtunsitc Fungii
    • Include Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor, but can be others
    • will cause lung diesase if given the chance
  24. Streptococcus Mutans
    • major cause of acid production from fructuse on oral cavity
    • acid eats away enamel and causes cavities

    Also produces dextran from glucose wich allows organisms to form biofilm and stick to teeth as plaque
  25. Amount of microbial cells shed in fecal mass
    40%
  26. Mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol
    • low calorie sweetners that microbes down use
    • used in sugar free gum and other prodcuts
  27. Mouth
    large #s of bacteria
  28. Intoxication
    eating endotoxins that bacteria produce in food instead of the bacteria themselves
  29. Periodontal Disease
    • inflammation of gums, bone loss and tooth loss
    • caused by streptococcus species, actinomyces and anaerobic gram neg bacteria
  30. Botulism
    • BACTERIAL INTOXICATION
    • clostridium botulinum
    • fever (gram neg), diarrhea, gastroenteritis
  31. Staphylococcal Enterotoxicosis
    • BACTERIAL INTOXICATION
    • S. aureus
    • ingesting food containing an enterotoxin from s. aureous
    • s.a. is heat/salt resistant so it grows easly on left out food
    • abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea
    • recovery in 24 hours
  32. Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentry)
    • 4 species of Shigella bacteria that produce Shiga toxins
    • digestive
  33. Salmonellosis
    • septic shock in infants and elderly
    • make sure all eggs and poultry are fully cooked
  34. Typhoid Fever
    • Salmonella Typhi
    • much more serious than salmonellosis
    • carriers can harbor pathogen in gallbladder and shed
    • Typhoid Mary
  35. Cholera
    • huge loss of fluids from vomiting/diarrhea
    • without treatment 50% MR
  36. Non-cholera vibrios
    • V. parahaemolyticus
    • V. vulnificus
    • gastroenteritis from eating raw shellfish (esp. oysters)
  37. E. Coli Gastroenteroitis
    • E. coli O:157, H:7
    • causes bleeding of colon, hemmorhagic colitis and can lead to shutdown of kidneys in children
    • undercooked gound beef
  38. Camplyobacter
    • most common cause of diarrhea in US
    • cows milk
  39. Yersinia
    can grow at refridgerated temps (4 degrees C)
  40. Clostridum Perfrenges
    • bacterial-digestive
    • exotoxins produced in IT cause symptoms
    • associated with cooked meats held at room temp for too long (spores survive cooking then germinate)
    • self limiting abdominal pain and diarrhea
  41. Clostridium Difficile
    • mostly in hosptials and nursing homes after extensive use of antibiotics
    • wipes out competing bacteria in flora
    • diarrhea but can be deadly
  42. Bacillus cereus
    • bacterial digestive
    • fried rice
    • two types: diarrhea, or emetic (nausea, vomiting)
    • self-limiting
  43. Mumps
    • viral-digestive
    • enters through respiratory tract
    • vaccination available
  44. Hepatitis
    • inflammation of liver
    • loss of appetitie, malaise, fever, jaundise
  45. Hepatitis A
    • grows throughout body
    • shed in feces (fecal oral route)
    • vaccine available esp for foreign travelers
    • 50% subclincal
  46. Hepatitis B
    • blood bourne
    • serious chronic can lead to liver cirrosis or chancer
    • blood is checked for HBV before transfusions
    • vaccines available
  47. Hepatitis C
    • blood transmitted
    • usually mild but can become chronic like hep B
  48. Viral Gastroenteritis
    • Rotovirus and Norovirus
    • usually shorter incubation time than bacterial
  49. Ergot Poisioning
    • claviceps purpurea (fungus-digestive)
    • grows on cereal grains stored with too much mositure
    • in Midevil Europe entire towns were going crazy (possible Salem Witch Trials)
  50. Aflotoxin
    • asperigillus flavus (fungal) INTOXICATION
    • potent liver carcinogen
    • especially on peanuts
  51. Giardia
    • protozoan
    • prolonged diarrheal disease
    • common during camping/swimming seasons
  52. Cyclosporiasis
    found in contaminated produce
  53. Cryptosporadiasis
    • in contaminated waters
    • hard to get rid of
    • protozoan-digestive
  54. Ameobic Dysentery
    • entamoeba histolytica (protozoa)
    • ameobas feed on gastrointestinal tissue and RBC's
    • can result in absesses in large intestine
  55. Tapeworms
    • Helmith-digestive-cestodes
    • undercooked beef and pork
    • taena genus worms have head (scolex) that attaches to IT, eggs are shed in feces 
    • humans are definitive hosts
    • sub clincial
  56. Hookworms
    • nematode
    • larvae can bore right through skin and migrate to intestinal tract
    • helmith-digestive
  57. Ascariasis lumbricoideses
    • helmith-digestive
    • acquired by ingesting eggs esp from undercooked fish (sushi)
    • nematode
  58. Trichinellosis
    • helmith-digestive
    • nematode
    • from undercooked pork
    • worms mature in intestinal tract, lay eggs which migrate to muscle tissue
    • high fever, swelling around eyes, GI distress
  59. Nematodes (roundworms)
    • pinworms: enterobius vermicularis
    • humans are definitve hosts
    • helmith
  60. Hydatid Disease
    • Echinococcus granulosis 
    • dogworm from kissing dogs
    • humans are intermediate hosts-dogs, wolves and foxes are definitive hosts
  61. Pyelonphritis
    • e. coli (75% of the time)
    • inflammation of one or both kidneys
  62. Leptospirosis
    • found in urine contamited water
    • chills headaches, fever, muscle aches
  63. Gonorrhea
    • bacterial
    • most common reportable STD in US
    • newborns are protected with antibiotic on eyes to kill gonorrhea and chlaymidia
  64. Cystitis
    • Inflection of bladder
    • usually e.coli or staph but can be many other gram neg organisms
  65. Non-Gonorrheal Urethritis (NGU)
    • most caused by chalmydia trachomatis (bacterial)
    • Most common STD
  66. Pelvic Inflammatiory Disease
    • bacterial!
    • inflammation of uterine tubes
    • if untreated can cause sterility
    • caused by n. gonorrhea, c. trachomatis and others
  67. Syphillus
    • treponema pallidum (bacteria-spirochete)
    • 3 stages (primary, secondary and tertirary)
    • tertirary affects brain
  68. Lymphogranuloma Venerum (LGV)
    • tropical and subtropical 
    • Chlamydia (intracellular bacterial)
    • lymph system swells
  69. Chanchroid
    • haemophils ducreyi
    • bacterial reproductive
  70. Vaginosis
    • gardenella vaginalis
    • bacterial reproductive
  71. Genital Warts
    • Human papillomavirus
    • vaccines available
    • can lead to cervical cancer
  72. Genital Herpes
    • Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2)
    • most people keep this in check with immune system
  73. Candidasis
    • fungal (candida albicans-has both mold and yeast characteristics)
    • NGU
    • predisposing factors: pregnanacy, diabetes, tumors, broad spectrum antibacterial chemotherapy
  74. Trichomonasis
    • Protozoan (trichomonas vaginalis)
    • pH of vagina = too alkaline

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