Science MCAT

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Science MCAT
2012-07-28 20:35:56

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  1. The skeleton is made up of _____ bones.
    The axial skeleton consists of ____ bones.
    The appendicular skelton is composed of _____ bones.
    • 206 total
    • 80 axial
    • 126 appendicular
  2. The spine:
    Cervical = ___bones
    Toracic = ____ bones
    Lumbar= ____bones
    Sacryl (fused) = ___ bone
    Coccygeal (fused) = ____ bone
    • 7
    • 12
    • 5
    • 1
    • 1
    • (712,511)
  3. The skull is composed of ____ fused bones
  4. In the appendicular skeleton, the upper extermities consist of  ___ bones and the lowe extremities consits of _____ bones
    • The upper extremities are made up of 64 bones
    • The lower extremities are made up of 62 bones
  5. The shoulder girdle is composed of these bones:
    clavicle and the scapula
  6. List 4 proximal carpal bones
    • Scaphoid
    • Lunate
    • Triquetrium
    • Pisiform
  7. List 4 distal bones of the carpals
    • Trapezium
    • Trapezoid
    • Capitate
    • Hamate
  8. Name 7 bones of the Tarsals
    • 3 Cuneiform bones
    • Talus
    • Calcaneus
    • Navicular
    • Cuboid
  9. 3 fused bones that make up the 2 ____ bones of the pelvis
    • 1.Pubic
    • 2.Ileum
    • 3.Ischium

    composed the 2 COXAL bones of the pelvis
  10. In relation to the fibula, the tibia is located ____ and is _____ in size.
    • The tibia is MEDIAL and
    • LARGER in size
  11. The humerus is connected to the shoulder girdle at the ________ cavity of the scapula
    Glenoid Cavity
  12. the femur articulates with the _____ _____ of the coxal bone
    acetabular fossa
  13. Bone is encases by a _____
  14. Living osteocytes and calified matrix in bone are arranged in layers called ____
  15. this specialized connective tissue is composed of cells (osteocytes) embedded in a calcified matrix
    bone tissue
  16. what is a Volkmann's canal
    • a horiztonal (transverse) canal in a bone connective tissue
    • used for communication via blood vessels in the canal
    • they connect the longtitudal haversian canal
  17. What is interstitial lamellae?
    • Irregular lamellae structures 
    • present between the Haversian systems
  18. What is a Haverian system
    • the unit of the Haversian Canal circumscribed by Haversian lamellae
    • Also know as a OSTEON
  19. The marrow cavity and the Haversian canals are lined by _____; which is?
    • endosteum
    • a thin layer of connective tissue
  20. These kind of cells can transform into bone-forming cells, or osteoblasts
    where are they found?
    • Osteogenic cells
    • found in the endosteum and periosteum
  21. this type of bone consists of bars, spicules, or trabeculae
    spongy bone
  22. Where is spongy bone found?
    • The ends of long bones
    • the inner layer of flat, irregular, and short bones
  23. What is the spaces in bones called?
    What type of cell is singly found there?
    • Lacunae (spaces)
    • osteocytes
  24. What is a canaliculi? 
    What is its purpose?
    • A small canal in the bone, in the calafied matrix
    • allows osteocytes to communicate with each other
  25. Cells that form the bone matrix
  26. Function of osteoblasts?
    What do they tranform into?
    • Osteoblasts form the bone matrix, surrounding themselves with it
    • once surrounded they are transformed into osteocytes 
  27. The osteoblasts are cuboidal cells which line the ______ of immature or developing spongy bone
  28. this multinucelated cell is found during bone development and remodeling
  29. What function do osteoclasts serve?
    remove the existing calcafied matrix releasing organic and inorganic components
  30. Constitutes the organic component of bone (matrix)
    collagen fibers and ground substance
  31. About 85% of inoganic compounds of the bone matrix consists of?
    calcium phosphate in crystaline form
  32. 3 places to find osetoclasts?
    • lying in cavities
    • Howship's lacunae
    • surface of bone being resorbed
  33. In a synovial joint,  this material lines the articular surfaces of the abutting bones
    hyaline cartliage
  34. what is a ligament
    • a fibrous connective tissue connecting adjacent bones
    • they are stong, supportive and may limit the range of motion occuring at a particular joint
  35. the germ layer of origin of most of the skeletal system? 
  36. endomysium
    • part of skeletal muscle tissue
    • extracellular matrix and very sparse, loose connective tissue layer enveloping a single fiber
  37. perimysium
    • in skeletal muscle tisssue
    • connective tissue layer enveloping a bundle of fibers
  38. epimysium
    • in skeletal muscle tissue
    • connective tissue layer enveloping the entire muscle
  39. what is the 'origin' of muscle attachment
    the attachment site, relatively fixed
  40. what is the 'insertion' of muscle attachment
    is the end attached to a structure that will be moved when the muscle contracts