The degree to which people like or appreciate on another. As with all relational messages, affinity is usually expressed nonverbally
the degree to which we hold others in esteem
the degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others
The social need to influence others
Qualities of intimacy
Key element of intimacy: closeness
the rate at which someone discloses information with another person
Knapp’s developmental model stages
a model that descibes the realtionship between self-disclosure and self-awareness
The Johari Window: Known to Self; Not Known to Self
The Johari Window: Everything About You
The Johari Window: Known to Others; Not Known to Others
Cultural aspects of interpersonal
the process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction
when everyone is getting together well
Language with more than one dictionary definition
a message that communicates information about the subject being discussed
a vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way
messages (usually relationships) that refer to other messages; communication abou communication
Reasons for lying
To acquire resources "please let me get this"
protect resources "cant lend money, im broke too"
avoid conflict "we can do it your way"
initiate and continue interaction "im lost, u live around here?"
avoid interaction "oh look what time it is, i gotta go"
present a competent image "i got it, im sure"
increase social desirability "ive traveled places"
Social penetration model
a model describing how intimacy can be achieved via breadth and depth of self-closure
the emotional tone of a relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partners send and receive
An expression of the sender's thoughts or feelings or both that attacks the position and dignity of the receiver
Hinting at a message instead of expressing thoughts and feelings directly
An indirect expression of aggression, delivered in a wat that allows the sender to maintain a facade of kindness
The inability or unwillingness to express one's thoughts or feelings when necessary
Evaluating possible solutions
Used in market research by sponsoring organizations to survey potential users or the public at large regarding a new peoduct or idea
Steps in win-win
•Identify your problem
•Date to solve
•Describe problem and needs
•Partner checks back
•Solicit partner’s needs
•Under-standing of partner’s needs
•Negotiate a solution
•Follow up on the solution
Parts of an assertive message
Types of problem solving
An approach to conflict resolution in which both parties attain at least part of what they seek through self-sacrifice
Both parties gain at least some of what they want.
Partial satisfaction is the best to hope for.
Both people could probably have found a better solution.
Bad compromises can leave long-lasting results and harm comfort and goodwill.
All-channel communication network
A communication network pattern in which group members are always together and share all information with one another
Clearly and directly expressing needs, thoughts, feelings
Maintains self-respect of both parties
Both parties feel better about themselves and each other afterward
Can be uncomfortable at first
Neither side is satisfied with the outcome.
Parties who may strive to be winners, may still come out losers.
This is a common way to handle conflicts.
Collectivistic cultures and groups
A culture where members focus on the welfare of the group, rather than a concern by individuals for their own success
reconciles disagreements; mediates differences; reduces tensions by giving group members a chance to explore their differences
Virtual group advantages
Can be superior to face-to-face teams
Getting together is fast and easy
Leveling of status differences
Individual roles played by group member that inhibit the group's effective operation
Producers of mass messages, who determine what messages will be delivered to consumers, how those messages will be constructed, and when they will be delivered
Individual goals that involve affiliation, influence, and esteem of others
A culture orientation that focuses heavily on getting the job done
One party achieves goal at the expense of another
Distinguishing characteristic is power
Truly scarce resources
If one person insists on defeating the other, fighting back may be appropriate
When a person is clearly behaving in a wrong manner
Advantages to group problem solving
Participative decision making
offers new options when his or her own ideas are involved in a conflict; willing to admit errors so as to maintain group cohesion
a communication network pattern in which group members are always together and share all information with one another
Nominal group technique
method for including the ideas of all group members in a problem-solving session
a communication network in which a gatekeeper regulates the flow of information from all other members
the ability to influence a group owing to one's position in a group
Types of leadership
a discussion format in which participants consider a topic more or less conversationally, without formal procedural rules. May be facilitated by a moderator
Individuals goals that group members are unwilling to reveal
A group's collective striving for unanimity that discourages realistic appraisals of alternatives to its chosen decision
Lack of cohesion
the group falls apart slowly
Decline in efficiency that occurs when the rate of complexity of material is too great to manage
Types of decision making
Consensus-all members of a group support decision
Majority control- majority rule
Expert opinion-someone with more knowledge than others in group
Minority control-a few members of a group will decide matters
Authority rule- does not require discussion in order to gain approval
Shared or compatible goals
Progress toward goals
Shared norms and values
Lack of perceived threat between members
Interdependence of members
Threat from outside the group
Mutual attraction and friendship
Shared group experiences
Criteria of brainstorming
used to equalize participation in groups when the goal is to identify important issues or problems. Members first put ideas on cards, which are then compiled by a leader to generate a comprehensive statement of the issue or problem
The ability to influence others by virtue of the degree to which one is liked or respected
Reflective thinking process steps
Face-to-face group interaction
The power to influence others by the threat or imposition of unpleasant consequences
People who interact with one another via mediated channels, without meeting face-to-face
Roles group members take on in order to help solve a problem
Emtional roles concerned with maintaining smooth personal relationships among group members. also termed maintenance functions
a communication network in which information passes sequentially from one member to another