b2 lec t3

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XQWCat
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164219
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b2 lec t3
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2012-07-27 23:55:00
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bio 2 lecture test 3: animal kingdom not including vertebrates
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  1. Closest relation to animals (ancestor)
    choanoflagellate.  Single (Monosiga) or Colonial (Proterospongia)
  2. parazoans
    "side animals".  No tissues--cells not held together by junctions, etc.  No animal symmetry.  Porifera.  Sponges. 
  3. Porifera
    "pore bearer".  Parazoa.  Sponges.  Marine (or fresh water)  No symmetry, specialized tissues or organs.  Sessile (larvae free-swimming).  Cells will reorganize and reform if disturbed. 
  4. Sponge epidermis
    pinocytes.  outer epithelial layer of flattened cells and pores.  Responds to external stimuli. 
  5. sponge choanocytes
    layer of flagellated cells lining inner cavity (spongeocoel). Set up a current to obtain food and expel waste. 
  6. sponge Mesenchyme
    (sclerocytes)center region that contains spicules
  7. Sponge spicules
    sponge skeleton--jacks in mesenchyme made of calcium carbonate, silica or protein.  Support and give shape. 
  8. sponge Amoebcytes
    (archaeocytes).  Motile cells for food digestion
  9. Eumetazoa
    animals with definite shape and symmetry.  Most have tissues. 
  10. diploblastic
    have two embryonic tissues: ectoderm and endoderm.  Also have mesoglia in center--gluey but not a tissue. 
  11. mesoglea
    gluey cells that are not tissues in between the endoderm and ectoderm of diploblastic organisms
  12. Cnidaria
    • Radiata (radially symmetric with a center mouth) with a sac-like body and two tissue layers.  No organs. 
    • Cnidocytes: stinger cells.  Consist of:
    • Hydrazoa
    • Schyphozoa
    • Anthozoa
    • Two forms (Medusa and polyp).  Larva stage is planula. 
    • Carnivorous
    • nerve net
  13. Hydrazoa
    Cnidarian (Radiata, Eumetazoan), with Cnidocytes.  Sessile polyps that release medusa-gametes. 
  14. Scyphozoa
    Jellyfish.  Medusa. Zygote is briefly a polyp
  15. Anthozoa
    Polyps with no medusa form.  Solitary or colonial (Sea anemone is solitary and coral polyps are colonial--symbiotic relationship with zozanthelle). 
  16. Polyp
    sessile and attached form of cnidarians.  Dominant in Hydrozoa and Anthozoa
  17. Medusa
    free-floating form of Cnidarians.  Planktonic. Dominant in Scyphozoa. 
  18. planula
    larval stage of Cnidarians. 
  19. triploblastic
    having 3 embryonic tissues: endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm
  20. anterior
    head-end
  21. posterior
    tail-end
  22. ventral
    belly
  23. dorsal
    back
  24. lateral
    side
  25. caudal
    tail
  26. distal
    outside from
  27. proximal
    inside from
  28. medial
    towards center
  29. sagittal cuts
    fish's face, dorsal to ventral
  30. transverse
    dorsal to ventral on side of fish
  31. bilateral symmetry advantage
    • better movement--more efficient food-gathering and retreat from predators, and finding a mate. 
    • concentration of sensory structures will allow for a brain-end.  Allows nerve cord arrangement. 
    • All bilaterally symmetrical animals are triploblastic
  32. acoelomic
    no body cavity
  33. pseudocoelomic
    false body cavity
  34. coelomic
    true body cavity, lined with mesdermal tissue on both sides, with mesentary and peritoneum
  35. protostomes
    • mouth forms first, then anus
    • spiral arrangment
    • fate of each cell is fixed--if something dies, structure will be missing something. 
  36. deuterostomes
    • anus forms first, then mouth. 
    • Fate is not fixed. 
  37. Platyhelmenthes
    dorsoventrally flattened worms.  Acoelomic.  anal pores.  May or may not have a mouth.  Turbellaria, Trematoda and Cestoda
  38. Turbellaria
    non parasitic flat worms with anal pores.  Pharynx like a flatworm.  Planarians (have triangle heads with sensory organs)
  39. Trematoda
    parasitic (flukes).  No sensory organs.  Hermaphroditic.  Pharynx and anal pores. 
  40. Cestoda
    Parasitic tapeworms.  No mouth or anal pores.  Scolex, neck and proglottids (segments). 
  41. Nematoda
    roundworms.  Mouth and anus.  Mostly separate sexes and parasitic.  "threadworms", boy has hook, female is big.  pseudocoelomic.  Ascaris (hookworm).  Also heartworm, pinworm, trichinella (muscle worm), Intestinal (hook?)
  42. Eucoelomic Protostoma
    • Phylum Mollusca
    • Phylum Annelida
    • Phylum Arthropoda
  43. Mollusca
    • 3 body parts: head/food, visceral mass, mantle.
    • 4 classes: polyplacophora (chitons)
    • Bivalvia
    • Gastropoda
    • Cephalopoda
  44. Chiton
    carbohydrate plate armor of Mollusca. 
  45. Polyplacophora
    Chitons (Mollusca).  Most primitive, chitinous plates, open circulatory system.  Invertebrates. Small, living on rocky outcrops.  Mouth, stomach, valves (plates), anus.  Hemocoel. 
