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The skeleton is made up of _____ bones.
The axial skeleton consists of ____ bones.
The appendicular skelton is composed of _____ bones.
- 206 total
- 80 axial
- 126 appendicular
Cervical = ___bones
Toracic = ____ bones
Sacryl (fused) = ___ bone
Coccygeal (fused) = ____ bone
The skull is composed of ____ fused bones
In the appendicular skeleton, the upper extermities consist of ___ bones and the lowe extremities consits of _____ bones
- The upper extremities are made up of 64 bones
- The lower extremities are made up of 62 bones
The shoulder girdle is composed of these bones:
clavicle and the scapula
List 4 proximal carpal bones
List 4 distal bones of the carpals
Name 7 bones of the Tarsals
- 3 Cuneiform bones
3 fused bones that make up the 2 ____ bones of the pelvis
composed the 2 COXAL bones of the pelvis
In relation to the fibula, the tibia is located ____ and is _____ in size.
- The tibia is MEDIAL and
- LARGER in size
The humerus is connected to the shoulder girdle at the ________ cavity of the scapula
the femur articulates with the _____ _____ of the coxal bone
Bone is encases by a _____
Living osteocytes and calified matrix in bone are arranged in layers called ____
this specialized connective tissue is composed of cells (osteocytes) embedded in a calcified matrix
what is a Volkmann's canal
- a horiztonal (transverse) canal in a bone connective tissue
- used for communication via blood vessels in the canal
- they connect the longtitudal haversian canal
What is interstitial lamellae?
- Irregular lamellae structures
- present between the Haversian systems
What is a Haverian system
- the unit of the Haversian Canal circumscribed by Haversian lamellae
- Also know as a OSTEON
The marrow cavity and the Haversian canals are lined by _____; which is?
- a thin layer of connective tissue
These kind of cells can transform into bone-forming cells, or osteoblasts
where are they found?
- Osteogenic cells
- found in the endosteum and periosteum
this type of bone consists of bars, spicules, or trabeculae
Where is spongy bone found?
- The ends of long bones
- the inner layer of flat, irregular, and short bones
What is the spaces in bones called?
What type of cell is singly found there?
- Lacunae (spaces)
What is a canaliculi?
What is its purpose?
- A small canal in the bone, in the calafied matrix
- allows osteocytes to communicate with each other
Cells that form the bone matrix
Function of osteoblasts?
What do they tranform into?
- Osteoblasts form the bone matrix, surrounding themselves with it
- once surrounded they are transformed into osteocytes
The osteoblasts are cuboidal cells which line the ______ of immature or developing spongy bone
this multinucelated cell is found during bone development and remodeling
What function do osteoclasts serve?
remove the existing calcafied matrix releasing organic and inorganic components
Constitutes the organic component of bone (matrix)
collagen fibers and ground substance
About 85% of inoganic compounds of the bone matrix consists of?
calcium phosphate in crystaline form
3 places to find osetoclasts?
- lying in cavities
- Howship's lacunae
- surface of bone being resorbed
In a synovial joint, this material lines the articular surfaces of the abutting bones
what is a ligament
- a fibrous connective tissue connecting adjacent bones
- they are stong, supportive and may limit the range of motion occuring at a particular joint
the germ layer of origin of most of the skeletal system?
- part of skeletal muscle tissue
- extracellular matrix and very sparse, loose connective tissue layer enveloping a single fiber
- in skeletal muscle tisssue
- connective tissue layer enveloping a bundle of fibers
- in skeletal muscle tissue
- connective tissue layer enveloping the entire muscle
what is the 'origin' of muscle attachment
the attachment site, relatively fixed
what is the 'insertion' of muscle attachment
is the end attached to a structure that will be moved when the muscle contracts