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What does the primative gut result from? In what stage? What does it eventually turn into?
The primative gut results from the archeteneron during gastrulation and eventually turns into the anus.
What happens during interphase? (describe in detail) Is it part of mitosis?
Interphase encompasses G1 (normal growth & metabolism), S (replication), G2 (growth and preparation for mitosis)
No, technically it's not a part of mitosis.
Where is cAMP catalyzed? What is it made from?
In the inner layer of the phospholipid bilayer. ATP.
What coenzymes are formed during glycolysis?
NADH ONLY. No FADH2 (formed in TCA)
What can glycolysis form as an end-product? (4)
Ethanol, CO2, lactate, and pyruvic acid.
If a cell secretes large quantities of proteins, there is/are:
I. An abundance of Rough ER
II. A large Golgi apparatus
III. Prominent nucleoli
I, II, and III.
Why is the genetic code considered degenerate?
Because more than one codon can code for a single AA
During translation, in what direction is mRNA read?
During replication, in what direction is DNA read?
During transcription, in what direction is DNA read?
- 1) Translation: mRNA is read 5'--> 3'
- 2) Replication: DNA read 3'--> 5'
- 3) Transcription: Same as DNA replication; read 3'--> 5'
Does protein synthesis require energy?
Describe the fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane.
The fluid mosaic model states that the plasma membrane is a:
- (1) bilayer of phospohlipids interspersed with
- (2) proteins acting as receptors/pores/and channels
(1) How many structural genes that code for functional proteins?
(2) Is there a gene that codes for a repressor protein?
(3) What does the repressor protein bind to and what does this do?
- (1) 3
- (2) Yes
- (3) The repressor protein binds to the operator, halting gene expression!
Universal donor? Universal recipient of blood?
Universal donor: O negative
Universal recipient: AB+
What is the process of gametogenesis (male/female)?
Where does gametogenesis occur in the male?
What is gametogenesis?
- Male: Spermatogenesis
- Female: Oogenesis
Spermatogenesis occurs in the gonads
Gametogenesis: haploid gametes form from meiosis of diploid cell
What is the difference between spermatogenesis & oogenesis?
Spermatogenesis: cytoplasm is equally divided & 4 viable sperm are produced from one diploid cell.
Oogenesis: Cytoplasm is unequally divided & only one ovum (with most of the cytoplasm) is created, with 2-3 inert polar bodies.
What are polar bodies?
What stages of meiosis do they come from?
Haploid, nonfunctional gamete-like cells. 1 formed in meiosis I and up to 3 formed in meiosis II.
After meiosis I, diploid cell is split into ovum & polar body with unequal cytoplasm. In meiosis II, ovum and polar body divide again to form ovum, 1 polar body as well as 2 polar bodies from previous polar body.
What does fermentation require? (2) What does it not require? (1)
Fermentation rquires glucose & energy.
If 18O-labeled glcuose is given to a rat, where will the label occur first?`
Where does oxygen in ETC come from?
Respiration. (Forms water)
Name a cell that doesn't have DNA in its nucleus: Why?
Erythrocytes; because RBCs are highly specialized and instead of a nucleus, have additional hemoglobin to carry more oxygen.
Can two animals of the same species have different varieties of genes at the same gene locus?
What are polysomes?
Ribosomes that function in aggregates
When does unequal division of cytoplasm occur?
In the production of egg cells.
What combination of Rh (+/-) for fetus and mother can turn into erythryoblastosis fetalis?
What does erythryoblastosis fetalis require from father?
With which child does this begin?
Mother - Rh-; Fetus - Rh+
Father must be Rh+
Can begin with any child after the first one
Where do sensory fibers carry information to and from?
From heart to central nervous system.
If ganglia are connected, would the ANS be able to respond more quickly or less quickly?
Automatic Nervous System would be able to respond MORE quickly
What do high blood levels of hemoglobin indicate?
Are amides or nitro compounds soluble in dilute acid or base?
IR spectrum of:
- (1) C=O is 1700
- (2) NH is 2700-3600
- (3) OH is around 3300 and broad
Can a bacterium containing genes for a sex pilus construction give rise to a daughter cell without those genes?
YES, because plasmids are not attached to the cell membrane, so they may not be equally distributed among daughter cells.
Which organ is continuous with the colon and allows bacteria to move in between them?
What determines whether bacteria will persist in a new area occupied by other bacteria?
If it's able to produce more viable offspring than the other bacteria
If you kill all the EColi in the colon, what would happen digestion/nutrition-wise?
You'd be deficient in specific vitamins (K, B12)
Even though E.Coli breaks down foods for which we lack digestive enzymes, these necessary digestive enzymes are produced outside of colon.