  46. Hemocoel
    blood cavity.  (Polyplacophora)
  47. Bivalvia
    Clams, oysters, scallops (Mollusca).  Calcium carbonate (chalky) shell, open circulatory system.  Gills in mantle. 
  48. Gastropoda (Univalvia)
    One shell, stomach-foot (Mollusca).  Slug, Snail, Conch.  Visceral mass undergoes torsion (slug un-twists) so anus escapes shell in embryo.  Open circulatory system.  Teeth of chiton. 
  49. Cephalopods
    Head foot (Mollusca). Shelled, reduced-shelled or shell-less.  Octopus (chitonous beak), Squid (reduced shell), Nautilus, cuttlefish.  Advanced CNS, nerve cord, eyes, closed circulatory system. Carnivores with chitious beaks
  50. Plankton
    floating.  Like a jellyfish or medusa.  Not active swimmers. 
  51. Annelida
    • Metamers and closed circulatory systems (red blood).  Paired nephridia at every metamer.  Breathe through skin.  Consist of:
    • Polychaete
    • Oligochaete
    • Hirudinea
  52. Polychaete
    many bristels (Annelida).  Chitinous.  Live in water, reproduction is easy, 2 sexes.  Centipede-looking. 
  53. Oligochaete
    2 bristles (Annelida).  True hermaphrodites.  Can fertilize each other--both walk away pregnant.  land-worms.  ventral nerve cord, clitellum (where eggs are), 5 heart loops, crop, gizzard, non-segmented intestine.  Cut apart, they'll make more. 
  54. Hirudinea
    leeches (Annelida).  True hermaphrodites.  Back to the water.  Head sucker and foot sucker.  care for young. 
  55. Arthropoda
    • Chitinous exoskeleton, classification based on Appendages, open circulatory system. 
    • Ocelli and Ommatidia.  Molt to grow, go through metamorphosis to reproduce. 
    • 4 subphyla:
    • Chelicerata
    • Crustacea
    • Unirama
    • Triblobitamorpha
  56. Chelicerata
    Spiders, ticks, horseshoe crab, scorpion.  1st pair: chelicera (food-ripping), 2nd pair pedipalps (hand-feet), 4 walking legs.  Fused metamers to make cephalothorax (tagma).  No moving mouth-parts
  57. Ocelli
    light-sensing organs of Arthropoda (sense light and dark). 
  58. Ommatidia
    Large seeing-eyes of Arthropoda are made of units called ommatidia and bristles.  Complex. 
  59. Crustacea
    • barnacle, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish.  Moving mouth-parts, paired appendages at each segment, 4 pairs of walking legs, fused cephalothorax, Biramous (2 branches at appendage). 2 antennae.
    • barnacle is sessile. 
    • 2 big pincers. 
  60. Unirami
    • Arthropod.  3 classes:
    • chilopoda
    • diplopoda
    • insecta
  61. chilopoda
    centipedes. 30 or more legs, 1 pair per segment, separate sexes, carnivores (toxic to humans). 
  62. diplopoda
    millipedes.  2 pair of appendages per segment.  60 or more legs, separate sexes, herbivores
  63. Insecta
    Head with various mouth-parts, 3 pair of appendages attached to thorax, if there are wings, also attached to thorax, abdomen.  Breathe through holes in sides (spiracles are holes and trachea from them open into hemocoel). largest group of organisms on earth.  3 body sections. 
  64. Malpighian tubules
    make uric acid crystals to conserve water in Insecta
  65. Trilobitamorpha
    Extinct trilobites.  Cephalothorax, jointed legs. 
  66. metamorphosis
    simple or complex, all arthropods go through metamorphosis to reproduce. Uses ecdysis or moulting until adulthood is reached
  67. simple metamorphosis
    juvenile resembles adult.  Wings develop externally with no resting stage.  nymphs until final molt: adult. 
  68. complete metamorphosis
    wings develop internally during resting or pupa stage.  Juvenile looks and acts nothing like adult. 
  69. Ecdysis
    process by which exoskeleton is shed by splitting the old cuticle along specific lines. 
  70. Apposition eyes
    (bees).  Each ommatidium acts independantly and are in the brain.  Image is inverted and ommatidium is surrounded by pigment cells
  71. Supposition eyes
    (moths).  Images from a series of ommatidia are combined on a cornea, the image is right side up, there are no pigment cells
  72. book limbs
    leaf-like plates found in a chamber which draw in and expel air by muscle contractions
  73. Scorpiones
    (Class Arachnida, Subphylum Chelicerata).  Pedipalps are modified into pincers.  Book lungs
  74. Aracneae
    Spiders. (Class Arachnida, Subphylum Chelicerata). Prey on insects and small animals with poison glands.  Spineretts on posterior of abdomen make webs. 
  75. Acari
    mites. (Class Arachnida, Subphylum Chelicerata). Most diverse, in every environment.  Oval-shaped, unsegmented body. 
  76. Merostomata
    Horseshoe crabs.  (Class Aracnida, Subphylum Chelicerata).  "Living fossils".  Grow large, lay in deep water, mate in sand.  Females lay eggs in sand.  Respiration is by book lungs.  Feed on Mollusks and annelids
  77. Pycnogonida
    sea spiders (Class Aracnida, Subphylum Chelicerata).  Small, parasitic or predators.  Sucking proboscis.  Use diffusion for respiratory and excretory action. 

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