SPCH 1311

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SPCH 1311
2012-07-31 01:25:30
Intro Speech communication test

Intro to Speech Communication Test 2 chp 7-10
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  1. Affinity
    The degree to which people like or appreciate on another. As with all relational messages, affinity is usually expressed nonverbally
  2. Respect
    the degree to which we hold others in esteem
  3. Immediacy
    the degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others
  4. Control
    The social need to influence others
  5. Qualities of intimacy
    • Key element of intimacy: closeness
    • Physical
    • Intellectual sharing
    • Emotion
    • Shared activities
  6. Disclosure rates
    the rate at which someone discloses information with another person
  7. Knapp’s developmental model stages
  8. Johari window
    a model that descibes the realtionship between self-disclosure and self-awareness

    • The Johari Window: Known to Self; Not Known to Self
    • The Johari Window: Everything About You
    • The Johari Window: Known to Others; Not Known to Others
  9. Cultural aspects of interpersonal
  10. communication
    the process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction
  11. Social harmony
    when everyone is getting together well
  12. Equivocal language
    Language with more than one dictionary definition
  13. Denotative language
  14. Relational dimension
  15. Content (message)
    a message that communicates information about the subject being discussed
  16. Equivocation
    a vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way
  17. Metacommunication
    messages (usually relationships) that refer to other messages; communication abou communication
  18. Reasons for lying
    • To acquire resources "please let me get this"
    • protect resources "cant lend money, im broke too"
    • avoid conflict "we can do it your way"
    • initiate and continue interaction "im lost, u live around here?"
    • avoid interaction "oh look what time it is, i gotta go"
    • present a competent image "i got it, im sure"
    • increase social desirability "ive traveled places"
  19. Social penetration model
    a model describing how intimacy can be achieved via breadth and depth of self-closure
  20. Self-disclosure characteristics
    • Cultural influence
    • Dyadic
    • Symmetrical
    • Incremental
    • Relatively scarce
  21. Communication climate
    the emotional tone of a relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partners send and receive
  22. Evaluative language
  23. Control language
  24. Certainty language
  25. Conflict elements
  26. Direct aggression
    • An expression of the sender's thoughts or feelings or both that attacks the position and dignity of the receiver
    • Physical attack
    • Verbal attack
  27. Indirect communication
    Hinting at a message instead of expressing thoughts and feelings directly
  28. Passive aggression
    • An indirect expression of aggression, delivered in a wat that allows the sender to maintain a facade of kindness
    • Crazymaking
    • Pseudoaccommodation
    • Inappropriate joking
    • Trivial tyrannizing
    • Withholding information
  29. Nonassertion
    The inability or unwillingness to express one's thoughts or feelings when necessary

    • Avoidance
    • Accommodation
  30. Evaluating possible solutions
  31. Focus group
    Used in market research by sponsoring organizations to survey potential users or the public at large regarding a new peoduct or idea
  32. Parliamentary procedure
  33. Steps in win-win
    • •Identify your problem
    • •Date to solve
    • •Describe problem and needs
    • •Partner checks back
    • •Solicit partner’s needs
    • •Under-standing of partner’s needs
    • •Negotiate a solution
    • •Follow up on the solution
  34. Parts of an assertive message
  35. Types of problem solving
  36. Compromise
    An approach to conflict resolution in which both parties attain at least part of what they seek through self-sacrifice

    • Both parties gain at least some of what they want.
    • Partial satisfaction is the best to hope for.
    • Both people could probably have found a better solution.
    • Bad compromises can leave long-lasting results and harm comfort and goodwill.
  37. Problem-oriented person
  38. All-channel communication network
    A communication network pattern in which group members are always together and share all information with one another
  39. Assertion
    • Clearly and directly expressing needs, thoughts, feelings
    • Maintains self-respect of both parties
    • Both parties feel better about themselves and each other afterward
    • Can be uncomfortable at first
  40. Lose-lose
    • Neither side is satisfied with the outcome.
    • Parties who may strive to be winners, may still come out losers.
    • This is a common way to handle conflicts.
  41. Problem-solving group
  42. Ignoring conflict
  43. Collectivistic cultures and groups
    A culture where members focus on the welfare of the group, rather than a concern by individuals for their own success
  44. Harmonizer
    reconciles disagreements; mediates differences; reduces tensions by giving group members a chance to explore their differences
  45. Virtual group advantages
    • Can be superior to face-to-face teams
    • Getting together is fast and easy
    • Leveling of status differences
  46. Social group
  47. Dysfunctional roles
    Individual roles played by group member that inhibit the group's effective operation
  48. Gatekeeper
    Producers of mass messages, who determine what messages will be delivered to consumers, how those messages will be constructed, and when they will be delivered
  49. Social orientation
    Individual goals that involve affiliation, influence, and esteem of others
  50. Conflict spirals
  51. Task orientation
    A culture orientation that focuses heavily on getting the job done
  52. Win-lose
    • One party achieves goal at the expense of another
    • Distinguishing characteristic is power
    • Truly scarce resources
    • If one person insists on defeating the other, fighting back may be appropriate
    • When a person is clearly behaving in a wrong manner
  53. Controlling person
  54. Advantages to group problem solving
    • Resources
    • Accuracy
    • Commitment
    • Participative decision making
  55. Conciliator
    offers new options when his or her own ideas are involved in a conflict; willing to admit errors so as to maintain group cohesion
  56. all-channel network
    a communication network pattern in which group members are always together and share all information with one another
  57. Nominal group technique
    method for including the ideas of all group members in a problem-solving session
  58. Wheel network
    a communication network in which a gatekeeper regulates the flow of information from all other members
  59. Legitimate power
    the ability to influence a group owing to one's position in a group
  60. Types of leadership
    • Authoritarian
    • Democratic
    • Laissez-faire
  61. Growth group
  62. Panel discussions
    a discussion format in which participants consider a topic more or less conversationally, without formal procedural rules. May be facilitated by a moderator
  63. Hidden agenda
    Individuals goals that group members are unwilling to reveal
  64. Groupthink
    A group's collective striving for unanimity that discourages realistic appraisals of alternatives to its chosen decision
  65. Lack of cohesion
    the group falls apart slowly
  66. Information overload
    Decline in efficiency that occurs when the rate of complexity of material is too great to manage
  67. Types of decision making
    • Consensus-all members of a group support decision
    • Majority control- majority rule
    • Expert opinion-someone with more knowledge than others in group
    • Minority control-a few members of a group will decide matters
    • Authority rule- does not require discussion in order to gain approval
  68. Cohesiveness factors
    • Shared or compatible goals
    • Progress toward goals
    • Shared norms and values
    • Lack of perceived threat between members
    • Interdependence of members
    • Threat from outside the group
    • Mutual attraction and friendship
    • Shared group experiences
  69. Criteria of brainstorming
  70. Problem census
    used to equalize participation in groups when the goal is to identify important issues or problems. Members first put ideas on cards, which are then compiled by a leader to generate a comprehensive statement of the issue or problem
  71. Referent power
    The ability to influence others by virtue of the degree to which one is liked or respected
  72. Reflective thinking process steps
  73. Face-to-face group interaction
  74. Computer-mediated meetings
  75. Coercive power
    The power to influence others by the threat or imposition of unpleasant consequences
  76. Virtual group
    People who interact with one another via mediated channels, without meeting face-to-face
  77. Task roles
    Roles group members take on in order to help solve a problem
  78. Social roles
    Emtional roles concerned with maintaining smooth personal relationships among group members. also termed maintenance functions
  79. Learning group
  80. chain network
    a communication network in which information passes sequentially from one member to another