How is bacterial conjugation similar to sexual reproduction in eukaryotes?
They both result in genetic recombination
What is the Hardy Weinberg Principle?
If huge population and no evolutioary forces (mutation, migration, natural selection) gene frequencies will not change over time and the frequencies in the next generation will be p2 for the AA genotype, 2pq for the Aa genotype and q2 for the aa genotype.
What are the two primary factors that normally determine blood pressure?
What determines these two factors?
- 1. Cardiac output (stroke volume x heart rate)
- 2. Resistance to blood flow (caliber of small arteries, arterioles and precapillary sphincters.
How does blood pressure relate to Ohm's Law?
BP = total peripheral resistance x cardiac output
Describe fungal spores in terms of metabolism and haploid/diploid?
Fungal spores are metabolically inactive and haploid.
What is a danger of using anti-inflammatory drugs?
These drugs may decrease endogenous antibacterial activities.
At what phase does DNA replication take place?
S (synthesis) phase of INterphase.
What happens when you acidify the product of saponification?
Saponification is hydrolysis of ester using aq hydroxide.
The product of saponification is a carboxylate salt, which must be acidified to form a carboxylic acid.
Why is a different base often used for a second alkylation of acetoacetic ester or malonic ester?
Because the active H of the of the monoalkylated product is less acidic, so requires a stronger base. (usually a smaller base if the monoalkylated product is sterically hindered)
This is because alkyl groups are EDG, which don't help a negative charge stabilize.
How is inflation of lungs in mammals accomplished?
By negative pressure pumping action.
An organism is likely to be a bacterium rather than a virus if it:
A. Reproduces via fission
B. Lacks nuclear membrane
C. Contains both RNA and protein
D. Has rigid outer covering
A. Reproduces via fission.
Viruses can only reproduce by replicating within a host cell, so cannot reproduce by fission.
Many bacteria have rigid cell walls & many viruses have rigid capsids.
Neither bacteria nor viruses have a nuclear membrane.
Both bacteria & viruses contain RNA and proteins.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
What enzyme must retroviruses contain?
reverse transcriptase: to convert its RNA into DNA.
The sequence of events in the human menstrual cycle involves close interaction among which 3 organs?
Hypothalamus - pituitary - ovary
Hyp secretes hormone-releasing fctors into pituitary portal circulation, activating release of gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH) produced by pituitary and ovarian hormones estrogen/progesterone all have roles in regulating human menstrual cycle.
How do you calculate the number of phenotypes for two genes? Gene 1 codes for tall/short and Gene 2 codes for blonde/brown/black.
2x3 = 6 different possible traits
Describe what happens in each stage of mitosis
1. Prophase - nuclear membrane disintegrates, nucleolus disappears, chromosomes condense/appear, mitotic spindles (microtubules) form b/t poles; kinetochores mature and attach to spindles.
2. Metaphase - chromosomes attach to mitotic spindles at kinetochores and align along metaphase plate at equator
3. Anaphase - kinetochore microtubules shorten, separating chromosomes to opposite poles, polar microtubules/cell elongate
4. Telophase - chromosomes reach poles of cell. Polar microtubules continue elongate. Nuclear membranes form, nucleoli reappear and chromosomes decondense.
5. Cytokinesis - cleave furrow forms and cell divides.
If a 3 membered cyclic intermediate comes about, where will nucleophilic attack take place? What about substitution?
Nu attack & substitution will both occur at more highly substituted C.
What is the stereoselectivity of dihalogenation of pi bond? What rxn does this resemble?
ANTI (SN2 like)
Forms trans enantiomers
Forms bromonium bridge
How do you make a halohydrin?
Alkene + Br2 in water. Water will attack more substituted carbon because of bridge, bc of resonance. ANTI
How to form trans and cis diol?
Trans diol (expoxide formation & hydrolysis): Alkene + Peroxy acid --> epoxide + CA; epoxide + H2O + OH-/H+ (acid/base hydrolysis) --> anti addition of OH groups to form a enantiomeric trans diol
Cis diol (oxid with dilute KMnOR/OsO4): 1.Alkene + KMnO4; 2. H2O + OH-; 3. Cis diols
How to make ketones out of alkenes?
Ozonolysis: (1. O3; 2. Zn, H2O) to form two ketones/aldehydes
How to transform alcohol into aldehyde?
primary alcohol + PCC --> Aldehyde
Stops oxidation at aldehyde instead of going all the way to CA
What are some common oxidizing agents? (6)
Chromic Acid - H2CrO4
Chrmate salts - CrO42-
Dichromate salts: Cr2O7(2-)
Chromium trioxide CrO3