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What is the correct functional class for the following descriptions:
1. Patients with cardiac disease that results in marked limitation of physical activity. Patients are comfortable at rest, but less than ordinary activity leads to symptoms.
2. Patients with cardiac disease that results in slight limitations of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity results in fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea, and angina.
3. Patients with cardiac disease that results in inability to carry on physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms of HF present even at rest.
4. Patients with cardiac disease but without limitations of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does NOT cause undue fatigue, dyspnae, or palpitations.
- 1. Class III
- 2. Class II
- 3. Class IV
- 4. Class I
Correspond the following descriptions with the appropriate stage.
1. Patients who have advanced structural heart disease. They have marked symptoms of HF at rest. These patients require frequent hospitalization or require heart transplantation.
2. Patients at high risk of developing HF but have no known cardiac abnormalities and no symtpoms. i.e. HTN, CAD, DM patients.
3. Patients with structural heart changes but have never shown S/S of HF. i.e. post MI, L ventricular hypertrophy, or imparied systolic function.
4. Patientes who have current or prior symptoms of HF associated with structural heart disease. i.e. dyspnea attributable to LVSD. Most HF patients are in this stage.
- 1. Stage D
- 2. Stage A
- 3. Stage B
- 4. Stage C
The terms Cold/Warm refers to? The terms Wet/Dry refers to?
Heart failure is usually treated with a combination of which 3 drug classes?
- - Diuretic (if volume control needed)
- - ACEi
- - B-Blocker
Food decreases the BA of which two loop diuretics?
Furosemide & Bumetanide
Which two ARBs are approved for treatment of HF in patients who are intolerant to ACEi?
Candesartan & Valsartan
Which BB have been shown to be effective in treatment of HF?
- Metoprolol SUCCinate
T/F: Digoxin improves mortality in HF patients
What combination can be given in patietns who cannot tolerate ACEi or ARB?
Hydralazine - Isosorbide Dinitrate. Fixed combo = BiDil
Patients with acute decompensated HF are usually treated with _____________ ?
- IV diuretics
- postive inotropics