Card Set Information
Extra alveolar gas
Occurs when gas under pressure causes alveolar rupture
Predisposing factors for barotraumas!
High peak airway pressure with low end expiratory pressure
Bullous lung disease such as may occur with emphysema or history of tuberculosis
High levels of PEEP, with high tidal volumes
Aspiration of gastric acid
The skin feel crepitant to touch
It may be visible as puffing of the skin in the patients neck, face, or chest
Usually occurs without complication and tends to clear without treatment as mean airways are reduced
Can lead to compression of the esophagus, great vessels, and the heart.
It is easily identified on chest radiograph
Treatment depends on the severity of the problem and its effect on adjacent structures
Can cause cardiac tamponade
Can be detected by a resonant or hyperresonant percussion note and absence of breath sounds on the affected side, and chest radiograph will indicate lack of vascular markings on the affected side
Treatment usually requries thoracotomy and placement of a chest tube
Used to describe the injuries to the lungs that occur because of repeated opening and closing of lung units at lower lung volumes
Inadequate levls of PEEP are applied
Occurs when an alveolus that is normally expanded is adjacent to one that is collapsed
Role of PEEP in lung protection!
Helps restore FRC by recruiting previously collapsed alveoli
Adequate levels of PEEP prevent repeated collapse and reopening of alveoli and help maintain lung recruitment
Unintentional PEEP that occurs during mechanical ventilation
The following factors increase the risk of auto PEEP!
Chronic obstructive airway disease
High minute ventilation (more than 10-20 L/min) in ventilated patients
Age greater than 60
Increased airway resitance
Increased lung compliance
High respiratory frequency
Low inspiratory flow